Acute flaccid myelitis and enterovirus D68: lessons from the past and present

Conclusion: This review presents the current knowledge on acute flaccid myelitis with respect to the clinical presentation and its differential diagnosis with Guillain-Barr é syndrome and acute transverse myelitis. We also discuss the association with enterovirus D68 and the presumed pathophysiological mechanism of this infection causing anterior horn cell damage. Sharing clinical knowledge and insights from basic research is needed to make progress in diagnosis, trea tment, and prevention of this new polio-like disease.What is Known:•Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a polio-like condition characterized by rapid progressive asymmetric weakness, together with specific findings on MRI• AFM has been related to different viral agents, but recent outbreaks are predominantly associated with enterovirus D68.What is New:•Improving knowledge on AFM must increase early recognition and adequate diagnostic procedures by clinicians.• The increasing incidence of AFM urges cooperation between pediatricians, neurologists, and microbiologists for the development of treatment and preventive options.
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

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This study evaluates two methods for effective connectivity analysis, symbolic transfer entropy (STE) and vector autoregression (VAR), by applying them to TMS-EEG data. In terms of the consistency of results from different experimental sessions, STE is found to yield robust results irrespective of sessions, whereas VAR produces less correlation between sessions. Furthermore, STE preferentially detects the directional information flow from the TMS target. Taken together, our results suggest that STE is a reliable method for detecting the effect of TMS, implying that it would also be useful for identifying neural activity du...
Source: Neuroscience Research - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
MYCOBACTERIUM CHIMAERA INFECTIONS AFTER CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY: LESSONS FROM A GLOBAL OUTBREAK. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:136-144 Authors: Diekema DJ Abstract A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections has been associated with exposure to certain heater-cooler devices (HCDs) used during cardiopulmonary bypass. Outbreak investigations have shown that these HCDs harbor M. chimaera in water circuits and generate bio-aerosols in the operating room, leading to airborne transmission to patients during surgery. Whole genome sequencing data support a common-source outbreak ori...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research
Authors: Zelena D, Menant O, Andersson F, Chaillou E Abstract The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is less referred in relationship with emotions than other parts of the brain (e.g. cortex, thalamus, amygdala), most probably because of the difficulty to reach and manipulate this small and deeply lying structure. After defining how to evaluate emotions, we have reviewed the literature and summarized data of the PAG contribution to the feeling of emotions focusing on the behavioral and neurochemical considerations. In humans, emotions can be characterized by three main domains: the physiological changes, the communicative e...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Shuyao Wang, Wei Wang, Lukuan Hou, Ling Qin, Meijia He, Wenmiao Li, Wenjun MaoAbstractA water-soluble polysaccharide from Monostroma nitidum, designated MWS, was isolated using water extraction, anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. MWS was a sulfated glucuronorhamnan consisting of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→, →4)-β-d-GlcpA-(1→ and →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ units. Sulfate ester groups located at C-4/C-2 of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ and C-4/C-3 of →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ units. I...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Japanese officials have culled 753 pigs in Saitama Prefecture north of Tokyo after detecting an outbreak of swine fever, the Yomiuri newspaper said on Sunday.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Authors: Ozaki T, Kinoshita M, Arita H, Kagawa N, Fujimoto Y, Kanemura Y, Sakai M, Watanabe Y, Nakanishi K, Shimosegawa E, Hatazawa J, Kishima H Abstract Brain Tumor Image Analysis (BraTumIA) is a fully automated segmentation tool dedicated to detecting brain tumors imaged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BraTumIA has recently been applied to several clinical investigations; however, the validity of this novel method has not yet been fully examined. The present study was conducted to validate the quality of tumor segmentation with BraTumIA in comparison with results from 11C-methionine positron emission tomogra...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
This study compared the diagnostic value of molybdenum target and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in different types of breast cancer. A retrospective analysis was performed on 120 female patients with breast cancer admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2015 to October 2017. All of them underwent DCE-MRI and molybdenum target examination. Postoperatively, the pathological tissues were examined to determine their molecular typing. The sensitivity and diagnostic coincidence rates of Luminal-B breast cancer with different molecular types diagnosed by mol...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
In this study, participatory rural appraisal techniques (group discussion) and participatory active disease follow-ups were employed to investigate GTP outbreaks in Kanam LGA with the objective of understanding the epidemiology and estimating the financial impact of the disease amongst the farmers. Skin scabs were collected from goats with nodular pox-like lesions during field observation. All the respondents that participated in this study had at one point or another had cases of goat pox in their flock; only about 33% of them sought veterinary services and had tried to manage the disease medically. Morbidity and mortalit...
Source: Small Ruminant Research - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Trends in GeneticsAuthor(s): Vandana Raghavan, Charles F. Aquadro, Eric AlaniGlobal outbreaks of drug-resistant fungi such as Candida auris are thought to be due at least in part to excessive use of antifungal drugs. Baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has gained importance as an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause infections in immunocompromised patients. Analyses of over 1000 S. cerevisiae isolates are providing rich resources to better understand how fungi can grow in human environments. A large percentage of clinical S. cerevisiae is...
Source: Trends in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Academic RadiologyAuthor(s): Valentin Quack, Marcel Betsch, Julian Hellmann, Jörg Eschweiler, Simone Schrading, Matthias Gatz, Björn Rath, Markus Tingart, Markus Laubach, Christiane K. Kuhl, Timm DirrichsRationale and ObjectivesUp to now, the diagnosis of tendinopathies is based on conventional B-mode-ultrasound (B-US), Power Doppler-ultrasound (PD-US), and magnetic resonance imaging. In the past decade, Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) has been introduced in tendon imaging, for example in athletes or patients suffering from tendinopathy. SWE allows real-ti...
Source: Academic Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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