Video discharge instructions for pediatric gastroenteritis in an emergency department: a randomized, controlled trial
AbstractThe aim was to evaluate if the addition of video discharge instructions (VDIs) to usual verbal information improved the comprehension of information provided to caregivers of patients who consult for acute gastroenteritis (AGE). We conducted an open-label, parallel, randomized trial, enrolling patients who consulted for AGE at a tertiary hospital. First, caregivers answered a written test concerning AGE characteristics and management. They were randomly allocated to a control group, which received the usual verbal instructions, or to an intervention group, which additionally received VDI. After discharge, caregiver...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Anticipating the future of the child and family in pediatric palliative care: a qualitative study into the perspectives of parents and healthcare professionals
Conclusion: Anticipating the future of the child and family is mainly focused on achievement of individual care goals of both families and healthcare professionals, practical arrangements in advance, and short-term anticipation when a child deteriorates. A more open approach early in disease trajectories exploring perspectives on the future could allow parents to anticipate more gradually and to integrate their preferences into the care of their child.What is Known:• Anticipating the future in pediatric palliative care occurs infrequently and too late.What is New:• Healthcare professionals and parents use differe...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Recent approaches in clinical applications of 3D printing in neonates and pediatrics
Conclusion: The advanced technology of 3D printing proposes a pioneering breakthrough in bringing physiologically and anatomically appropriate treatment strategies addressing the unmet needs of child health problems.What is Known:•The potential application of 3D printing is observed across a multitude of fields within medicine and surgery.•The unprecedented effect of this technology on pediatric healthcare is still very much a work in progress.What is New:•The recent clinical applications of 3D printing provide better treatment modalities to infants and children.•The review provides an overview of the c...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - October 5, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The co-occurrence of mental disorders among Dutch adolescents admitted for acute alcohol intoxication
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that among adolescents admitted for acute alcohol intoxication, the prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders is a common and a relevant issue for treatment and prevention strategies.What is Known:• Alcohol consumption among adolescents has been associated with negative psychosocial effect.• Among adolescents admitted for acute alcohol intoxication, risk factors for psychological dysfunction appear to be inadequately assessed, documented and followed up.What is New:• The current study reports on the prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders among a substantial sample o...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - October 5, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to congenital portosystemic shunts
Conclusion: CPSS may be a more likely cause of unexplained PAH in pediatric patients than previously thought. Shunt closure or liver transplantation may prevent the progression of PAH, or even improve it for the majority of CPSS patients.What is Known:•Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are increasingly recognized as a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in children, but the prevalence of CPSS in pediatric PAH patients is largely unknown, and the therapeutic outcomes of these conditions are not well described.What is New:•This is the largest cohort of CPSS-associated PAH ever published. CPSS may be...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - October 2, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A comparative study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography, and skinfolds to assess fat mass in preterms at term equivalent age
Conclusions: The ∑SFT was not able to accurately predict fat mass and ADP and DXA did not show comparable results. It remains to be elucidated whether or not DXA provides more accurate assessment of whole body fat mass than ADP in preterm infants.Trial registration: NTR5311What is Known:•Diverse methods are used to assess fat mass in preterm infants.What is New:•This study showed that there is poor agreement between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography, and skinfold thickness measurements.•Our results affirm the need for consensus guidelines on how to measure fat mass in pre...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - September 30, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Correction to: Swiss consensus recommendations on urinary tract infections in children
The article “Swiss consensus recommendations on urinary tract infections in children” (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - September 30, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Overall and subgroup specific performance of the pediatric index of mortality 2 score in Switzerland: a national multicenter study
AbstractPediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) 2 score is used in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) to predict the patients ’ risk of death. The performance of this model has never been assessed in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the PIM2 score in the whole cohort and in pre-specified diagnostic subgroups of patients admitted to PICUs in Switzerland. All children younger than 16 y ears admitted to any PICU in Switzerland between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2017 were included in the study. A total of 22,382 patients were analyzed. Observed mortality was 2%, whereas mortal...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - September 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Relations between disease status and body composition in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease
Conclusion: While an improvement in BMD was observed with remission, the scores were still lower than controls.What is Known:• Body composition deficits in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease are common and some persist despite achievement of remission leading to long term outcomes including osteopenia and osteoporosis.• Weight restoration in patients with pediatric IBD is primarily explained by gains in fat mass without similar gains in lean mass.What is New:• While an improvement in bone mineral density was observed, the achievement of remission significantly improves affects physical activity and body co...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - September 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Earlier maternal menarche is associated with shorter newborn telomere length
Conclusion: Mothers with earlier age at menarche were more likely to give birth newborn with shorter telomere length. Our study provides evidences for the effect of earlier menarche on fetal telomere programming in offspring.What is Known:•Newborn telomere length is considered an indicator of lifespan and health outcomes in later life.•The adverse effects of earlier menarche age to their offspring have been found, but its relationship with newborn telomere length has not been assessed before.What is New:•This is the first study to explore the relationship of maternal menarche age with newborn telomere length...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - September 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Prevalence of iron deficiency and related factors in Spanish adolescents
Conclusion: This study provides an estimate iron deficiency prevalence of 13.3% in Spanish healthy adolescents, avoiding potential confounding factors through the use of new iron status parameters, based on a wide representative sample of adolescents from the city of Almer ía.What is Known:•For children and adolescents, iron deficiency anaemia continues to be the world ’s most important cause of years lived with disability.•Assessment of iron deficiency has traditionally depended on laboratory parameters that may be modified by inflammatory states, including obesity.What is New:• Iron deficiency...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - September 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Correction to: Berardinelli-Seip syndrome and achalasia: a shared pathomechanism?
Although the patient has provided consent for publication of this case report and accompanying images, after publication of this article it has come to the authors' attention that Fig. 1 needs changes to better protect the privacy of the patient. A modified Fig. 1 is included in this Erratum. The original Fig. 1 has been removed to protect the patient's privacy. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - September 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Evaluating the readability, understandability, and quality of online materials about chest pain in children
Conclusion: The readability of online materials available for patients regarding “chest pain in children” was significantly higher than the grade 6 recommended by the National Institutes of Health. The current online health information related to pediatric chest pain may be too difficult for the average reader to read. The quality and understandability were not good for both groups. Improving the readability, understandability, and quality of pediatric health–related online materials has the potential to reduce parental anxiety, improve baseline medical knowledge, and even enhance the physician–pare...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - September 6, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Intravenous paracetamol in comparison with ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusions: Intravenous paracetamol was less effective in closing hsPDA than ibuprofen, but due to a similar constriction effect, its use was associated with the same hsPDA outcome. These results can support the use of i.v. paracetamol as a first-choice drug for the treatment of hsPDA.Trial registration:Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02422966, Date of registration: 04/09/2015; EudraCT no: 2013-003883-30.What is Known:• The successful closure of patent ductus arteriosus with oral paracetamol has been recently reported in several preterm infants, but only one randomized controlled study investigated the efficacy of intravenous...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - September 3, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Pediatric subdural empyema as a complication of meningitis: could CSF protein/CSF glucose ratio be used to screen for subdural empyema?
Conclusion: The clinical signs and symptoms of SDE may be subtle. If the fever persists or focal neurological findings are seen during the treatment of bacterial meningitis, SDE should be suspected. Furthermore, patients with ABM who are determined to have a protein-to-glucose ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid above 4.65 should be carefully monitored for SDE development.What is known:• Subdural empyema may develop subsequently to meningitis, especially in the infant age group in whom very little is known in terms of disease characteristics.• Delay in diagnosis and treatment can cause long-term neurologic sequelae ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 31, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Towards advance care planning in pediatrics: a qualitative study on envisioning the future as parents of a seriously ill child
Conclusion: When envisioning the future of their seriously ill child, parents tend to stay in the near future, whereas they value the opportunity to share further thoughts within a compassionate relationship with clinicians.What is Known:•Parents prefer open and honest information about their child ’s illness and prognosis and they value the concept of advance care planning, while they emphasize the need for an individualized approach.•Health care professionals see parental factors like unease and emotional burden as key barriers for advance care planning.What is New:•When envisioning the future of the...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Rotavirus vaccination for all children or subgroups only? Comment of the European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) and the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID) recommendation group for rotavirus vaccination
Conclusion: Rotavirus vaccines should be recommended as a universal approach for all children and not be restricted to subgroups with assumed increased risk. Targeted vaccination could be considered as an option in countries with limited financial resources. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Adrenal function after induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children short: adrenal function in ALL
Conclusion: These data can be used to reduce unnecessary substitution or testing, but also to guarantee hydrocortisone substitution for those at risk.What is Known:•These data can be used to reduce unnecessary hydrocortisone substitution or ACTH testing.•Our data helps to guarantee hydrocortisone substitution for those at risk of adrenal insufficiency.What is New:•Full recovery of adrenal function after ALL induction is detected in 62% of patients already at 15  days after tapering of prednisolone.•Both basal and stimulated cortisol testing are required for detection of full adrenal recovery.•...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Extrauterine growth restriction in very preterm infant: etiology, diagnosis, and 2-year follow-up
AbstractIn very-preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, long-term postnatal growth is confused with extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR). We aimed to document EUGR in SGA infants and in non-SGA infants ( “true-EUGR”) and its relationship with fetal, maternal, and neonatal etiological factors. Four hundred seventy-nine very-preterm infants (
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Incorrect design and analysis render conclusion unsubstantiated: comment on “A digital movement in the world of inactive children: favourable outcomes of playing active video games in a pilot randomized trial”
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Correction to: Utility and accuracy of transient elastography in determining liver fibrosis: a case-control study
The author regrets that one of the author ’s name was incorrectly presented in the published version of this article. The third author’s name original read as “Tajwar Singh Negi” this should have been “Tajwer Singh Negi”. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Response to Afonso et al.
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 4, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Time needed to intubate and suction a manikin prior to instituting positive pressure ventilation: a simulation trial
AbstractTracheal suctioning in non-vigorous newborn delivered through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is supposed to delay initiation of positive pressure ventilation (PPV), but the magnitude of such delay is unknown. To compare the time of PPV initiation when performing immediate laryngoscopy with intubation and suctioning vs. performing immediate PPV without intubation in a manikin model. Randomized controlled crossover (AB/BA) trial comparing PPV initiation with or without endotracheal suctioning in a manikin model of non-vigorous neonates born through MSAF. Participants were 20 neonatologists and 20 pediatric re...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 3, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Reduction in minute alveolar ventilation causes hypercapnia in ventilated neonates with respiratory distress
AbstractHypercapnia occurs in ventilated infants even if tidal volume (VT) and minute ventilation (VE) are maintained. We hypothesised that increased physiological dead space (Vd,phys) caused decreased minute alveolar ventilation (VA; alveolar ventilation (VA) × respiratory rate) in well-ventilated infants with hypercapnia. We investigated the relationship between dead space and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and assessedVA. Intubated infants (n = 33; mean birth weight, 2257 ± 641 g; mean gestational age, 35.0 ± 3.3 weeks) were enrolled. We performed volumetric capnography (Vcap), and calcul...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 2, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Management of pain in newborn circumcision: a systematic review
Conclusion: Combining local anesthesia with non-pharmacological analgesic strategies appears to be effective preventing procedural pain during MC. However, a standardized protocol for analgesia during MC is yet to be determined. Sensorial saturation appeared to help when used in conjunction with the local anesthesia techniques.What is Known:• Male circumcision is a painful procedure and it is frequently performed with inappropriate analgesic methods.• A gold standard practice in analgesia during male circumcision is still lacking and there is a great variability in the modus operandi between centers.What is New:&...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 2, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infections in children: a 9-year retrospective study
Conclusion:P. aeruginosa BSI mainly occurred in immunocompromised children. Most infections were hospital-acquired and associated with high mortality. Combination therapy did not improve survival.What is Known:•P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection (BSI) is associated with high hospital mortality. Empirical combination therapy is commonly used but its benefit remains debated.What is New:•This is the largest cohort of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia in children ever published. P. aeruginosa Bloodstream mainly occurred in immunocompromised children. Most infections were hospital-acquired and associated with high m...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Minimally invasive surfactant therapy versus InSurE in preterm neonates of 28 to 34 weeks with respiratory distress syndrome on non-invasive positive pressure ventilation —a randomized controlled trial
Conclusion: There is no difference between MIST and InSurE in preterm neonates with RDS with NIPPV as a primary mode of respiratory support. Larger multicentre studies are needed to further explore differences in treatment failure and other secondary outcomes.Trial registration:www.ctri.nic.in id CTRI/2019/03/017992, registration date March 8, 2019.What is Known• InSurE is commonly used for many years for treatment of RDS in preterm neonates.• MIST has been introduced as a newer tool.What is New• MIST with feeding tube is comparable with InSurE in preterm infants with RDS in developing countries.•NIPPV ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Comorbidities in childhood associated with extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants: a scoping review
Conclusion: EUGR is mainly associated with poor growth and neurodevelopment, as well as with cardiometabolic alterations in childhood. Evidence is based on observational studies with variability in the included populations due to the lack of consensus regarding the definition for EUGR. Finding a gold standard definition becomes paramount in order to select phenotypes at risk later in life.What is known?• EUGR is a frequent condition of preterm infants. Up to date little is known about the effect of the metabolic programming on prognosis.What is new?• The available evidence, which is based on observational studies...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Predictors for place of death among children:A systematic review and meta-analyses of recent literature
Conclusion: Country and region of residence, older age of the child, high socio-economic position, ‘white’ ethnicity and cancer diagnoses appear to be independent predictors of home death among children.What is Known:•Home is often considered an indicator of quality in end-of-life care.•Most terminally ill children die in hospitals.What is New:•Through a systematic review and meta-analyses, this study examined predictors for place of death among children.• Country and region of residence, older age of the child, high socio-economic position, white ethnicity and having a cancer diagnosis appe...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Mask-wearing in pediatric age
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Risk factors for digestive morbidities after esophageal atresia repair
Conclusion: The incidence of postoperative GERD and esophageal stricture was 67.2% and 37.9%, respectively. The risk factors for postoperative esophageal stricture were long-gap EA/TEF and postoperative GERD.What is Known:•EA/TEF is a congenital digestive tract anomaly with a high postoperative survival rate but can be complicated by many long-term morbidities.What is New:•Long-gap EA/TEF and postoperative GERD are risk factors of anastomotic stricture after repair.•Surgeons and pediatricians should be highly experienced in managing anastomotic tension and the GERD. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Predictors of traumatic eye injuries at high-risk for ophthalmic complications in children
Conclusion: High-velocity mechanism by itself, even with normal visual acuity and eye examination by the ED physician, should prompt to consider an urgent ophthalmologist consult.What is Known:•Traumatic eye injuries are an important cause of ocular morbidity in children.•Most injuries can be handled by a trained ED physician,but there are indications for an urgent ophthalmologist consultation.•It is crucial to discriminate between low and high-risk ocular injuries.What is New:•High-velocity mechanisms stand out as the most likely risk factor for final impaired visual acuity.•Normal visual acuity o...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 7, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Histogram analysis for bedside respiratory monitoring in not critically ill preterm neonates: a proposal for a new way to look at the monitoring data
Conclusions: Though there are no randomized controlled trials on this practice solely, we identify several quality improvement studies implementing this into practice with benefit. We also cite studies which have implemented histogram analysis in methodology, thus concluding that this is a useful clinical tool worth incorporating into clinical practice to reduce manual errors and bring more objectivity into decisions.What is Known:•The data from NeOProM (Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis Collaboration study protocol) indicates that optimal saturation targets for preterm infants born
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 7, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Evaluating peak inspiratory pressures and tidal volume in premature neonates on NAVA ventilation
This study describes peak pressure and tidal volume distribution of neonates on NAVA and non-invasive NAVA. This is a retrospective study of stored ventilator data with exploratory analysis. Summary statistics were calculated. Distributional assessment of pe ak pressure and tidal volume were evaluated, overall and per NAVA level. Over 1 million breaths were evaluated from 56 subjects. Mean peak pressure was 16.4 ± 6.4 in the NAVA group, and 15.8 ± 6.4 in the NIV-NAVA group (t test,p 
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 5, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Effect of delayed cord clamping on stem cell transfusion and hematological parameters in preterm infants with placental insufficiency: a pilot randomized trial
AbstractThe feasibility of delayed cord clamping (DCC) in preterm infants with placental insufficiency (PI) is questionable. We aimed to study the effect of DCC on stem cell transfusion, hematological parameters, and clinical outcomes in preterm infants born to mothers with PI. Preterm infants,
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 3, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Multivariate risk and clinical signs evaluations for early-onset sepsis on late preterm and term newborns and their economic impact
AbstractThere is an increasing evidence that strict evaluation of clinical signs is effective in detecting newborns at risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) that require antibiotic therapy. In a retrospective case control design, we compared EOS antibiotic indication by clinical signs surveillance with multivariate risk analysis (EOSCalc), and estimate their costs. Newborns ≥ 34 weeks who received EOS antibiotics from June 2014 to December 2016 were studied. Were considered symptomatic those with three clinical signs within first 24 h or two signs and one risk factor present. Cost estimative was done using b...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 3, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Neonatal bacterial meningitis versus ventriculitis: a cohort-based overview of clinical characteristics, microbiology and imaging
Conclusion: Neonatal ventriculitis is a serious entity in the continuum of meningitis. Early and correct diagnoses of ventriculitis are both important because of possible persisting or newly developing hydrocephalus or seizures. Sequential imaging should be performed.What is Known:• CNS infections in neonates lead to high mortality and morbidity.• Ventriculitis is a severe complication of meningitis.What is New:• High morbidity; the majority of ventriculitis patients have pre-existing PHVD and develop seizures and hydrocephalus.• Interrater agreement is good; bedside CUS is a useful tool for reaching a ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Swiss consensus recommendations on urinary tract infections in children
Conclusion: Based on recent data and in line with international guidelines, multidisciplinary Swiss consensus recommendations were developed by members of Swiss pediatric infectious diseases, nephrology, and urology societies giving the clinician clear recommendations in regard to diagnosis, type and duration of therapy, antimicrobial treatment options, indication for imaging, and antibiotic prophylaxis.What is Known:•Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common and important clinical problem in childhood. Although children with pyelonephritis tend to present with fever, it can be difficult on clinical grounds to disti...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Lipid profile assessed in the family pediatrician ’s office: the COLIBRI’- SIMPeF study
Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia in our sample is worthy of attention. The study suggests the opportunity and feasibility to check for the presence of dyslipidemia at the family pediatrician ’s office. Familiarity is associated with high cholesterol levels, regardless of the children’s weight class, while weight excess identifies subjects with the typical lipid profile of metabolic syndrome.What is Known:• Few data are available on the lipid profile in Italian children.• Early treatment of hypercholesterolemia is effective in reducing cardiovascular events later in life; there is no agreemen...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Diagnostic and prognostic value of procalcitonin and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin in septic paediatric patients
Conclusion: PCT appeared to be superior to MR-proADM in diagnosing sepsis. Determining MR-proADM plasma levels at the initial phase of sepsis could be a useful tool for sepsis stratification and morbidity prediction before organ failure occurs. The present results need to be assessed with larger sample size studies.What is Known:•CRP and PCT are already included in clinical practice to assess sepsis and estimate disease severity, although their sensitivity and specificity are lower than desired.•ADM is a protein that has immune and vascular modulation actions, and its blood levels are increased in adult and paedi...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 24, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

EAU-ESPU guidelines recommendations for daytime lower urinary tract conditions in children
Conclusion: Producing recommendations for managing LUTS in children based on high-quality studies is not possible. LUTS in children should be evaluated in a multimodal way by minimal invasive diagnostic procedures. Urotherapy is the mainstay of treatment and specific medical treatment is added in refractory cases.What is Known:• Symptoms of the lower urinary tract may have significant social consequences and sometimes clinical morbidities like urinary tract infections and vesicoureteral reflux. In many children, however, there is no such obvious cause for the incontinence, and they are referred to as having functional...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 24, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Association of initial empirical antibiotic therapy with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis
Conclusion: The evidence suggests an association between IEAT ( ≥ 5 days) and the risk of NEC. Further studies are needed to address whether the association with IEAT is causal.What is Known:•Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is acute inflammatory necrosis of the intestinal tractin the newborn infant.•Some observational studies have associated initial empirical antibiotics with an increased risk of subsequent NEC.What is New:•Initial empirical antibiotic therapy (IEAT) ( ≥ 5 days) appear to increase the risk of NEC. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 24, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

SARS-COV-2 infection in children and newborns: a systematic review
Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 affects children less severely than adults. Laboratory and radiology findings are mainly nonspecific. Larger epidemiological and clinical cohort studies are needed to better understand possible implications of COVID-19 infection in children.What is Known:• A novel Coronavirus has been recently identified as responsible for a new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) spreading globally.• There is limited evidence on SARS-CoV2 infection in children.What is New:• Systematically reviewed available evidence showed that children with SARS-CoV-2 infection may have a less severe patte...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 24, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Is the use of triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index to recognize glucose disorders really practical?
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 24, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Real-world data for pediatric medulloblastoma: can we improve outcomes?
Conclusion: Treatment delivery optimization has improved survival rates of patients with MB. Despite this, in our study, we have not established a clear influence of the considered radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment quality parameters on outcomes.What is Known:• Improvement in treatment modalities during the last decades has reached a 5-year OS of up to 70% in these patients.• Extent of resection and radiotherapy parameters such as interval between surgery-radiotherapy and radiotherapy duration has been described as probable survival prognostic factors.What is New:• Differences in medulloblastoma surviv...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Re: Esposito et al.: To mask or not to mask children to overcome COVID-19
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 19, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

How to improve CPAP failure prediction in preterm infants with RDS: a pilot study
Conclusions: SF ratio and RD-PV, as measured by pulsed-wave Tissue Doppler, may help physicians to improve their confidence in optimizing therapeutic options in preterm infants with RDS.What is Known:• Continuous positive airway pressure is the recommended first-line treatment for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, but failure rates remain unacceptably high.• Choosing the optimal treatment in terms of non-invasive ventilation effectiveness and timeliness of surfactant administration for these patients is often challenging, also due to our inability to identify a worsening respiratory failure.What i...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 18, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Clustering of 24-h movement behaviors associated with cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescents: a latent class analysis
This study aimed to examine the clustering of 24-h movement behaviors (moderate to vigorous physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration) and their association with cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescents. We evaluated 561 adolescents (52.1% girls; mean age, 13.0  ± 1.0 years) from Florianópolis, Brazil. A 20-m shuttle run was used to assess cardiorespiratory fitness, while a questionnaire was used to measure 24-h movement behaviors. A latent class analysis was performed to identify the clustering of 24-h movement behaviors, while linear Bayesian mixe d-effect regression models we...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 17, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of neonatal professionals regarding pain management
Conclusion: This research provides useful information regarding the knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice of neonatal pain management among neonatologists and nurses and points out some differences in the knowledge levels of these two groups.What is Known:•Neonates can perceive and respond to pain stimuli by showing their biological signals similarly to children and adults.•Untreated or insufficient pain management for high-risk neonates has short-term.negative effects and may also induce long-term negative effects.What is New:•The level of knowledge, the attitudes, and the practices regarding neonatal...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 17, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Evaluation of urine output, lactate levels and lactate clearance in the transitional period in very low birth weight preterm infants
ConclusionUO and LL and lactate clearance were not good predictors of haemodynamic instability or death within 10  days of life.What is Known• It is already established that blood pressure is not a good marker for haemodynamic stability in the preterm infant.• Others clinical parameters, albeit are largely used, are not fully reliable as well.What is New• In our study we tried to determine the sensibility and specificity of urine output and arterial lactate and also the lactate clearance.• All AUC were below 0.80. Sensitivity and specificity were also not very good. Although patients with poor outc...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 17, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research