Emergency or urgent splenectomy in children for non-traumatic reasons
Conclusions: Rarely, an emergency splenectomy is required in complex settings, mostly refractory hematological conditions, in a deteriorating patient when all other measurements have failed. A multidisciplinary team approach is mandatory in the treatment of these complex cases.What is known• Conservative treatment is advised for splenic injury.• Many hematological disorders are responsible of splenic pathology.What is new• Emergency splenectomy in children for reasons other than trauma is a treatment of last resort that should be performed in a multidisciplinary context.• The outcome of emergency splene...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Medical care for migrant children in Europe: a practical recommendation for first and follow-up appointments
Conclusion: The current document includes general recommendations on ethical standards, use of interpreters and specific recommendations for prevention or early detection of communicable and non-communicable diseases. It may serve as a tool to ensure the fundamental right that migrant children in Europe receive a comprehensive, patient-centred health care. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Gastroschisis at school age: what do parents report?
Conclusion: Parent-reported outcomes of school-aged children with gastroschisis were mainly reassuring. Clinicians and parents should be aware of the higher risk of cognitive problems, especially in those with neonatal intestinal failure or increased parent-perceived vulnerability. We recommend multidisciplinary follow-up at school age of children with gastroschisis and neonatal intestinal failure.What is Known:• Many infants with gastroschisis experience morbidity in early life.• Data on developmental outcomes and daily functioning in children with gastroschisis beyond the age of 5 years are scarce and conf...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Predictors for hospital admission of asymptomatic to moderately symptomatic children after drowning
AbstractDrowning is a leading cause of injury-related death worldwide, but there are limited data on the management and disposition of asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic adults and children following a drowning event. Some authors have recommended admission for all drowning victims due to the possibility of respiratory and clinical deterioration in a seemingly well patient. In order to identify predictors for admission and to establish a unified approach for management, we retrospectively collected all children ≤ 16 years old presented following a drowning event to the pediatric ED over a period of 12 ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Acute flaccid myelitis and enterovirus D68: lessons from the past and present
Conclusion: This review presents the current knowledge on acute flaccid myelitis with respect to the clinical presentation and its differential diagnosis with Guillain-Barr é syndrome and acute transverse myelitis. We also discuss the association with enterovirus D68 and the presumed pathophysiological mechanism of this infection causing anterior horn cell damage. Sharing clinical knowledge and insights from basic research is needed to make progress in diagnosis, trea tment, and prevention of this new polio-like disease.What is Known:•Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a polio-like condition characterized by rapid...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Survey evidence of the decline in child abuse in younger Canadian cohorts
Conclusion: The results are encouraging in that they may have an impact on life expectancy, severity of various chronic disorders, and suicide in the population. They also support policies that have focused on improving the childhood environment in the 1990s. Results also underline the importance of using different kinds of data sources for evaluating child abuse.What is Known:• Physical and sexual abuse in childhood has been associated with lower life expectancy in connection with an array of chronic diseases, including mental disorders, and with suicide.• Measures of primary prevention have been developed in so...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Performance of axillary and rectal temperature measurement in private pediatric practice
Conclusions: Axillary readings are always lower than rectal ones, the limits of agreement are quite wide. Axillary readings can be used for screening but critical measurements should be confirmed by more reliable methods.What is Known• In infants and toddlers, temperature has been traditionally taken rectally.• Axillary measurements are better accepted and are recommended in current guidelines.What is New• Axillary temperature was always lower than rectal temperature.• The limits of agreement of axillary thermometers are wide.• Axillary thermometers have a good sensitivity but limited specificity a...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Asthma in 9-year-old children of subfertile couples is not associated with in vitro fertilization procedures
Conclusion: Neither ovarian hyperstimulation nor the in vitro culture procedure was associated with asthma and rhinitis at 9  years. IVF children had a similar prevalence of asthma compared with children conceived naturally by subfertile couples.Trial registration: ISRCTN76355836What is Known:•An increased risk for asthma has been observed in children born after in vitro fertilization at preschool and school age.•The association between IVF and asthma may be partly explained by parental subfertility.What is New:•IVF children do not have a higher prevalence of asthma than children of subfertile couples c...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 6, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Epilepsy: knowledge and attitudes of physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and speech therapists
Conclusion: Most therapists treat patients with epilepsy, and almost half have already witnessed a seizure. Often, however, epilepsy is not subject of vocational training. The risk of a fatal outcome of a seizure is underestimated, and many therapists would perform obsolete measures. Knowledge of seizure management should be transmitted to therapists especially during vocational training. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Use of high-flow nasal cannula in infants with viral bronchiolitis outside pediatric intensive care units
Conclusion: Use of HFNC outside PICU in infants with acute bronchiolitis is now usual, but urgently requires guidelines.What is Known:•Acute viral bronchiolitis treatment is only supportive•High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a respiratory support accumulating convincing clinical evidence in bronchiolitis•This latter treatment is usually proposed in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)What is New:•HFNC are increasingly used outside PICU in bronchiolitis, particularly, in general hospitals and in pediatric general departments•Pediatricians are enthusiastic about this device, but validated criteria for...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Genotype phenotype correlation in a pediatric population with antithrombin deficiency
Conclusion: Type II HBS (AT Budapest 3) in the homozygous form is a strong risk factor for arterial and venous thrombosis in pediatric patients.What is Known:•Inherited AT deficiency is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, caused by mutations in the SERPINC1gene.•The genotype phenotype correlation in AT deficiency patients remains unclear, especially in pediatric patients.What is New:•The genetic results for our paediatric population predominantly showed the presence of a single specific mutation in exon 2, that causes type II HBS deficiency (AT Budapest 3).•In this group thrombosis mostly occurred as un...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 29, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Can digital X-ray radiogrammetry be an alternative for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the diagnosis of secondary low bone quality in children?
AbstractBone quality in children is generally measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) uses BoneXpert to measure cortical bone quality on hand radiographs. This prospective study compared DXR and DXA results in children with high probability of secondary low bone quality, defined as DXA of the lumbar spine (DXALS)Z-score ≤ − 2.0. One hundred one children underwent both DXA and DXR assessment. DXALSZ-scores were also adjusted for bone age. DXRZ-scores were compared with both DXALSZ-scores, using Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman analysis, and sensitivit...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Correction to: Oral vitamin A supplementation in very low birth weight neonates: a randomized controlled trial
The authors regret thatEthical approval section was incorrect in the original publication; the authors have requested that this be noted. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 24, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Correspondence on “Ultrasound as diagnosis tool for grading bronchiolitis. Where are your limits lost?”
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Ultrasound as diagnosis tool for grading bronchiolitis: where are your limits lost?
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Quality of life and colorectal function in Crohn ’s disease patients that underwent ileocecal resection during childhood
AbstractPsychosocial and functional outcomes after intestinal resection in pediatric Crohn ’s disease (CD) are lacking. Therefore, we (I) assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL), colorectal function, and satisfaction with surgery and (II) investigated their relationship with surgical outcomes, after ileocecal resection for CD. Crohn’s patients that underwent ileocecal resectio n during childhood were included. HRQOL and colorectal function were assessed usingSF-36 andCOREFO, respectively, and compared with reference values. Satisfaction was scored on a 5-point Likert scale. In total, 80 patients (50% ma...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 20, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Fructose malabsorption in asymptomatic children and in patients with functional chronic abdominal pain: a prospective comparative study
Conclusion: Fructose malabsorption is more common in asymptomatic children than in patients with chronic abdominal pain. Better standardized test conditions are necessary to improve accuracy of diagnosis before using this test in clinical practice.What is Known:•Although fructose malabsorption is believed to be related with chronic abdominal pain, high-quality evidence is lacking.•Concerns have raised regarding the use of breath hydrogen test for fructose malabsorption in children with chronic abdominal pain.What is New:•Fructose malabsorption is not more common in children with pain-predominant functional g...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 19, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Time course of nocturnal cough and wheezing in children with acute bronchitis monitored by lung sound analysis
AbstractCough and wheezing are the predominant symptoms of acute bronchitis. Hitherto, the evaluation of respiratory symptoms was limited to subjective methods such as questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to objectively determine the time course of cough and wheezing in children with acute bronchitis. The impact of nocturnal cough on parent ’s quality of life was assessed as secondary outcome. In 36 children (2–8 years), the frequency of nocturnal cough and wheezing was recorded during three nights by automated lung sound monitoring. Additionally, parents completed symptom logs, i.e., the B...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 18, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of systemic hydrocortisone for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion: Early systemic hydrocortisone is a modestly effective therapy for the prevention of BPD in preterm infants, although some safety concerns remain. No conclusions could be drawn for late hydrocortisone due to the paucity of studies.What is Known:•Preterm infants are at high risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and early lung inflammation plays a significant role in its pathogenesis.•Both early and late systemic dexamethasone seems to reduce the incidence of BPD, but its use is associated with serious neurodevelopmental impairment at follow-up.What is New:•Early systemic hydrocortison...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia —an overview of a complex clinical condition
Conclusion: Advances in the fields of genetic testing, imaging techniques and medical treatment are beginning to provide novel insights into earlier detection, less invasive treatment approaches and fewer complications associated with the complex entity of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia.What is Known:•HH is caused by dysregulated insulin release from the β cell due to genetic mutations and carries a risk for complications, such as neurocognitive impairment. 18F-DOPA PET/CT scanning is presented as the gold-standard imaging technique currently in children with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia.•Clinical presen...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The etiological evaluation of sensorineural hearing loss in children
Conclusions: With our stepwise diagnostic approach, we found a diagnostic yield of 67%. Bilateral SNHL often has a genetic cause, whereas in unilateral SNHL structural abnormalities of the labyrinth are the dominant etiologic factor. The diagnostic yield is associated with the age at detection and severity of hearing loss: the highest proportion of causative abnormalities is found in children with a young age at detection or a profound hearing loss.What is Known:• Congenital sensorineural hearing loss is one of the most common congenital disorders• Determination of the cause is important for adequate management a...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Indications and efficiency of dapsone in IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein purpura): case series and a review of the literature
Conclusion: We suggest that dapsone can have a positive effect in chronic IgA vasculitis when cutaneous manifestations last more than 6  weeks at the dosage of 1–2 mg/kg once per day during 1 week.What is Known:• IgA vasculitis or Henoch-Schonlein purpura is the most common vasculitis in children and affects mostly small vessels of the skin, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. It resolves spontaneously in most of the cases. Exceptionally, cutaneous lesions can last several weeks.• Dapsone is a bacteriostatic antibacterial sulfonamide drug found to be effective in the treatment of some inflamm...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Influence of chronic diseases on the olfactory function in children
Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the influence of chronic diseases (bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus type 1 and hypothyroidism) on olfactory function in childhood, if any, seems to be insignificant. This is partly in contrast to adult patients. Further research should be conducted in a subgroup of patients with bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis or other comorbidities to better understand the association of allergic diathesis and olfactory function and the putative pathogenesis of olfactory dysfunction.What is known:• The association between smell impairment and chroni...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Lung ultrasound in children with pneumonia: interoperator agreement on specific thoracic regions
Conclusion: Even when performed by operators with very distinct degrees of experience, LUS had a good interoperator reliability for detecting sonographic patterns on specific thoracic regions.What is Known:• Lung ultrasound is feasible, safe, and highly accurate for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children; however, it does not allow global visualization of the thorax in a single moment as in chest X-rays, and, similar to the stethoscope, partial thorax assessments must be performed sequentially.What is New:• This is the first study evaluating the agreement of LUS on specific thoracic regions between operators with...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Hyponatremia in children under 100  days old: incidence and etiologies
Conclusion: Our findings confirm that hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte disorder in neonates. Various mechanisms underlie this condition, most of which could be prevented by optimized management. The prevalence of genetic hypoaldosteronism and pseudohypoaldosteronism was higher than expected. We provide a simple diagram to help physicians identify the mechanisms underlying neonatal hyponatremia.What is Known:•In neonates, hyponatremia may be multifactorial, making it difficult to treat.•Newborns display partial resistance to aldosterone, and preterms have a defect in aldosterone secretion.What is New:•F...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Isolated antenatal hydronephrosis with renal pelvis antero-posterior diameter ≤ 20 mm
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 12, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Significance of automated external defibrillator in identifying lethal ventricular arrhythmias
Conclusions: AED reliably identifies the underlying lethal ventricular arrhythmias in addition to aborting SCD.What is Known:•Although infrequent in children, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is often an unexpected and tragic event. The etiology is diverse and sometimes remains unknown despite extensive investigations.•Automated external defibrillator (AED) is both therapeutic in aborting SCD and diagnostic in identifying the underlying lethal ventricular arrhythmias. However, the diagnostic aspect of AED is under-acknowledged by most medical providers.What is New:•Four of 25 patients (16%) were initially managed ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, and sexual identity among high school students in the USA
Conclusions: Sexual identity status is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use. Female bisexual adolescents have an increased risk of cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use for ≥ 20 days. While tobacco control policies have been effective in reducing cigarette use in the general population, targeting policy toward sexual minorities is an important consideration.What is Known:•Sexual minority groups face a disproportionate amount of stress and have a heightened risk of substance use.•Methodological concerns exist in the extant literature, including limited data at the national ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A longitudinal study of adolescent dysmenorrhoea into adulthood
Conclusion: These findings are important for counselling adolescents regarding this common presentation.What is Known:•Dysmenorrhoea is the most common gynaecological complaint for adolescentsWhat is New:•Dysmenorrhoea from adolescence resolves in 1 in 4 of young women  and no adolescent characteristics predict severe or very severe pain with menstruation in adults.•Only 1 in 5 of women were found to have endometriosis (all mild disease), despite a mean of 10 years of preceding dysmenorrhoea. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Topical application of coconut oil to the skin of preterm infants: a systematic review
Conclusion: Topical coconut oil application to the skin may be beneficial in preterm infants, but the quality of evidence is low to moderate. Adequately powered randomised controlled trials, especially in very preterm (
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Sialoblastoma of the submandibular gland: a distinct entity?
Conclusion: Submandibular sialoblastomas may have a different biological profile in comparison with parotid tumors with the absence of metastasis and much lower rate of recurrence. Comprehensive diagnostics should include additional options such as fine-needle aspiration and markers to assess cell proliferation and AFP. Literature suggests that surgery alone is sufficient for the treatment of tumors with low malignancy. Follow-up should be tailored according to the tumor site and might be limited to 3 –5 years.What is Known:•Sialoblastoma is a rare congenital malignant tumor with an unpredictable clinical o...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Somatic symptom disorder should be suspected in children with alleged chronic Lyme disease
We report a case series of seven children admitted to a tertiary level pediatric ward for long-lasting physical symptoms with a previous diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease. In these children, medical history and clinical features were strongly suggestive of a psychopathological disorder, mainly a somatic symptom disorder.What is Known:• There is an increasing number of diagnoses of chronic Lyme disease both in North America and in Europe. Adults receive this diagnosis to explain chronic physical complaints often with negative history and serology.What is New:• Somatic symptom disorder should be suspected in childr...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Benefits of medical clowning in the treatment of young children with autism spectrum disorder
Conclusion: improvement over time in all measures: Significant increase in word production, play reciprocity, and amount of social smiles during CI as compared with OI. We also found a reduction in frequency of stereotypic behaviors during and following CI as compared with before CI. These preliminary results indicate that medical clowning may be beneficial for young children with ASD, since it promotes communication and social reciprocity in a fun and lively interventional setting.What is Known:•Many therapies are used and proven as efficacious interventions for children with ASD.•So far, medical clowning was no...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 26, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Probiotics for cow ’s milk protein allergy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials
Conclusion: Limited low-quality evidence indicates that probiotic supplementation may be associated with earlier acquisition of tolerance to CMP in children with CMPA. Large well-designed trials are essential to confirm these findings.What is Known:•Cow ’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is one of the commonest food allergies in children. CMPA is associated with significant socioeconomic burden.•Elimination diet and extensively hydrolyzed formula is the mainstay of the management of CMPA.What is New:•This first systematic review of randomized controlled trials shows that probiotics as an adjuvant can lead ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 22, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The role of sleep-related cognitive functions in the spectrum of benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes
Conclusion: Considering the common sleep microstructure alterations, the presence of attention deficit and hyperactivity and/or sleep apnea may be a considered warning sign in the case of benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes.What is Known:•Sleep related-cognitive deficits have been described in the spectrum of benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes. The degree of sleep alterations may predict the neurocognitive outcome, and help clinicians to choose the right treatment.What is New:•Considering the common sleep microstructure alterations, attention deficit and sleep apnea, may be a considered warning s...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Ten-year trend in prevalence and outcome of Down syndrome with congenital heart disease in a middle-income country
Conclusion: The prevalence of CHD in patients with Down syndrome is similar between Malaysia and high-income countries. The lower survival rate is attributed to limited expertise and resources which limit timely surgery.What is Known:•The survival of patients with Down syndrome with congenital heart disease (CHD) has improved in high-income countries. However, little is known about the survival of patients with Down syndrome with CHD from middle-income countries.•In the Caucasian population, atrioventricular septal defect is the most common type of CHD associated with Down syndrome.What is New:•In middle-inc...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 20, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Genotype and phenotype analysis of a cohort of patients with congenital hyperinsulinism based on DOPA-PET CT scanning
Conclusion: Highly increased portion of focal lesion was presented in Chinese CHI patients compared with that of the previous reports. Intolerance to diazoxide was much more evident in Chinese or East Asian than other populations. Certain hotspot mutations harbored in Chinese CHI patients.What is Known:•18F DOPA-PET CT scanning can provide informative guidance for surgical procedure when medical therapy is not well responded in CHI patients.What is New:•Intolerance to diazoxide is much more evident in Chinese and East Asian CHI patients compared with the other ethnic populations.•Novel mutations were detecte...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 19, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A new simple formula built on the American Academy of Pediatrics criteria for the screening of hypertension in overweight/obese children
Conclusions: The NSF shows a very high performance for the screening of OW/OB children at risk of hypertension and cLVH.What is Known:•The American Academy of Pediatrics released updated guidelines (AAPG 2017) to classify hypertension (HTN) in children.•The process needs categorization of height percentiles and comparison of blood pressure versusgender and age-adjusted values.What is New:•A user-friendly formula built on the AAPG 2017 was validated for the categorization of HTN in children with overweight/obesity.•The formula showed high performance in identifying children with HTN versusthe standard pr...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 18, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Oral vitamin a supplementation in very low birth weight neonates: a randomized controlled trial
AbstractThis randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of early postnatal oral vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in 196 inborn very-low birth weight (VLBW) infants requiring respiratory support at 24  h of age. Eligible infants were randomized to receive aqueous syrup of vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinol/dose;n = 98) or placebo (n = 98) on alternate days for 28 days. Primary outcome variable was composite incidence of all-cause mortality and/or oxygen requirement for 28 days. Secondary outcome variables were safety/tolerability of VAS, serum retinol c...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 17, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Estimation of the proportion of metabolic syndrome-free subjects on high cardiometabolic risk using two continuous cardiometabolic risk scores: a cross-sectional study in 16- to 20-year-old individuals
Conclusion: Continuous cardiometabolic syndrome scores are practical tools to evaluate cardiometabolic risk in subjects not presenting metabolic syndrome. Accuracy, simplicity, and ability to classify metabolic syndrome-free subjects on high cardiometabolic risk make continuous metabolic syndrome score derived from international standards convenient for use in research and clinical practice.What is Known:•Dichotomous classification of metabolic syndrome is simple but not suitable for assessment of cardiometabolic burden in metabolic syndrome-free subjects. This prompted implementation of continuous scores, which are g...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The relationship between serum vitamin D levels and intima-media thickness in term infants
AbstractIncreasing epidemiologic evidence indicates that vitamin D deficiency is linked to a series of diseases, including cardiovascular disease. This prospective study was designed to determine the relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in term healthy neonates. A total of 135 term, healthy infants were included in the study. Ultrasonographic measurements were performed at 24 –48 h after birth. Blood samples were obtained from the umbilical cord at birth. The neonates were divided into four groups according to ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Prescription of vitamin D among Swiss pediatricians
Conclusion: Few pediatricians prescribe a vitamin D supplementation in children ≥ 3 years of age. Collaboration between policymakers and health care professionals is required to fill the gap between guidelines and clinical practice.What is Known:• In Switzerland, vitamin D supplementation is recommended during the first, second, and third year of life as well as during winter for older children.• Both alcoholic and oily preparations are currently available.What is New:• Swiss pediatricians routinely prescribe vitamin D in infants ≤ 1 year of age, but infrequently in children &ge...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Parental experiences and coping strategies when caring for a child receiving paediatric palliative care: a qualitative study
Conclusion: Parents need healthcare professionals who understand and carefully handle their worries, losses, parent-child relationship and coping strategies.What is Known:•In paediatric palliative care, parents have a daunting task in fulfilling all caregiving tasks while striving for control of their child ’s symptoms, a life worth living and a family balance.What is New:•Prominent experiences were: continuous management of anxiety of child loss, feelings of uncertainty, tension with end-of-life decision making and engagement with professionals. Parents experienced unique significance to their child, reinf...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The triglycerides and glucose index is associated with elevated blood pressure in apparently healthy children and adolescents
AbstractPrevalence of elevated blood pressure in pediatric population has been increasing worldwide. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether the triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index is associated with the presence of prehypertension or hypertension in children and adolescents. Apparently healthy children aged 6 to 15  years were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants were allocated into groups with normal blood pressure (NBP), prehypertension, and hypertension. Smoking, alcohol intake, pregnancy, previous diagnosis of diabetes, kidney, hepatic, or endocrine diseases were exclusi...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Care for children with severe chronic skin diseases
Conclusion: Although these children with a severe chronic and/or congenital skin disease were able to adapt and self-manage, they need a more personalized integrative multidisciplinary and systematic transmural approach covering all aspects of life during their lifetime.What is Known:•Severe skin disorders affect the child and its family in several ways. In our expert center, we try to optimize the care for these children through a multidisciplinary approach.What is New:•To our knowledge, no English publication describes the requirements for good care for pediatric patients with severe chronic skin disorders and ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Comparative evaluation of Airtraq ™ and GlideScope® videolaryngoscopes for difficult pediatric intubation in a Pierre Robin manikin
AbstractAirway management in children is associated with anatomical and physiological challenges compared with adults. Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a condition characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate and related to a difficult airway. Both the Airtraq ™ and GlideScope® have never been previously directly compared in PRS. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of these two airway devices in a PRS manikin for ethical and practical reasons. Between April and July 2017, 26, pediatric intensive care clinical fellows or trainees from a tertiary ped iatric center were recruited to participate. I...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The effect of follow-up after a negative double-blinded placebo-controlled cow ’s milk challenge on successful reintroduction
Conclusion: Follow-up does not influence the reintroduction success rate of cow ’s milk after a negative double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge.What is Known:Diagnosis of cow ’s milk allergy by double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard.• After a negative double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge, reintroduction of cow’s milk in the child’s diet is unsuccessful in 10–12% of the children.• Recurrence of symptoms, aversion to the examined food, and fear are seen as the main reasons for unsuccessful introduction.What is New:• Reintroducti...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Dilated cardiomyopathy in a national paediatric population
This study aims to review the aetiology and associated outcomes of DCM. The median age at diagnosis was 6  months (0–42 months);n = 23 (43.3%) were idiopathic;n = 11 (20.9%) secondary to a viral infection;n = 12 (22.6%) genetic disorders andn = 7 (13.2%) as a result of vitamin D deficiency. There was a significant correlation between aetiology and mortality,r = 0.85, with a lower survival rate in idiopathic and genetic cohorts. Males were significantly less likely to survive to 1 year of age,p = 0.035. The age at diagno...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Diaphragm electromyography results at different high flow nasal cannula flow rates
Conclusions: In infants with respiratory distress or BPD, there was no advantage of using high (8  L/min) compared with lower flow rates (4 or 6 L/min) during support by HHHFNC.What is known:• Humidified high flow nasal cannulae (HHHFNC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive form of respiratory support for prematurely born infants.• There is a paucity of evidence regarding the optimum flow rate with 1 to 8 L/min being used.What is new:• We have assessed the work of breathing using the amplitude of the electromyogram of the diaphragm at three HHHFNC flow rates in infants with respiratory...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Endotracheal intubation skills of pediatricians versus anesthetists in neonates and children
Conclusion: Anesthetists are far more adept in performing ETI in neonates and children compared with pediatricians in a simulated setting. Complications are expected to occur less frequently and less seriously when anesthetists perform ETI.What is Known:•Endotracheal intubation (ETI) performed by inexperienced care providers can lead to unsuccessful and/or prolonged intubation attempts. This can cause complications such as hypoxemia, trauma to the oropharynx and larynx, and prolonged interruption of resuscitation, which results in a high morbidity/mortality.•Fifty to 60 real-life ETI procedures are needed before ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - June 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research