Vaccination of immune compromised children —an overview for physicians
Conclusion: Intensified information strategies are needed to improve trust, rectify perceived risks and improve vaccine acceptability; primary physicians can play a critical role in the latter.What is Known:•Physician ’s awareness is key to success, since it repeatedly correlates with higher vaccination ratesWhat is New:•The vaccination status of immunocompromised children is rarely up-to-date•Knowing the latest vaccine recommendations is challenging, as they differ for each medical condition and change periodically•This review summarises the vaccine recommendations for children with compromised i...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - March 5, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Are psychological symptoms a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain in adolescents?
Conclusion: Adolescents with externalizing symptoms, and to some extent internalizing symptoms, are at increased odds of later musculoskeletal pain. Future research is now required to understand the reasons for these associations.What is Known:•Current evidence regarding the association between internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms and future musculoskeletal pain in adolescents is mixed.What is New:•This study found that adolescents with externalizing symptoms, and to some extent internalizing symptoms, are at increased odds for musculoskeletal pain, with an increased influence dependent on pubertal s...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - March 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Tuberculosis contact investigation results among paediatric contacts in low-incidence settings in Finland
Conclusions: Prompt TB investigations and early diagnosis can be achieved with a well-organised contact tracing structure. The risk for TB infection or disease was higher among contacts with household exposure, a sputum smear positive index case or born in a TB endemic country. Large-scale investigations among children exposed in congregate settings can result in a very low yield and should be cautiously targeted.What is Known:•Vulnerable young children are a high priority in contact tracing and should be evaluated as soon as possible after TB exposureWhat is New:•Prompt investigations for paediatric TB contacts ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - March 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Adverse events associated with pediatric complementary and alternative medicine in the Netherlands: a national surveillance study
Conclusion: Relatively few cases of adverse events associated with pediatric CAM usage were found, mostly due to delaying or stopping conventional treatment. Nevertheless, parents, pediatricians and CAM providers should be vigilant for both direct and indirect adverse events in children using CAM, especially in infants.What ’s Known:• The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in children is common.• Previous surveillance studies in other countries showed severe adverse events may occur after pediatric CAM usage.What is New:• In the Netherlands CAM-related adverse events are rare but can o...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - March 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Changes in pediatric infections during the COVID-19 pandemic: ‘a quarantrend for coronials’?
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - March 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Motor development in children and adolescents: role of body mass index and socio-economic status
(Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - March 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Sonographic evaluation of diaphragmatic thickness and excursion as a predictor for successful extubation in mechanically ventilated preterm infants
AbstractSonographic assessment of diaphragmatic thickness and excursion has been found to be an accurate tool in predicting successful extubation of adult patients from invasive mechanical ventilation. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of sonographic assessment of diaphragmatic thickness and excursion in predicting successful extubation of preterm infants from invasive conventional mechanical ventilation. Preterm infants less than 32 weeks gestation who required invasive conventional mechanical ventilation were evaluated by diaphragmatic sonography within 1 h of their planned extubation. Infants were classified into succes...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Prevalence of neonatal ankyloglossia in a tertiary care hospital in Spain: a transversal cross-sectional study
Conclusion: The prevalence of symptomatic ankyloglossia in our population is higher (32.5%) than studies have reported to date. Actively assessing for tongue-tie increases its diagnosis.What is Known:• There are four types of tongue-tie according to Coryllos (1, 2, 3, and 4), of which the two anterior types (1 and 2) are the most apparent and easy to diagnose.• The reported prevalence of ankyloglossia generally varies from
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunosuppressed children in Spain
Conclusion: In our experience, monitoring of children with immunosuppression and COVID-19 disease can be performed as outpatients if close monitoring is possible. Hospitalization should be assessed when high fever, radiological involvement, and/or respiratory distress are present.What is Known:• SARS-CoV-2 infection is usually mild in children.What is New:• Outcome of immunosuppressed children with COVID-19 is generally good, with a mild-moderate course. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

How do infants and toddlers sleep in Spain? A cross-sectional study
AbstractThere is limited information on sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns in children three to 36 months of age in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2017 and February 2018. Sociodemographic data and sleep variables were collected using an expanded version of the validated Spanish version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. A total of 1,404 parental reports on children (725 males; 679 females) with a mean age of 18.8 ± 9.5 months were collected. Parents who perceived their child’s sleep as problematic (39% of o...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The relationship between platelet indices and patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractPatent ductus arteriosus (PDA), one of the most common disorders in newborns, is associated with many complications in premature infants such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) is still an ongoing debate. The relationship between platelet parameters and hsPDA has been explored in many studies over the last decade, but there is still no definite conclusion. We aim to explain the relationship between platelet parameters and hsPDA through this meta-analysis. Therefore, we used PubMed, Embase...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A multicenter study on epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 125 newborns born to women infected with COVID-19 by Turkish Neonatal Society
Conclusion: COVID-19 in pregnant women has important impacts on perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Maternal mortality, higher rates of preterm birth and cesarean section, suspected risk of vertical transmission, and low rate of breastfeeding show that family support should be a part of the care in the NICU.Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04401540What is Known:• The common property of previous reports was the conclusions on maternal outcomes, rather than neonatal outcomes.• Published data showed similar outcomes between COVID-19 pregnant women and others.What is New:• Higher maternal mortal...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Use of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of bacterial infection in infants with severe bronchiolitis
The objective was to evaluate the use of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for the diagnosis of bacterial infection in bronchiolitis patients. A prospective, single-centre, descriptive, and comparative observational study was carried out on patients with severe bronchiolitis admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU), from January 2011 to July 2017. Two cohorts were compared: patients with invasive bacterial infection (IBI) and patients with no bacterial infection (NBI). We included 675 patients, 399 of whom were males (59.1%), with median age of 47 days (IQR 25 –100.3). Of them, 181 patient...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Virtual reality for intravenous placement in the emergency department —a randomized controlled trial
This study sought to determine whether adding virtual reality (VR) was superior to standard of care alone in facilitating reduction in pain and anxiety among children who underwent intravenous catheterization in the emergency department (ED). Sixty-six children aged 6 –16 years who needed intravenous placement received VR, or standard of care in the ED (videos, television, iPad, child life specialist). Outcome measures included change in pain score, level of anxiety, patient and parent satisfaction (pain and anxiety), number of trials, and procedure time. Compa red with controls, the intervention group had similar ag...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19: filling the gap between myocarditis and Kawasaki?
Conclusion: Every COVID-19 child within our population had a mild to severe myocarditis and presented with fever plus two or three Kawasaki clinical features. Short-term evolution was good for these children. This new disease seems to fill the gap between isolated myocarditis and Kawasaki disease.What is Known:•A new paediatric disease close to Kawasaki disease appeared during the COVID-19 pandemicWhat is New:•In our population,children presented with fever,vivid Kawasaki clinical features (although the Kawasaki syndrome was always incomplete)and a myocarditis without coronary abnormalities.•The new disease ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Acute infection as cause of hospitalization of asylum-seeking children and adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden 2015 –2016
Conclusion: There was a high rate of hospitalizations for acute infectious diseases in asylum-seeking children, but the spectrum and severity of infections were similar to that in resident children.What is known:• Mental and physical health problems are common in immigrant children and adolescents.What is new:• Hospitalizations due to acute infections in asylum-seeking children and adolescents are common. In the context of this study, the severity and spectrum of infectious diseases seemed to be the same in the two groups; the increased hospitalization rate in asylum seekers may be due to social factor s and perc...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Lymphatic malformations in children: treatment outcomes of sclerotherapy in a large cohort
Conclusion: Sclerotherapy for (V)LMs in children is safe and effective. Bleomycin is the most frequently used agent in this clinic and seemed most effective for pure LMs. Mixed macrocystic and microcystic lesions are most difficult to treat effectively.What is Known:•A variety of agents can be used for sclerotherapy of lymphatic malformations in children.•Macrocystic lesions have favorable outcomes compared with microcystic and mixed lesions.What is New:•Bleomycin and a combination of agents seem to be most effective to treat lymphatic malformations in children.•Mixed macrocystic and microcystic lesions...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Delivery room ultrasound study to assess heart rate in newborns: DELIROUS study
AbstractDuring neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room, heart rate guides clinical intervention, and although different methods have been evaluated as auscultation, pulse oximetry, and electrocardiography, they have various limitations. This was a prospective observational study which aim was to evaluate the accuracy and speed of ultrasound for measuring neonatal heart rate compared with stethoscope, pulse oximetry, and electrocardiography. Simultaneous determinations of heart rate using stethoscope, ultrasound, pulse oximetry, and electrocardiography were performed. Fifty term newborns were included. There were no dif...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Do isolates from pharyngeal and rectal swabs match blood culture bacterial pathogens in septic VLBW infants? A pilot, cross-sectional study
Conclusion: Our data show a fair correspondence between bacteria colonizing the nasopharynx and/or the rectum and pathogens later isolated from blood cultures. This association depends on the swabbing site, number of sites, and pathogen species. Although these data constitute valuable results, they are not sufficient for providing the sole base of a thoughtful clinical decision.What is Known:•Body site ’s colonization may precede systemic infection.•Little is known on this mechanism in VLBW infants that are at higher sepsis ’ risk.What is New:•Colonizing bacteria partially correspond to pathogens...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

What chances do children have against COVID-19? Is the answer hidden within the thymus?
Conclusion: We speculated that thymus activity and T lymphocyte function in children protect them against the virus effects. Stimulating and preventing the inhibition of the thymus can be possible treatment components against COVID-19.What is Known:•The SARS-CoV-2 infection does not often progress with an invasive clinic in children.•Thymus activity and T lymphocyte functions are highly active in children.What is New:•Effective thymus activity and T lymphocyte function in children protect them against the invasive SARS-CoV-2 infection.•Stimulating and preventing the inhibition of the thymus can be possi...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Correction to: A multicenter study on epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 125 newborns born to women infected with COVID-19 by Turkish Neonatal Society
The publisher regrets that the “The Neo-Covid StudyGroup” list of collaborators were not uploaded during processing of the original version of the above published article. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A new technique for difficult removal of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) in a neonate
Conclusion: By thinking outside the box, surgical intervention was prevented in this neonate.What is Known:• On general, peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) can be removed easily by gentle traction.• There are no clear recommendations about what to do if standard interventions fail to remove a PICC.What is New:• Our technique is a non-invasive option for difficult PICC removal and can prevent surgery.• The retained PICC is cut distal to the hub, and after stylet reinsertion, sustained manual traction is performed. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Low free thyroxine and normal thyroid-stimulating hormone in infants and children: possible causes and diagnostic work-up
Conclusion: Here we discuss a number of rare congenital HPT axis disorders in which TSH is normal, but FT4 is low, and provide a clinical algorithm to distinguish between these disorders.What is Known:• A single thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement is an appropriate screening method for primary hypothyroidism.• For central hypothyroidism and rare thyroid hormone receptor and transporter defects a free thyroxine (FT4) measurement is essential for the diagnosis because TSH is usually normal.What is New:• Here we present a new problem-oriented clinical algorithm including a diagnostic fl...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Lung ultrasound to predict pediatric intensive care admission in infants with bronchiolitis (LUSBRO study)
AbstractIt is extremely difficult to stratify bronchiolitis and predict the need for admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We aimed to evaluate the capacity of a new lung ultrasound score (LUSBRO) to predict the need for admission to the PICU compared to a clinical score. This was a prospective observational single-center study that includes infants
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Correction to: Pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: surveying the current European practice
A correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-03980-w (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Collateral impact of COVID-19: why should children continue to suffer?
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-COV-2 virus fortunately resulted in few children suffering from severe disease. However, the collateral effects on the COVID-19 pandemic appear to have had significant detrimental effects on children affected and young people. There are also some positive impacts in the form of reduced prevalence of viral bronchiolitis. The new strain of SARS-COV-2 identified recently in the UK appears to have increased transmissibility to children. However, there are no large vaccine trials set up in children to evaluate safety and efficacy. In this short communication, we review the collateral...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Biological features and clinical outcome in infant neuroblastoma: a multicenter experience in Beijing
Conclusions: Infants with neuroblastoma achieve a reasonable clinical outcome when treated with surgery with or without chemotherapy using a risk-stratified approach in China. Such information will facilitate counseling, therapeutic decision-making, and development of adapted standard-of-care guidelines for future patients in the country.What is Known:• NB is a disease of infancy; 37% of patients are diagnosed as infants.• Most children younger than 12 months of age have a good prognosis even in the presence of metastatic disease.What is New:• Infants with neuroblastoma achieve reasonable clinical outcome wh...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Lack of changes in preterm delivery and stillbirths during COVID-19 lockdown in a European region
Conclusion: We did not find any link between prematurity and lockdown, nor between stillbirths and lockdown. Collaborative efforts are desirable to gather more data and additional evidence on this global health issue.What is Known:•Prematurity is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality.•Contingency measures during the COVID-19 pandemic may have an impact on reducing prematurity rates.What is New:•Prematurity and stillbirth rates remained stable in Castilla-y-Le ón, a Spanish region, during COVID-19 lockdown.•The role of behavioral patterns and sociocultural factors in the preven...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 12, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Neighbourhood deprivation and obesity among 5656 pre-school children —findings from mandatory school enrollment examinations
AbstractThe risk of child obesity is strongly related to socioeconomic factors such as individual socioeconomic position (SEP) and neighbourhood deprivation. The present study analyses whether the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and child obesity differs by child ’s individual SEP. Data from 5656 children (5–7 years) from the mandatory school enrollment examinations of the pre-school cohorts 2017/2018 in Düsseldorf were analysed. Obesity was determined by the age- and gender-specific body mass index (BMI); neighbourhood deprivation by using the socio-sp atial degree of deprivation of the chi...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Diagnosis of celiac disease is being missed in over 80% of children particularly in those from socioeconomically deprived backgrounds
Conclusion: These findings suggest that while incidence of diagnosed CD in children has increased over a 12-year period, 83 –91% remained undiagnosed. Socioeconomically deprived children are more likely to be underdiagnosed, and the gap between the least and most deprived has widened. To fully address massive underdiagnosis, further strategies including pilot studies using finger prick serological mass screening for CD in children entering primary schools are needed.What is Known:• Epidemiological studies record a 1% prevalence of celiac disease (CD), but up to 90% of children may remain undiagnosed.• Previ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 10, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Olfactory training in 8-year-old increases odour identification ability: a preliminary study
Conclusion: Six weeks of OT enhances odour identification ability, but not odour thresholds, in 8-year-old children.What is Known:• Smell loss and dysfunction are associated with negative health outcomes such as depression and increased risk of consuming contaminated food.• Olfactory training can improve sense of smell in adults.What is New:• Olfactory training improves odour identification ability in 8-year-olds.• Olfactory training does not appear to enhance odour acuity in 8-year-olds. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 10, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Effects of a nudge-based antimicrobial stewardship program in a pediatric primary emergency medical center
AbstractOutpatient medical facilities tend to have high antimicrobial prescription rates and are therefore major targets for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). Pediatric primary emergency medical centers in Japan have difficulties in implementing conventional ASPs due to the low continuity of stewardship. Accordingly, there is a need to develop effective ASP models for these facilities. We conducted a single-center, quasi-experimental study to evaluate the effects of a nudge-based ASP in reducing unnecessary third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) prescriptions in a pediatric primary emergency care center (PEC). The i...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 8, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Risk factors determining central venous access device-associated deep vein thrombosis resolution in children: a retrospective study
Conclusion: CVAD-associated DVT resolution in children in the first 6 months since diagnosis was significantly lower if the thrombosis was occlusive, if it was located in the upper extremity, head, and neck veins; if collateral circulation was seen on ultrasound in the first 45 days; and/or when the patient showed less prothrombotic risk factors at diagnosis.What is Known:•The risk factors associated with central venous access device-associated deep vein thrombosis resolution have been hardly evaluated in children.•Current guidelines suggest anticoagulation for a maximum of 3 months in provoked vein thrombosis if...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 8, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Consequences of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on infection-related hospitalizations among the pediatric population in Denmark
AbstractIt remains unknown how Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) prevention measures implemented on March 12, 2020, have affected the rate of pediatric infection-related hospitalizations in Denmark. Therefore, we investigated the rate of pediatric infection –related hospitalizations during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a retrospective cohort design and included all Danish children
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 8, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in children living with HIV: a case series study
Conclusion: Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of PDH in children living with HIV seem similar to those seen in adults, and low CD4 cell count appears to be the most important risk factor.What is Known:•Since 1987, progressive disseminated histoplasmosis has been considered an AIDS-defining illness and, although underdiagnosis is frequent, is thought to be on the top of the list of AIDS-defining illnesses in South America.•Reported experience in children is very scarce.What is New:•Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in children living with ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 8, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The prognostic implications of perioperative endogenous hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide levels in children with congenital heart disease complicated by pulmonary arterial hypertension
AbstractThe goal of this study was to measure perioperative changes in endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) complicated by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), with the goal of better monitoring these children and evaluating their prognosis. For this study, we enrolled 48 normal control cases, 48 preoperative CHD cases including 16 without PAH, 16 with mild PAH, and 16 with moderate-to-severe PAH. We additionally enrolled a cohort of 32 other children with PAH-CHD that had undergone CHD correction prior to transfer to an intensive care unit (ICU). ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 8, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Neonatal respiratory and cardiac ECMO in Europe
Conclusions: ECMO is a life support with a potential impact on long-term patients ’ outcomes. In the next years, advances in knowledge, technology, and expertise may push neonatal ECMO boundaries towards more premature and increasingly complex infants, with the final aim to reduce the burden of ECMO-related complications and improve overall patients’ outcomes.What is Known:• ECMO is a life-saving option in newborns with refractory respiratory and/or cardiac failure.• The multidisciplinary ECMO management is challenging and may expose neonates to complications with an impact on long-term outcomes.What ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 5, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A single-center observational study on clinical features and outcomes of 21 SARS-CoV-2-infected neonates from India
Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 in neonates has a wide clinical spectrum. Further studies are needed which are adequately powered to completely understand the course of this infection in neonates, its implications not only in the neonatal period but also on long-term follow-up.What is Known:•SARS-CoV-2 infection has a predilection for all age groups but with limited literature on clinical profile, outcomes, and long-term follow-up in neonates.What is New:•SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates has a wide clinical spectrum and displays a significant overlap with common neonatal conditions.•Most neonates with COVID-19 improv...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 5, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Practice variations in the management of childhood nephrotic syndrome in the Netherlands
Conclusion: Substantial variation was present in the management of nephrotic syndrome in the Netherlands. Differences were identified in steroid tapering, use of steroid coverage during stress, choice of steroid-sparing agents, and biopsy practice. To promote guideline adherence and reduce practice variation, factors driving this variation should be assessed and resolved.What is Known:•National and international guidelines are available to guide the management of childhood nephrotic syndrome.•Several aspects of the management of childhood nephrotic syndrome, including the choice of steroid-sparing drugs and biops...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 3, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The association of perinatal and clinical factors with outcomes in infants with gastroschisis —a retrospective multicenter study in Finland
Conclusion: The risk of death is increased in newborns with gastroschisis who have liver herniation, pulmonary hypoplasia, abdominal compartment syndrome, relaparotomy for perforation or necrosis, or central line –associated sepsis. Special care should be taken to minimize the risk of central line sepsis in the clinical setting.What is known:•Gastroschisis is a relatively rare congenital anomaly of the abdominal wall and its incidence is increasing.•Complex gastroschisis has been reported to increase risk of mortality and complications.What is new:•Central line sepsis was found to be independently asso...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Perianal streptococcal disease in childhood: systematic literature review
Conclusion: Perianitis is an infection with a distinctive presentation and a rather long time to diagnosis. There is a need for a wider awareness of this condition among healthcare professionals.What is Known:•Group A Streptococcus may cause perianitis in childhood.• Systemic antimicrobials (penicillin V, amoxycillin, or cefuroxime) are superior to topical treatment.What is New:•The clinical presentation is distinctive (defecation disorders, perianal pain, local itch, rectal bleeding, or fissure and a sharply demarcated perianal redness).• The time to diagnosis is usually ≥3 weeks.Recurrences occur i...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Pulmonary hypertension in extremely preterm infants: a call to standardize echocardiographic screening and follow-up policy
AbstractPulmonary hypertension (PH) is a frequent complication in extremely preterm born infants that seriously affects outcome. We aimed to describe the prevalence of PH in extremely preterm infants and the policy on screening and follow-up in the ten Dutch intensive care units (NICUs). We performed a retrospective cohort study at the University Medical Centre Groningen on infants with gestational age
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 2, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Correction to: SARS-COV-2 infection in children and newborns: a systematic review
A correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-03961-z (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - February 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Macrolides for the prevention and treatment of feeding intolerance in preterm low birth weight infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions: Erythromycin therapy, both as prophylaxis and rescue, is beneficial to reduce the time to achieve FEF in preterm LBW infants, at no higher risk of adverse events.Trial registration: PROSPERO ID: CRD42020170519 (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - January 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia —does the presence of a hernia sac improve outcome? A systematic review of published studies
AbstractEarly reports have suggested survival benefits associated with a hernia sac in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). However, these studies have included only small subsets of patients. This systematic review aimed to evaluate differences in outcomes of CDH newborns with and without a hernia sac. PubMed and Embase databases were searched using relevant key terms. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors with final selection approved by the senior author. Original search retrieved 537 papers; the final review included 8 studies (n = 837 patients). There were 168 CDH patients (20%) with a hern...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - January 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Influenza-associated myositis: a single-centre, 5-year retrospective study
Conclusion: Childhood viral myositis shows strong association with the influenza season. IAM is clinically stereotyped, age restricted, and benign in most and strongly associated with influenza B.What is Known:• Childhood viral myositis has been reported in association with influenza for decades, more frequently with influenza B and in school-aged children.What is New:• Here, we show over a 5-year period that viral myositis is strongly seasonal with up to 80% of cases attributable to influenza.• Influenza-associated myositis (IAM) typically occurs in boys, aged 5–9 years, with influenza B and is most o...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - January 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

How to minimize central line –associated bloodstream infections in a neonatal intensive care unit: a quality improvement intervention based on a retrospective analysis and the adoption of an evidence-based bundle
AbstractCentral line –associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A “bundle” is defined as a combination of evidence-based interventions that provided they are followed collectively and reliably, are proven to improve patient outcomes. The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to assess the impact of new central line insertion, dressing, and maintenance “bundles” on the rate of CLABSI and catheter-related complications. We performed a quality improvement (QI), prospective, before-after study. In the fi...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - January 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Use of probiotics in the treatment of functional abdominal pain in children —systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, no firm conclusions can be given; however,L. reuteri was proven to decrease the pain intensity in children with functional abdominal pain. Further trials regarding long-term outcomes, possibly involving longer interventions, are needed.What is Known:•Previously published systematic reviews have suggested that probiotics may have an effect on the pain in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but limited data exist on strain-specific effects.What is New:•This systematic review provides evidence on the probiotic use on the strain-specific level.•This s...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - January 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Value of serial echocardiography in diagnosing Kawasaki ’s disease
AbstractKawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis predominantly affecting the small arteries of young children. Up to 25% of untreated patients suffer from coronary artery (CA) complications. Early diagnosis and treatment is mandatory in incomplete KD to reduce the risk of coronary involvement. Between 2002 and 2018, 124 patients have been diagnosed suffering from KD at the University Children ’s Hospital Regensburg (KUNO). We assessed luminal diameters of both CAs normalized as Z-scores by 2D-echocardiography. A total of 94 patients were analyzed. Of them, 31 (33%) were affected by an incomplete form of KD. In 24...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - January 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Diagnosing skull fracture in children with closed head injury using point-of-care ultrasound vs. computed tomography scan
Conclusion: The results showed that POCUS with a portable ultrasonography machine, performed by the EM ’s physicians, have high diagnostic precision and can be considered a tool in the management of patients with closed head injury.What is Known:• Some studies have investigated the accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing skull bone fractures in children with closed head injury, but before conducting this survey, no definite evidence recommended POCUS for skull fracture in children with closed head trauma in the ED.What is New:• POCUS with a portable ultrasonography machine, performed by the EM’s physicia...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - January 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research