PERSPECTIVES Vagus Nerve Stimulation at the Interface of Brain-Gut Interactions

The vagus nerve, a key component of the cross-communication between the gut and the brain, is a major element of homeostasis sensing the "milieu intérieur" and boosting the nervous and endocrine responses to maintain the gastrointestinal health status. This nerve has anti-inflammatory properties regulating the gut through the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the release of cortisol and through a vagovagal reflex, which has an anti–tumor necrosis factor (TNF) effect called the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Stimulating this nerve is an interesting tool as a nondrug therapy for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in which brain–gut communication is dysfunctional, such as inflammatory bowel disorders and others. This review presents the rationale of vagal gastrointestinal physiology and diseases and the most recent advances in vagus nerve stimulation. It also highlights the main issues to be addressed in the future to improve this bioelectronic therapy for gastrointestinal disorders.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Bioelectronic Medicine PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Annina Seiler, Anil K. Sood, Josef Jenewein, Christopher P. FagundesAbstractChronic stress can promote tumor growth and progression through immunosuppressive effects and bi-directional interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment. β-adrenergic receptor signaling plays a critical role in mediating stress-related effects on tumor progression. Stress-related mechanisms that modulate the dissemination of tumor cells to the brain have received scant attention. Brain metastases are highly resistant to chemothera...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Chronic stress can promote tumor growth and progression through immunosuppressive effects and bi-directional interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment. β-adrenergic receptor signaling plays a critical role in mediating stress-related effects on tumor progression. Stress-related mechanisms that modulate the dissemination of tumor cells to the brain have received scant attention. Brain metastases are highly resistant to chemotherapy and contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality in various cancers, occurring in up to 20% of patients in some cancer types. Understanding the mech...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
In this paper, we present evidence in support of our hypothesis that the neuronal histaminergic system might be involved in cancer cachexia1. To build our premise, we present the research and the reasonable inferences that can be drawn from it in a section by section approach starting from one of the key issues related to cachexia, increased resting energy expenditure (REE), and progressing to the other, anorexia. Based on an extensive survey of the literature and our own deliberations on the abovementioned topics, we investigate whether histamine signaling might be the mechanism used by a tumor to hijack the body's thermo...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Carlo Fumagalli, Niccolò Maurizi, Niccolò Marchionni, Diego FornasariAbstractThe pharmacological class of β-blockers includes a plea of molecules with largely different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics with a protective effect that may span far beyond the cardiovascular system. Although all these compounds share the pharmacological blockade of the adrenergic receptors, each of them is characterized by specific pharmacological properties, including selectivity of action depending on the adrenerg...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
We cover a lot of news and announcements about digital health technologies to provide context for you. Even within The Medical Futurist team, there are favorite technologies and trends. And we thought it would be time to share the technologies we’re excited about! With advancements in exoskeleton technology, A.I.’s ever-increasing importance in healthcare and technologies like 5G and quantum computing soon going mainstream, there’s much to be excited about! Without further ado, let’s jump in! 1. Quantum Computing: faster, cheaper and safer Late last month, Google claimed “quantum suprema...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine digital health Healthcare technology digital technology Source Type: blogs
This study demonstrates for the first time that senescent cells secrete functional LTs, significantly contributing to the LTs pool known to cause or exacerbate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Against Senolytics https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/11/against-senolytics/ There is no consensus in science that is so strong as to have no heretics. So here we have an interview with a naysayer on the matter of senolytic treatments, who argues that the loss of senescent cells in aged tissues will cause more harm to long-term health than the damage they will do by remaining. To be clear, I think this to be a ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, the daily intake of chungkookjang fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens improved the gut microbiome, increased blood flow to the brain, suppressed systemic inflammation, and may reduce the susceptibility to injury from ischemic stroke in gerbils subjected to ischemic injury.Graphical abstract
Source: Food Research International - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Our world has never witnessed a time of greater promise for improving human health. Many of today’s health advances have stemmed from a long arc of discovery that begins with strong, steady support for basic science. In large part because of fundamental research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which traces its roots to 1887, Americans are living longer, healthier lives. Life expectancy for a baby born in the U.S. has risen from 47 years in 1900 to more than 78 years today. Among the advances that have helped to make this possible are a 70% decline in the U.S. death rate from cardiovascular disease ...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Healthcare medicine Source Type: news
Nanorobots swimming in blood vessels, in silico clinical trials instead of experimenting with drugs on animals and people, remote brain surgeries with the help of 5G networks – the second part of our shortlist on some astonishing ideas and innovations that could give us a glimpse into the future of medicine is ready for you to digest. Here, we’re going beyond the first part with medical tricorders, the CRISPR/Cas-9 gene-editing method, and other futuristic medical technologies to watch for. 11) In silico clinical trials against testing drugs on animals As technologies transform every aspect of healthcare,...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Artificial Intelligence E-Patients Future of Medicine Future of Pharma Genomics Health Sensors & Trackers 3d printing AI bioprinting blockchain clinical trials CRISPR digital digital health drug development genetics Innovat Source Type: blogs
Abstract PURPOSE: Recession of levator muscle can potentially decrease the severity of corneal exposure by reducing margin-reflex distance 1. The purpose of this study is evaluation of effects of levator recession on lagophthalmos in facial palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a non-comparative case series of consecutive patients with exposure keratopathy due to facial paralysis between 2012 and 2017, levator recession was performed through lid crease incision. Small-size (⩽3 mm) lateral tarsorrhaphy was performed on a case-by-case basis for those with moderate-to-severe keratopathy. Preoperative and postoperat...
Source: European Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Eur J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
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