Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1028: The Central Contributions of Breast Cancer Stem Cells in Developing Resistance to Endocrine Therapy in Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Positive Breast Cancer

Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1028: The Central Contributions of Breast Cancer Stem Cells in Developing Resistance to Endocrine Therapy in Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Positive Breast Cancer Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers11071028 Authors: David Rodriguez Marc Ramkairsingh Xiaozeng Lin Anil Kapoor Pierre Major Damu Tang Breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) play critical roles in the acquisition of resistance to endocrine therapy in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER + ve) breast cancer (BC). The resistance results from complex alterations involving ER, growth factor receptors, NOTCH, Wnt/β-catenin, hedgehog, YAP/TAZ, and the tumor microenvironment. These mechanisms are likely converged on regulating BCSCs, which then drive the development of endocrine therapy resistance. In this regard, hormone therapies enrich BCSCs in ER + ve BCs under both pre-clinical and clinical settings along with upregulation of the core components of “stemness” transcriptional factors including SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4. SOX2 initiates a set of reactions involving SOX9, Wnt, FXY3D, and Src tyrosine kinase; these reactions stimulate BCSCs and contribute to endocrine resistance. The central contributions of BCSCs to endocrine resistance regulated by complex mechanisms offer a unified strategy to counter the resistance. ER + ve BCs constitute approximately 75% of BCs to which hormone therapy is the major therapeutic approach. Likewise, resistance to endocrine therapy remains the ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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