Adult Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone and Its Regulation After Ischemic Stroke: Implications for Therapeutic Approaches

AbstractAdult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone is a topic of intense research, since it has vast implications for the fundamental understanding of the neurobiology of the brain and its potential to being harnessed for therapy in various neurological disorders. Investigation of adult neurogenesis has been complicated by the difficulties with characterization of neural stem cells in vivo. However, recent single-cell transcriptomic studies provide more detailed information on marker expression in neural stem cells and their neuronal lineage, which hopefully will result in a more unified discussion. Regulation of the multiple biological steps in adult neurogenesis comprises intrinsic mechanisms as well as extrinsic factors which together orchestrate the process. In this review, we describe the regulating factors and their cellular sources in the physiological condition and provide an overview of the regulating factors mediating stroke-induced stimulation of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone. While there is ongoing debate about the longevity of active post-natal neurogenesis in humans, the subventricular zone has the capacity to upregulate neurogenesis in response to ischemic stroke. Though, the stroke-induced neurogenesis in humans does not seem to translate into adequate functional recovery, which opens discussion about potential treatment strategies to harness this neuroregenerative response. Various therapeutic approaches are explored in preclinical and clinical s...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Julius Griauzde, Vijay M. Ravindra, Neeraj Chaudhary, Joseph J. Gemmete, Aditya S. PandeyAbstractMechanical thrombectomy is now at the forefront of the treatment of large vessel acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Selective intra-arterial (IA) access has opened a new avenue for neuroprotection in AIS that has the potential to maximize local benefit while minimizing systemic effects. On a cellular level, neuroprotective strategies are aimed at reducing inflammation and free-radical formation, maintaining blood-brain barrier fidelity...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
We examined 9293 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of total cholesterol, free- and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and particle concentration. Fourteen subclasses of decreasing size and their lipid constituents were analysed: six subclasses were very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), one intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), three low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and four subclasses were high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Remnant lipoproteins were VLDL and IDL combined. Mean nonfasting cholesterol concentration was 72‚...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of disability and mortality worldwide, but effective restorative treatments are very limited at present. Regenerative medicine research revealed that stem cells are promising therapeutic options. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are autologously applicable cells that origin from the neural crest and exhibit neuro-ectodermal features next to multilineage differentiation potentials. DPSCs are of increasing interest since they are relatively easy to obtain, exhibit a strong proliferation ability, and can be cryopreserved for a long time without losing their multi-directional differentiation capa...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study provides novel insight into the involvement of VEGF/VEGF-A in the pathogenesis of CADASIL and sheds light on the mechanism underlying the SCF+G-CSF-enhanced brain repair in CADASIL. PMID: 31376480 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
This article reviews the progress that has been made in the development of cell therapies for the repair of nervous system damage caused by strokes, since the first report on the use of cell transplants in animal models of ischemic brain injury in 1988. At that time neural progenitor cells derived from fetal brain tissue were used as sources of cells to replace specific subsets of neuronal cells that were lost in various regions of the brain following experimentally induced strokes. Since 1988, cells from other sources, such as embryonic stem cells and inducible pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated for their abil...
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
Cell Death &Disease, Published online: 22 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41419-019-1798-4Homocysteine enhances neural stem cell autophagy in in vivo and in vitro model of ischemic stroke
Source: Cell death and disease - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Here a membrane ‚Äźcoating approach to display large transmembrane protein receptors to the surface of nanoparticles for drug delivery to the brain is developed and validated. The study also establishes a new formulation of glyburide that can be translated into clinical applications to improve clinical management of brain injuries. AbstractCell membrane coating has recently emerged as a promising biomimetic approach to engineering nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted drug delivery. However, simple cell membrane coating may not meet the need for efficient drug delivery to the brain. Here, a novel molecular engineering strategy ...
Source: Small - Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research
In this study, we identify a link between members of the genus Veillonella and exercise performance. We observed an increase in Veillonella relative abundance in marathon runners postmarathon and isolated a strain of Veillonella atypica from stool samples. Inoculation of this strain into mice significantly increased exhaustive treadmill run time. Veillonella utilize lactate as their sole carbon source, which prompted us to perform a shotgun metagenomic analysis in a cohort of elite athletes, finding that every gene in a major pathway metabolizing lactate to propionate is at higher relative abundance postexercise. Us...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractBackgroundWhile multiple trials have employed stereotactic stem cell transplantation, injection techniques have received little critical attention. Precise cell delivery is critical for certain applications, particularly when targeting deep nuclei.MethodsTen patients with a history of ischemic stroke underwent CT-guided stem cell transplantation. Cells were delivered along 3 tracts adjacent to the infarcted area. Intraoperative air deposits and postoperative T2-weighted MRI fluid signals were mapped in relation to calculated targets.ResultsThe deepest air deposit was found 4.5  ± 1.0 mm (m...
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
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