Current perspective on the role of insulin and glucagon in the pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Current perspective on the role of insulin and glucagon in the pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Pharmacol. 2019;11:57-65 Authors: Ojha A, Ojha U, Mohammed R, Chandrashekar A, Ojha H Abstract According to the World Health Organization, 422 million adults worldwide live with diabetes mellitus (DM), a significant portion of whom have type 2 diabetes. The discovery of insulin as a key regulator of glucose metabolism has revolutionized our understanding of DM and provided several therapeutic avenues. Most studies have so far predominantly focused on the role of insulin in type 2 diabetes. However, the balance between insulin and glucagon is essential in ensuring glucose homeostasis. In this review, we begin by evaluating the principal differences between insulin and glucagon with regard to their mechanism and control of their secretion. Next, we discuss their mode of action and effects on metabolism. We further explore how the two hormones impact the natural history of type 2 diabetes. Finally, we outline how current and emerging pharmacological agents attempt to exploit the properties of insulin and glucagon to benefit patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID: 31191043 [PubMed]
Source: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThus, CHM may help prevent T2DM-related complications in patients with PCOS. Further clinical and pharmacological analysis based on these findings is expected in the future.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Authors: Patil MB, Ragav ED Abstract Introduction: Type-2 Diabetes is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by variable degrees of insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and increased glucose production. Obese diabetic patients have 13.5% more chances of developing diabetic complications compared to non - obese diabetic patients. Vitamin D has found to be deficient in diabetic patient and it's role in insulin regulation. Obese females are more prone to develop diabetic complications and hypovitaminosis-D. Materials and Method: Total of 156 female diabetic patients aged 30 to 60 years who are...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of GDM among antenatal women attending a rural secondary care hospital in southern India and attempts to study associations between anthropometry, parental history, physical activity of pregnant women and GDM. Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study was done among 630 pregnant women who were screened with oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation based on IADPSG criteria. Risk factors for developing GDM were assessed by conducting home visits to 75 women diagnosed to have GDM and 150 randomly selected women without GDM. Results: Hospital b...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Authors: Bhagat AK, Bhardwaj H, Bhardwaj BL, Goyal S, Jaura S, Jain P Abstract Introduction: Cataract represents one of the most frequent eye complications in type 1 DM and type 2 DM patients; contrarily, acute cataract in young diabetic patients occurs very rarely. Only few cases with acute bilateral cataract - all relatively shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 DM have been reported. It can affect visual acuity from slight visual impairment to complete blindness. Although usually associated with chronic hyperglycaemia, it may also occur on rapid restoration of euglycaemia.1 Early detection of diabetes and adequa...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
 Targeting Glycemic Level in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus to that of Normal Pregnancy would result in a better Maternal-Fetal Outcome. J Assoc Physicians India. 2019 Apr;67(4):66-70 Authors: Seshiah V, Kapur A, Balaji V, Shah SN, Das AK, Diwakar H, Banerjee S, Anjalakshi C Abstract Abstract: Women with a history of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of future diabetes and related Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) as are their offspring. "Transgenerational transmission occurs". Independent of genetic risk, offspring of hyperglycaemic pregnancies are at increased risk...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
 Study of Impact of Glycemic Status (HbA1c) on Platelet Activity measured by Mean Platelet Volume &Vascular Complications in Diabetics. J Assoc Physicians India. 2019 Apr;67(4):26-29 Authors: Saluja M, Swami YK, Meena SR Abstract Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a global pandemic. The increased platelet activity may play a role in the development of vascular complications of this metabolic disorder. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is an indicator of the average size and activity of platelets. Larger platelets are younger and exhibit more activity. Aims and Objectives: To determine the MPV...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
We describe the implementation, clinical outcomes and participant perspectives for e-Healthystrides©. Setting: Three independent ambulatory clinics and an historic African American (AA) church. Participants: Adults with diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2. Intervention: e-Healthystrides© health coach facilitated intervention. Primary outcome: Acquisition of three new self-management behaviors. Secondary outcomes: Blood pressure, blood glucose, A1c, attrition rate and participant perspectives of e-Healthystrides©. Methods: A convergent parallel mixed method design was used in both pilot...
Source: Ethnicity and Disease - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Ethn Dis Source Type: research
by Barbara Daly, Konstantinos A. Toulis, Neil Thomas, Krishna Gokhale, James Martin, Jonathan Webber, Deepi Keerthy, Kate Jolly, Ponnusamy Saravanan, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn addition to conventional oral glucose-lowering drugs, additional tofogliflozin administration had a favorable effect on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with T2DM.
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) vary in different regions. Long-term nationwide epidemiological data are useful to assess trends over time. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiological changes of pharmacologically treated T2DM among people aged over 18 years in Hungary between 2001 and 2016.
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
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