Evaluation of environment safety of a Japanese encephalitis live attenuated vaccine

Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Xinyu Liu, Lili Jia, Kaixiao Nie, Danhua Zhao, Rui Na, Hongshan Xu, Gong Cheng, Junzhi Wang, Yongxin Yu, Yuhua LiAbstractJE vaccination is the most effective and economical method of preventing JE. A live attenuated JE vaccine has been widely used in many countries since 1989, playing an important role in controlling JE outbreaks. However, whether the large-scale use of the live attenuated JE vaccine will lead to the dissemination of the vaccine virus in the environment and whether reversion of the neuroattenuation of the virus will occur during the transmission process remain major concerns for some researchers. To evaluate the transmission of a live attenuated JEV vaccine in mosquitoes and hosts, JE SA14-14-2 attenuated vaccine virus was intrathoracically (i.t.) inoculated into Culex tritaeniorhynchus, a native vector. Subsequently, virus harvested from inoculated mosquitoes was inoculated into pigs, a mammalian reservoir. The virus was isolated from the pigs and passaged once again in Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The genome sequences and virulence of the passaged viruses were then investigated. While a few nucleotide substitutions occurred during passaging, there was no change in the encoded amino acids. After intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of mice with the vaccine, no pathological effects were observed. In addition, virus virulence remained low after inoculation of suckling mouse brains. These resul...
Source: Biologicals - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne viral infection which is prevalent in Taiwan. The virus circulates in an enzootic cycle in pigs which serve as amplifying hosts. Outbreaks typically occur during summer. A universal vaccination program using 4-shot mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has successfully controlled JE epidemics in Taiwan since 1968. More than 90% of JE cases in recent years were older than 20 years in Taiwan. Because of several drawbacks, mouse brain-derived vaccine has been replaced by newer generation JE vaccines, including inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine and live chimeric vaccine.
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Andrew M. Skidmore, Robert S. Adcock, Colleen B. Jonsson, Jennifer E. Golden, Dong-Hoon ChungAbstractVenezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is endemic to the Americas. VEEV outbreaks occur periodically and cause encephalitis in both humans and equids. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines for treatment of VEEV in humans. Our group has previously reported on the development of a benzamidine VEEV inhibitor, ML336, which shows potent antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. In...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is endemic to the Americas. VEEV outbreaks occur periodically and cause encephalitis in both humans and equids. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines for treatment of VEEV in humans. Our group has previously reported on the development of a benzamidine VEEV inhibitor, ML336, which shows potent antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. In cell culture experiments, ML336 inhibits viral RNA synthesis when added 2-4 h post-infection, and mutations conferring resistance occur within the viral nonstructural ...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Protein Expression and PurificationAuthor(s): Jae-Won Choi, Hyo-Ji Eom, Hak Yong KimAbstractJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a member of the Flavivirus genus and has recently attracted attention as a high-risk pathogen in the Asia-Pacific region, with up to 30% mortality in the afflicted patients. Recent outbreaks of flavivirus-associated infections around the world have put the focus on non-structural protein 1 (NS1) as a candidate for diagnostic and vaccine researches on flaviviruses. Although the JEV NS1 protein has been expressed in eukaryotic cells, attemp...
Source: Protein Expression and Purification - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
athieu Measles remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide among vaccine preventable diseases. Recent decline in vaccination coverage resulted in re-emergence of measles outbreaks. Measles virus (MeV) infection causes an acute systemic disease, associated in certain cases with central nervous system (CNS) infection leading to lethal neurological disease. Early following MeV infection some patients develop acute post-infectious measles encephalitis (APME), which is not associated with direct infection of the brain. MeV can also infect the CNS and cause sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in immuno...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Flaviviruses are group of single stranded RNA viruses that cause severe endemic infection and epidemics on a global scale. It presents a significant health impact worldwide and the viruses have the potential to emerge and outbreak in a non-endemic geographical region. Effective vaccines for prophylaxis are only available for several flaviviruses such as Yellow Fever virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Dengue Virus and Japanese Encephalitis Virus and there is no antiflaviviral agent being marketed. This review discusses the flavivirus genome, replication cycle, epidemiology, clinical presentation and pat...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
The TWiV team covers outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the US and poliovirus in the Philippines, and explain how a chemokine induced by HIV-1 infection helps release more virus particles from cells. Click arrow to play Download TWiV 567 (68 MB .mp3, 112 min) Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Show notes at microbe.tv/twiv
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: This Week in Virology ALIX alphavirus CCL2 chemokine cytoskeleton eastern equine encephalitis virus EEE ESCRT HIV-1 IPV OPV outbreak poliovirus togavirus vaccine viral virus budding viruses Source Type: blogs
(This post has been updated with relevant recent information.) The United States was declared free from ongoing measles transmission in 2000. But we may be at risk for joining the UK Greece, Albania, and the Czech Republic, four countries recently stripped of measles elimination status by the World Health Organization. Since the beginning of 2019, more than 1,234 measles cases have been reported in 31 states, with active outbreaks in upstate New York and El Paso, Texas. New York has just declared the end of its yearlong outbreak, which required a massive public health response to control. Minnesota had a major measles outb...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Infectious diseases Prevention Travel health Source Type: blogs
Nipah virus is an emerging pathogenic paramyxovirus responsible for sporadic and isolated outbreaks of severe respiratory and neurologic disease in Southern Asia. As a zoonotic virus, disease can manifest in both animals and human with indigenous fruit bats acting as natural reservoirs of the virus. The effects of viral infection vary from acute respiratory distress to fatal encephalitis. There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines against the virus, and growing concerns that this highly pathogenic infection has the potential to cause larger epidemics capable of inflicting significant mortality burden.Like the...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Ochani RK, Batra S, Shaikh A, Asad A Abstract The Nipah virus was discovered twenty years ago, and there is considerable information available regarding the specificities surrounding this virus such as transmission, pathogenesis and genome. Belonging to the Henipavirus genus, this virus can cause fever, encephalitis and respiratory disorders. The first cases were reported in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998, when affected individuals presented with severe febrile encephalitis. Since then, much has been identified about this virus. These single-stranded RNA viruses gain entry into target cells via a process k...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
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