Effect of inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae as non-pathogenic particles on the severity of pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Aki Miyauchi, Wataru Watanabe, Toshi Akashi, Seiko Hashiguchi, Hiroki Yoshida, Chihiro Sugita, Masahiko KurokawaABSTRACTThe severity of pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is strongly related to host immune response and external factors such as bacteria and environmental chemicals. We investigated the effect of inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae (ISP) as non-pathogenic particles on the severity of pneumonia in RSV-infected mice. Mice were intranasally exposed to ISP before RSV infection. On day 5 post-infection, we examined the lung tissues, virus titer, and infiltrated cells in the lungs. The ISP did not cause significant histopathological effects on lungs of RSV-infected mice and reduced virus titer in the lungs. It reduced the ratio of lymphocyte infiltration into the lungs and consequently the ratio of macrophage increased. In addition, we found that ISP increased RANTES level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from RSV-infected mice on day 1 post-infection, but reduced type I interferon levels. Thus, ISP did not exacerbate pneumonia in RSV infection; rather, it might mildly reduce the severity. We characterize and discuss the inherent activity of ISP as non-pathogenic particles inducing the role of RANTES on the pneumonia in RSV infection.Graphical abstract
The Food and Drug Administration approved Nabriva Therapeutics' drug application for its antibiotic Xenleta. Xenleta treats community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), a leading cause of infection-related deaths in the United States. Nabriva's stock was up 20% at $2.67 per share in after-hours trading Monday. According to the company, about 5 million cases of pneumonia are reported in the United Sta tes each year, and pneumonia is the fifth-leading cause of hospitalizations. Nabriva said Xenleta…
The new semisynthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic will be available for oral and IV administration with a short 5- to 7-day course of therapy for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP).FDA Approvals
The FDA approved Xenleta (lefamulin) to treat adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.
Nabriva Therapeutics Plc on Monday priced an oral and injectable version of its antibiotic Xenleta, which treats community-acquired pneumonia, at more than $200 per day after it received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Conditions: Mechanical Ventilation Complication; Ventilator Associated Pneumonia; Nursing Caries; Aspiration, Respiratory Interventions: Device: Smart Cuff Manager; Device: Manometer Sponsors: Afyonkarahisar University of Health Sciences; The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey; Afyonkarahisar Health Sciences University Hospital Recruiting
ConclusionsThis study suggests that chronic respiratory diseases and shortness of breath are independent risk factors for influenza B virus–associated pneumonia in adult patients.
ConclusionsIn this retrospective analysis of our clinical experience treating CRE infections in an LTACH setting, we documented that CRE infections occur in patients with substantial comorbidities. Although clinical outcome remains of great concern, the 28-day mortality and rate of eradication of CRE in this study were comparatively better than other national estimates. Inappropriate empiric treatment may be one of many factors leading to overall poor treatment outcomes.
In this study, C.burnetii was isolated by cell culture method from the heart valve tissue of a Q fever endocarditis case. C.burnetii phase I antigen for the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was prepared from the isolated strain. For the isolation and identification of C.burnetii, heart valve tissue of the patient was homogenized and DNA was extracted by tissue extraction kit. C.burnetii DNA in the valve tissue was determined by real-time PCR (Rt-PCR). This C.burnetii DNA positive specimen was inoculated into Vero cells by shell vial centrifugation method. The scraped Vero cells were fixed on the slides after one w...
Abstract PURPOSE: A novel automatic discontinuation policy implemented within an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is described, and results of an evaluation of the policy's effects on antibiotic usage are reported. METHODS: A retrospective, before-and-after study was conducted at an 800-bed, tertiary care, academic teaching hospital to evaluate selected antibiotic usage outcomes in both intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU adult patients targeted for ASP interventions before and after implementation of an automatic discontinuation of antibiotics policy (ADAP) authorizing the ASP team to automatically ...
Conclusions: We show an increased risk of diarrhea and pneumonia for HEU vs. HUU infants and children. Although we acknowledge, and commend, the immense public health success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission, we now have an enlarging population of children that seem to be vulnerable to not only death, but increased morbidity. We need to turn our attention to understanding the underlying mechanism and designing effective public health solutions. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate possible underlying immunological and/or sociological mechanisms that explain these differences in morbidity.