Quantification of aflatoxin M1 carry-over rate from feed to soft cheese
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): D. Costamagna, M. Gaggiotti, C.A. Chiericatti, L. Costabel, G.M.L. Audero, M. Taverna, M.L. SignoriniGraphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Natural combination of phenolic glycosides from fruits resists pro-oxidant insults to colon cells and enhances intrinsic antioxidant status in mice
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Soorya Parathodi Illam, Ashif Hussain, Anu Elizabeth, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Achuthan C. RaghavamenonAbstractA combination of fresh fruits adequately supplying required nutrients is likely to have better health benefits by virtue of the synergistic/additive effect of its natural constituents. With this view and aiming to obtain phenolic glycosides in combination, fresh apple, grape, orange, pomegranate, and sapota fruit juices were combined and lyophilized. An aqueous extract of this fruit combination (AEFC) had polyphenols as a major...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Quantifying association between liver tumor incidence and early-stage liver weight increase – An NTP data analysis
In this study, the association between liver weight increase and liver tumor incidence are quantified by (1) calculating the correlation coefficient of and (2) building quantitative linear relationship between benchmark dose estimates derived from these two types of data collected from NTP studies. Together with 151 chemical/species/sex combinations of liver tumor data showing positive evidence collected from 76 NTP long-term studies, short-term liver weight data reported in the same NTP report were extracted to be paired with the liver tumor data for the analyses. Results show that the estimated correlation coefficients (...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Alternaria host-specific (HSTs) toxins: An overview of chemical characterization, target sites, regulation and their toxic effects
This article will elucidate an understanding of the disease mechanism caused by several Alternaria HSTs on host plants and also the pathways of the toxins and how they caused disease in plants.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A Cashew Specific Monoclonal Antibody Recognizing the Small Subunit of Ana o 3
Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Christopher P. Mattison, Barry Vant-Hull, Yvette Bren-Mattison, Casey C. GrimmAbstractFood allergies represent a substantial medical liability and preventing accidental exposure to food allergens requires constant attention. Allergic reaction to cashew nuts is frequently serious, and the small 2S albumin, Ana o 3, is an immuno-dominant cashew allergen. Ana o 3 is composed of five alpha helices, contains 2 subunits linked by cysteine disulfide bonds, and remains soluble even after extensive heating of cashew nuts. The stability and solubilit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Chemical Profile and In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation of Unripe Citrus Aurantifolia Essential Oil
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Christian K. Adokoh, Du-Bois Asante, Desmond O. Acheampong, Yohei Kotsuchibashi, Francis A. Armah, Ignatius H. Sirikyi, Keisuke Kimura, Edward Gmakame, Sey Abdul-RaufAbstractCitrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle (syn. C. MEDICA var. ACIDA Brandis) (family: Rutaceae) essential oil is one of the local and cheapest oil found in the market. Although, it is generally accepted as non-toxic to vital organs and cells, majority of people are cynical about it usage. Herein, the present paper reports the chemical composition and in vivo oral toxicity...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective role of (Bronco-T) against formaldehyde induced antioxidant, oxidative and histopathological changes in Lung of male Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Sholapuri Payani, Cherlopalli Mamatha, Chinta Chandraprakash, Matcha BhaskarAbstractThe present study was sought to evaluate the oxidative, antioxidant disturbances and histopathological changes by the acute chronic exposure of formaldehyde. Bronco-T a poly-herbal formulation treatment, changes the oxidative, antioxidant status and histopathology of rat lungs with antioxidant and regenerative property. In this experiment thirty adult male albino Wister rats were used for the study and subdivided in to five groups consist of 6 rats for each ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Renoprotective effects of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), amlodipine, valsartan, and losartan in gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat model: Biochemical, hematological and histological approaches
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Farhana Rizwan, Saquiba Yesmine, Sultana Gulshana Banu, Ishtiak Ahmed Chowdhury, Rajibul Hasan, Tapan Kumar ChatterjeeAbstractThe current study investigated the renoprotective effects of stevia, angiotensin-II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker and calcium (Ca2+) channel blocker in gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat models. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats of eight weeks old were taken for the experiment: sham control, nephrotoxicity, treatment with amlodipine (4 mg/kg/day); stevia (200 mg/kg/day); losartan (15 m...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Quantifying Association between Liver Tumor Incidence and Early-stage Liver Weight Increase -- An NTP Data Analysis
In this study, the association between liver weight increase and liver tumor incidence are quantified by (1) calculating the correlation coefficient of and (2) building quantitative linear relationship between benchmark dose estimates derived from these two types of data collected from NTP studies. Together with 151 chemical/species/sex combinations of liver tumor data showing positive evidence collected from 76 NTP long-term studies, short-term liver weight data reported in the same NTP report were extracted to be paired with the liver tumor data for the analyses. Results show that the estimated correlation coefficients (...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 9, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepato-Renal protective Effects of Egyptian Purslane Extract against Experimental Cadmium Toxicity in Rats with Special Emphasis on the Functional and Histopathological Changes
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Mohamed M. Seif, Abdel-Naser Madboli, Diaa A. Marrez, Wael M.K. AboulthanaAbstractThe study was designed to clarify the hapato-nephroprotective effects of purslane ethanolic extract (PEE) against cadmium toxicity. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal. Cd occurs as environmental and food/ feed contamination causing public and animals health hazards. Liver and kidney are the main target organs for acute and chronic cadmium toxicity. Portulaca oleracea is rich in several vitamins, minerals, antioxidant components, and omega-3 fatty acids mainly α-linole...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity effects of acute and sub-acute oral administration of unripe ackee (Blighia sapida) fruit extract
This study was designed to identify potential mechanisms of acute and sub-acute toxicity of unripe B. sapida fruit extract (BSE).Acute toxic effect was investigated in mice of either sex administered BSE 2000 mg/kg. The sub-acute toxicity effects were investigated in mice of either sex that received 28 days repeated administration of BSE (100 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.). Locomotor activity and memory performance were measured as well as seizure vulnerability in PTZ-induced model. Liver enzymes were assessed in the serum. Acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress parameters and histopathological changes were assessed in...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicokinetics of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane-1-sulphonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in male and female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats after intravenous and gavage administration
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): M.C. Huang, A.L. Dzierlenga, V.G. Robinson, S. Waidyanatha, M.J. DeVito, M.A. Eifrid, C.A. Granville, S.T. Gibbs, C.R. BlystoneAbstractPerfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent contaminants that have been detected in the environment and in humans. With the PFAS chemical class, there are perfluorinated alkyl acids, many of which have been associated with certain toxicities. Because toxicity testing cannot feasibly be conducted for each individual PFAS, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) designed studies to compare toxicities a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pharmacological safety of Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel in rabbits
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Rhanany Alan Calloi Palozi, Lucas Pires Guarnier, Paulo Vitor Moreira Romão, Samara Requena Nocchi, Carlos Calixto dos Santos, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Denise Brentan Silva, Francielly Mourão Gasparotto, Arquimedes GasparottoAbstractFruit peels of Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel are widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine, but no studies have proved the safety of its pharmacological effects on the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. The present study assessed the safety pharmacology of...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exercise benefits the cardiac, autonomic and inflammatory responses to organophosphate toxicity
Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Jacqueline Freire Machi, Rodrigo Schmidt, Luis M Salgueiro, Filipe Fernandes Stoyell-Conti, Catarina de Andrade Barboza, Diana Rosa Hernandez, Mariana MorrisAbstractThe organophosphate, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), may impair cardiovascular, autonomic and immune function while exercise training is thougt to be restorative. Experiments determined effects of wheel exercise in C57B1 male mice, testing cardiovascular and autonomic function and characterization of the immunological profile. Sedentary (S) and exercise (ET) groups were treat...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepato–Renal Protective Effects of Egyptian Purslane Extract against Experimental Cadmium Toxicity in Rats with Special Emphasis on the Functional and Histopathological Changes
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Mohamed SeifAbstractThe study was designed to clarify the hapato-nephroprotective effects of purslane ethanolic extract (PEE) against cadmium toxicity. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal. Cd occurs as environmental and food/ feed contamination causing public and animals health hazards. Liver and kidney are the main target organs for acute and chronic cadmium toxicity. Portulaca oleracea is rich in several vitamins, minerals, antioxidant components, and omega-3 fatty acids mainly α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Results sho...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Icariin-mediated activation of autophagy confers protective effect on rotenone induced neurotoxicity in vivo and in vitro
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Ru Zeng, Qian Zhou, Wei Zhang, Xiaolong Fu, Qin Wu, Yuanfu Lu, Jingshan Shi, Shaoyu ZhouAbstractRotenone (ROT) is an environmental neurotoxin which has been demonstrated to cause characteristic loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Icariin (ICA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from Herba Epimedii that has been shown to display neuroprotective functions. The present study evaluated protective effects of ICA on ROT-induced neurotoxicity and determined the modulation of ICA on the regulation of autophagy in vivo an...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 26, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Proposing new approaches for the risk characterisation of single chemicals and chemical mixtures: The Source Related Hazard Quotient (HQS) and Hazard Index (HIS) and the Adversity Specific Hazard Index (HIA)
In this study, we present an analysis based on the individual critical effects, in order to derive the critical effect and an adversity specific Hazard Index (HIA) and risk characterisation for the whole mixture. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 23, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Elevated reproductive toxicity effects of diclofenac after withdrawal: Investigation of the therapeutic role of melatonin
In conclusion, the reproductive toxicity effects of DF seem to escalate after withdrawal; however, these effects could be attenuated by treatment with melatonin. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective Efficacy Using Cape- Golden Berry against Pre-carcinogenic Aflatoxins Induced in Rats
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Ahmed Noah Badr, Mohamed NaeemAbstractAflatoxins are harmful compounds that induced carcinogenic impacts on tissues. It could generate oxidative stress causing cells damage. Bioactive substances from natural plants could avoid mycotoxins’ bad impacts. Cape-goldenberry (CGB), a source of active substances, was vacuum-dried at 30 °C then milled. Fresh and dried CGB-powder properties were estimated. Animal experiment was designed using six rat-groups to evaluate CBG effect to reduce harmful effect of aflatoxins. Rats treated g...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 20, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pulmonary thrombosis in acute organophosphate poisoning—Case report and literature overview of prothrombotic preconditioning in organophosphate toxicity
ConclusionAcute organophosphate poisoning treated with atropine showed a potential for inducing prothrombotic coagulation abnormalities, presented with PT. This life-threatening complication may additionally contribute to prolonged morbidity and mortality in OP poisonings, especially in patients with medical history of comorbidites. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Gallic acid protects rat liver mitochondria ex vivo from bisphenol A induced oxidative stress mediated damages
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Mousumi Dutta, Goutam PaulAbstractHumans are often exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, through BPA contaminated drinking water, beverages and foods, packaged in polycarbonate plastic bottles and cans coated with epoxy resins due to leaching. Several research groups have reported that BPA may cause damage of mitochondria in liver, kidney, heart and brain cells by inducing oxidative stress. The antioxidant efficacy of gallic acid (GA), a polyphenol compound obtained from plants, against differ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 18, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

PULMONARY THROMBOSIS IN ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING - Case report and literature overview of prothrombotic preconditioning in organophosphate toxicity
ConclusionAcute organophosphate poisoning treated with atropine showed a potential for inducing prothrombotic coagulation abnormalities, presented with PT. This life-threatening complication may additionally contribute to prolonged morbidity and mortality in OP poisonings, especially in patients with medical history of comorbidites. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Elevated reproductive toxicity effect of diclofenac after withdrawal: Investigation of the therapeutic role of melatonin
In conclusion, the reproductive toxicity effects of DF seems to escalate after withdrawal;however, this effect could be attenuated using melatonin. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Anticancer effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, genetic damage and apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cancer cells
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Arumugam P., Arunkumar K., Sivakumar L., Murugan M., Murugan K.AbstractThe centre of the attraction of this article is inevitably associated with fucoidan polymers in terms of brown seaweed such as Turbinaria conoides. Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide constitutes fucose as a major principle sugar along with other monosugars such as glucuronic acid, xylose and galactose. The core value of fucoidan in terms of various cancer types were substantially exhibited through targeting the key apoptotic molecules and subsequently mitigate the to...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Impacts of Prolonged Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Locomotion and Slow-and Fast- Twitch Skeletal Muscles Contractility in Rats
ConclusionExposure to chlorpyrifos can alter the locomotion and produce physiological changes in a dose and muscle type related manner. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 14, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Synthesized Nano particle derivation of poly (Styrene – co- Maleic Anhydride) and Sour Cherry Rock for removing Nickel (II) ion from aqueous solutions
In this study, Prunus Cerasus Rock (PCR) and Poly (Styrene – co- Maleic Anhydride) modified with Melamine-Oxalic acid (SMA-MO) were used to prepare a cheap adsorbent through chemical modification. The maximum removal was observed at pH = 6.0 and adsorbent dose 1.5 g/L for initial Nickel -ions concentration 30 mg/L. Study of temperature effect proved that the process is endothermic. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for equilibrium adsorption data. Langmuir isotherm proved to be a better fit. Pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetic models were applied to analyze t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure assessment of heavy metal residues in some Egyptian fruits
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): May M. Amer, Bassem A. Sabry, Diaa A. Marrez, Amal S. Hathout, Ahmed S.M. FouzyAbstractHeavy metals are considered a main public health hazards, they are known to accumulate in fruits, which are heavily consumed by humans because of their unique sweet taste and potential health benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the possible contamination levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in some selected fruits obtained from four Egyptian governorates and to compare the contamination leve...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of standardized Kaempferia parviflora extract: Sub-chronic and mutagenicity studies
The objective of this study was to investigate the safety profile of a standardized hydroalcoholic KP rhizome extract via mutagenicity and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations using in vitro and in vivo techniques. The in vitro mutagenicity of KP extract was assessed via reverse mutation tests using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA. The sub-chronic toxicity profile was evaluated after daily oral administration of KP extract to Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. General toxicological parameters were monitored weekly. After the treatment period, blood was collected for hematolog...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms as determinants of pesticide toxicity: recent advances
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Michele Teodoro, Giusi Briguglio, Concettina Fenga, Chiara CostaAbstractOccupational and environmental exposure to pesticides may induce harmful effects on human health by promoting the development of a wide range of disorders. Some of the most recently hypothesized mechanisms are oxidative stress and epigenetic modifications, however biological effects seem to be modulated mainly by the occurrence of genetic polymorphisms. The susceptibility to exposure can be evaluated by studying the most common polymorphisms of genes involved in the meta...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ameliorative effect of gallic acid in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Satbir Kaur, Arunachalam MuthuramanAbstractThe present study has been investigated the role of gallic acid (GA) in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. The neuropathic pain was developed with paclitaxel (PT: 2 mg/kg, i.p.) administration in mice. GA (20 and 40 mg/kg) and pregabalin (PreG: 5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously for 10 consecutive days. The neuralgic sensations were investigated by assessing various pain tests like acetone drop, pinprick, plantar, tail flick, and tail pinch test. Mice pain behaviors were...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Aromatic ginger (Kaempferia galanga L.) extracts with ameliorative and protective potential as a functional food, beyond its flavor and nutritional benefits
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Nupur Srivastava, Ranjana, Shilpi Singh, Amit Chand Gupta, Karuna Shanker, Dnyaneshwar U Baw.ule, Suaib LuqmanAbstractAromatic ginger (Kaempferia galanga, L) is native to India and believed to be originated in Burma. Despite substantial uses in a pickle and south-east Asian cuisines, aromatic ginger is chemically less studied than white and red ginger. Multi-directional investigations have been performed to evaluate chemical composition, nutritional values, ameliorative and protective potential of Aromatic ginger (Kaempferia galanga) rhizome...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 5, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety Effect of Fractions from Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum gratissimum on Reproduction in Male Wistar Rats
This study evaluates the reproductive toxicity of ethyl acetate and butanolic fractions from crude methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum in male Wistar rats. Acute toxicity was assessed to determine the safety dose, Sub-chronic reproductive toxicity studies were carried out by administering daily 25, 100 and 400 mg/kg body weight doses of the fractions to respective group of animals and 1 ml of normal saline daily for the control group for 28 days. Blood, epididymis and testes were harvested for reproductive hormones, sperm parameters, and histopathologic analysis respectively. There was significant (P 
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 2, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae as non-pathogenic particles on the severity of pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Aki Miyauchi, Wataru Watanabe, Toshi Akashi, Seiko Hashiguchi, Hiroki Yoshida, Chihiro Sugita, Masahiko KurokawaABSTRACTThe severity of pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is strongly related to host immune response and external factors such as bacteria and environmental chemicals. We investigated the effect of inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae (ISP) as non-pathogenic particles on the severity of pneumonia in RSV-infected mice. Mice were intranasally exposed to ISP before RSV infection. On day 5 post-infection, we exa...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 2, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid receptor-dependent induction of cripto-1 (one-eyed pinhead) inhibits zebrafish caudal fin regeneration
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Michael A. Garland, Sumitra Sengupta, Lijoy K Mathew, Lisa Truong, Esther de Jong, Aldert H. Piersma, Jane La Du, Robert L TanguayAbstractWe previously used a chemical genetics approach with the larval zebrafish to identify small molecule inhibitors of tissue regeneration. This led to the discovery that glucocorticoids (GC) block early stages of tissue regeneration by the inappropriate activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We performed a microarray analysis to identify the changes in gene expression associated with beclomethasone d...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 31, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Differential gene regulation in human small airway epithelial cells grown in monoculture versus coculture with human microvascular endothelial cells following multiwalled carbon nanotube exposure
This study identified differential gene regulation in human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) grown either in monoculture or in coculture with human microvascular endothelial cells following exposure of the SAECs to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). SAEC genes that either changed their regulation direction from upregulated in monoculture to downregulated in coculture (or vice versa) or had a more than a two-fold changed in the same regulation direction were identified. Genes that changed regulation direction were most often involved in the processes of cellular growth and proliferation and cellular immune response...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparative study of Aflatoxin Contamination of Winter and Summer Ginger from the North West Province of South Africa
This study determined the occurrence and prevalence of Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 and Ochratoxin A contamination in raw ginger sold around Mahikeng, North West Province, South Africa. Samples were collected purposively from various retailers over winter and summer. The analytical procedure optimized was based on immunoaffinity column cleanup (IAC), followed by High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence (HPLC-FLC) detection. ELISA was also used for mycotoxin screening. On HPLC, the limits of detection and quantification for the four Aflatoxins were 3.9 × 10-7-1.4 × 10 -...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bioaccumulation and potential sources of heavy metal contamination in fish species in River Ganga basin: Possible human health risks evaluation
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Pradip Kumar Maurya, D.S. Malik, Krishna Kumar Yadav, Amit Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Hesam KamyabAbstractThis paper assesses the potential human health risks posed by five heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr) found in seven most consumable fish species (Cirrhinus mrigala, Cirrhinus reba, Catla catla, Lebio rohita, Crossocheilus latius, Clupisoma garua, and Mystus tengara) collected from local markets of Varanasi, Allahabad, Mirzapur, and Kanpur of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Cu concentration was found at Varanasi (4.58 mg/l), Allahabad (2....
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Association between aflatoxin-albumin adduct levels and tortilla consumption in Guatemalan adults
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): María F. Kroker-Lobos, Christian S. Alvarez, Alvaro Rivera-Andrade, Joshua W. Smith, Patricia Egner, Olga Torres, Mariana Lazo, Neal D. Freedman, Eliseo Guallar, Barry I. Graubard, Katherine A. McGlynn, Manuel Ramírez-Zea, John D. GroopmanAbstractAflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known human hepatocarcinogen and a recent study reported elevated AFB1 levels, measured by serum albumin biomarkers, among Guatemalan adults. While AFB1 can contaminate a variety of foodstuffs, including maize, Guatemala’s main dietary staple, the relatio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The hepatoprotective effect of livergol microemulsion preparation (nanoparticle) against bromobenzene induced toxicity in mice
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Azin Kalantari, Anayatollah Salimi, Heibatullah Kalantari, Jalal Ebrahimi Broojeni, Iran Rashidi, Atefeh Raesi Vanani, Ildikó BácskayAbstractLivergol (LG), which is the extract of Silybum marianum and commonly known as milk thistle possess hepatoprotective effect and have got licensed for sale in Iran and other countries. LG was evaluated for its capacity to counteract the toxic effects of bromobenzene (BB) on mouse liver. The bioactive component of this plant is known to reinforce naturally occurring liver function through antioxidant activ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

IL-6 and NFE2L2: A putative role for the hepatoprotective effect of N. Sativa, P. Ginseng and C. Sempervirens in AFB-1 induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats
In this study, we investigated possible hepato-protective effects of N. Sativa, P. Ginseng, and C. Sempervirens in Aflatoxin B1 (AFB-1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma rat model.Fifty-four male albino rats were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Alcoholic extracts of aforementioned herbs were administered orally for 28 days at different doses. IL-6, hs-CRP, MDA, SOD and NFE2L2 were determined using ELISA. Histopathological changes in treated groups were examined.Herbal treatment significantly reduced IL-6, hs-CRP, and MDA (P 
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Health Risk Assessment of Cadmium, Chromium and Nickel from Car Paint Dust from Used Automobiles at Auto-Panel Workshops in Nigeria
This study centers on the human carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk assessment of cadmium, chromium and nickel exposures from reworking of imported used vehicles. Scraped car paint dusts from 56 Japanese made cars were collected from 8 different panel beating (body works) workshops (A-H) in Southeastern Nigeria. They were homogenized, mixed, divided into fine particles, filtered and digested by standard method. The filtrates were assayed for cadmium, chromium and nickel with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS, 200A), workshops F and D have the highest concentration (mg/kg) of Cd (3.58 ±&thinsp...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 11, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The Hepatoprotective Effect of Livergol Microemulsions Preparation (Nanoparticle) against Bromobenzene Induced Toxicity in Mice
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Azin Kalantari, Anayatollah Salimi, Heibatullah Kalantari, Jalal Ebrahimi Broojeni, Iran Rashidi, Atefeh Raesi Vanani, Ildikó BácskayAbstractLivergol (LG), which is the extract of Silybum marianum and commonly known as milk thistle possess hepatoprotective effect and have got licensed for sale in Iran and other countries. LG was evaluated for its capacity to counteract the toxic effects of bromobenzene (BB) on mouse liver. The bioactive component of this plant is known to reinforce naturally occurring liver function through anti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Preliminary results of toxicity studies in rats following low-dose and short-term exposure to methyl mercaptan
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Jingjing Fang, Xinhong Xu, Lu Jiang, Jiangbo Qiao, Hongyuan Zhou, Kexian LiAbstractThe present study was carried out to evaluate the hematotoxicity and respiratory toxicity of methyl mercaptan in Sprague-Dawley rats. A dynamic exposure methodology was adopted in this study following 7 days of exposure by repeated inhalation. The concentration of methyl mercaptan used in the exposure was 0.5 ppm and the exposure time was 6 h/day for 7 days. After exposure, the rats were sacrificed to collect lung tissue and blood samples. Routin...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of untreated pharmaceutical plant effluent on cardiac Na+-K+- ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities in mice (Mus Musculus)
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): A.O. Abdulkareem, T.F. Olafimihan, O.O. Akinbobola, S.A. Busari, L.A. OlatunjiAbstractCardiovascular diseases are major causes of death attributable to non-communicable diseases, throughout the world. Water pollution has been linked with the high global non-communicable disease burden but no report exists on the cardiotoxicity of pharmaceutical effluent, despite its indiscriminate discharge in to the aquatic environment in Nigeria, as in many other locations of the world. Thus, this study investigated the cardiotoxic effect of oral exposure t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata-Standardized First True Leaf Ethanolic Extract
In this study, the acute toxicity of the standardized FTLEE of A. paniculata was examined according to the OECD test guideline No. 420. Mice were divided into four groups of each sex and orally received the standardized FTLEE of A. paniculata (0, 300, 2000, or 5000 mg/kg BW). Post-treatment, body weight, signs of toxicity, and/or mortality were observed for 14 days. At Day 15, animals were euthanized, internal organs were observed grossly, and blood samples collected were subjected to hematology and clinical biochemistry analyses. The results showed that all treated animals survived and no apparent adverse effects w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) mitigates CCl4-induced liver histopathology and biochemical derangements through antioxidant, membrane-stabilizing and tissue-regenerating potentials
This study investigated the effects of methanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizome (MEZOR) in a Wistar rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. The study recruited thirty female Wistar rats that received graded doses of MEZOR (determined by its LD50) by oral gavage through an oral canula, for 4 consecutive weeks following 1 week oral administration of CCl4 (0.7 ml/kg in olive oil; 1:1, v/v) while livolin forte® (5.2 mg/kg p.o.) was used as a standard. CCl4 induced deleterious hepatic effects as revealed by the liver function biomarkers (AST, ALT, ALP and total protein), ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparative effect of Indomethacin (IndoM) on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane and oxidative stress in the kidney, small intestine and liver of rats
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Sheeba Khan, Faiz Noor Khan Yusufi, Ahad Noor Khan YusufiAbstractIndomethacin (IndoM) has prominent anti-inflammatory and analgesic-antipyretic properties. However, high incidence and severity of side-effects on the structure and functions of the kidney, liver and intestine limits its clinical use. The present study tested the hypothesis that IndoM causes multi-organ toxicity by inducing oxidative stress that alters the structure of various cellular membranes, metabolism and hence functions. The effect of IndoM was determined on the enzymes o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Contrast-induced nephropathy in an animal model: Evaluation of novel biomarkers in blood and tissue samples
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Charalampos Mamoulakis, Irene Fragkiadoulaki, Phaedra Karkala, Georgios Georgiadis, Ioannis-Erineos Zisis, Polychronis Stivaktakis, Alexandra Kalogeraki, Ioannis Tsiaoussis, Tatyana Burykina, George Lazopoulos, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Dimitrios Kouretas, Aristides TsatsakisAbstractIdentification of novel biomarkers of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) that may more accurately detect renal function changes; reflect kidney damage; assist monitoring; and elucidate pathophysiology attract considerable scientific attention nowadays. To evaluate n...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity and pharmacokinetic profile of SGM-101, a fluorescent anti-CEA chimeric antibody for fluorescence imaging of tumors in patients
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Bérénice Framery, Marian Gutowski, Karen Dumas, Alexandre Evrard, Nathalie Muller, Vincent Dubois, Jérôme Quinonero, François Scherninski, André Pèlegrin, Françoise CaillerAbstractThe real-time improvement of the intraoperative discrimination between different tissue types (particularly between tumor and adjacent normal tissue) using intraoperative imaging represents a considerable advance for oncology surgeons. However, the development of imaging agents is much slower than that of dru...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bombax ceiba flowers extract ameliorates hepatosteatosis induced by ethanol and relatively moderate fat diet in rats
This study included seven groups, and the research period was eight weeks. The first group served as control. The six remaining groups were divided into two categories, three groups in each. The first category was fed fat diet. The second category was fed fat diet and orally administrated ethanol, which was given in graduate doses from 2 g/kg/d to 6 g/kg/d. Then, one group from each category was orally treated with the standard drug fluvastatin (2 mg/Kg/d). Another group was orally treated with BCE (200 mg/kg/d). The third group left untreated. The results revealed that BCE significantly decreas...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research