A Case for Antibodies as Mechanistic Correlates of Immunity in Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis infects one quarter of the world’s population and is the leading cause of death by a single infectious agent, responsible for a reported 1.3 million deaths in 2017. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis is treatable with antibiotic therapy, the increased prevalence of drug resistance, coupled with the variable efficacy of the only widely approved vaccine, has highlighted the need for creative approaches to therapeutic and vaccine development. Historically, a productive immune response to M. tuberculosis has been thought to be nearly entirely cell-mediated, with humoral immunity being largely dismissed. However, in this review, we will discuss the historical skepticism surrounding the role of the humoral immune response to M. tuberculosis, and examine more recent evidence suggesting that antibodies may play a valuable role in host defense against the pathogen. Despite the amount of data portraying antibodies in a negative light, emerging data have begun to highlight the unexpected role of antibodies in M. tuberculosis control. Specifically, it has become clear that antibody features of both the variable and constant domain (Fc) ultimately determine the extent to which antibodies modulate disease. Thus, a more precise definition of the antigen-binding and innate immune recruiting functions of antibodies that contribute to M. tuberculosis restriction, are sure to help guide the development of next-generation therapeutics and vaccines to curb this global epidemic.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Authors: Orsini D Abstract Poverty, high population density and unhealthy dwellings in Siena's historic district accounted for the spread of tuberculosis in its various forms between the mid-nineteenth century and the first three decades of the twentieth century. In this paper, the author relies on statistical data relating to a time span between 1898 and 1935 to discuss the high incidence of scrofula, or tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands, among Siena's infant population.The result is a description of the most important actions implemented at city level to prevent tuberculosis and to assist and treat sick childr...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn this study, the prevalence of Hr-TB among TB patients was higher than the prevalence of rifampicin resistance globally. Many patients with Hr-TB would be missed by current diagnostic algorithms driven by rifampicin testing, highlighting the need for new rapid molecular technologies to ensure access to appropriate treatment and care. The low prevalence of resistance to pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones among patients with Hr-TB provides further justification for the recommended modified treatment regimen.
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The global control of tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge due to the epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis, especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is resistant to rifampin and isoniazid (Zhao et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2014b). According to recent WHO global estimates, there were 480,000 MDR-TB cases in 2017 (WHO,2018). Almost half of the global MDR-TB cases occurred in China and India (WHO,2018). Due to resistance to both of the most effective antituberculosis drugs, the treatment of MDR-TB requires the use of the less effective and more toxic second-line drugs; approximately half of MDR-TB ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
For the past decade, the epidemic of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) stays high in China. We investigated the possible driving forces behind the epidemics from phylogenetic and historical perspectives.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi R Abstract During the Great War, which involved Italy from May 1915 until November 1918, the Italian Army paid an extremely high price in terms of suffering; around 600,000 soldiers died. About 100,000 of these deaths were caused by diseases, mainly infectious ones. The casualties accounted for over one million cases. Epidemics of cholera and petechial typhus were recorded as well as an increase in morbidity due to tuberculosis and malaria, which had shown some minor epidemiological reduction in several regions of Italy during the years preceding the Great War. A large numb...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
[The Conversation Africa] The infectious disease burden in Africa is very high, particularly for tuberculosis (TB), malaria and HIV/AIDS. In 2018, nearly a quarter (24%) of TB cases in the world were in Africa. The region accounted for 93% of malaria cases. The continent also bears the brunt of the HIV epidemic: 20.6 million of the 37.9 million people living with HIV are in eastern and southern Africa.
Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: EDITORIALS Source Type: research
The bidirectional relationship between the twin epidemics of Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes major global health challenges in the twenty-first century. TB-HIV co-infected peopl...
Source: BMC Public Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Abstract Albania is a Balkan country with moderate to low incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and very low prevalence of drug resistant TB. Here, we analyzed a country-wide multi-year Mycobacterium tuberculosis collection in order to detect possible dynamic trends of TB in Albania, with a focus on drug resistance and endemic/epidemic clones. In total, 743 isolates collected in 2007 to 2011 were divided into 107 spoligotypes and 351 MIRU-types. Based on the MIRU-VNTR phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were assigned to the following lineages/families: animal ecotypes (5 M. bovis and 2 M. caprae isolates), Lineage 2 ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
By SAURABH JHA, MD Slumdog TB No one knows who gave Rahul Roy tuberculosis. Roy’s charmed life as a successful trader involved traveling in his Mercedes C class between his apartment on the plush Nepean Sea Road in South Mumbai and offices in Bombay Stock Exchange. He cared little for Mumbai’s weather. He seldom rolled down his car windows – his ambient atmosphere, optimized for his comfort, rarely changed. Historically TB, or “consumption” as it was known, was a Bohemian malady; the chronic suffering produced a rhapsody which produced fine art. TB was fashionable in Victorian Britain...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Artificial Intelligence Health Tech Saurabh Jha TB tuberculosis Source Type: blogs
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