Endogenous opioid modulation of food intake and body weight: Implications for opioid influences upon motivation and addiction

Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Richard J. BodnarAbstractThis review is part of a Special Issue dedicated to Opioid Addiction, and examines the influential role of opioid peptides, opioid receptors and opiate drugs in mediating food intake and body weight control in rodents. This review postulates that opioid mediation of food intake was an example of “positive addictive” properties that provide motivational drives to maintain opioid-seeking behavior and that are not subject to the “negative addictive” properties associated with tolerance, dependence and withdrawal. Data demonstrate that opiate and opioid peptide agonists stimulate food intake through homeostatic activation of sensory, metabolic and energy-related In contrast, general, and particularly mu-selective, opioid receptor antagonists typically block these homeostatically-driven ingestive behaviors. Intake of palatable and hedonic food stimuli is inhibited by general, and particularly mu-selective, opioid receptor antagonists. The selectivity of specific opioid agonists to elicit food intake was confirmed through the use of opioid receptor antagonists and molecular knockdown (antisense) techniques incapacitating specific exons of opioid receptor genes. Further extensive evidence demonstrated that homeostatic and hedonic ingestive situations correspondingly altered the levels and expression of opioid peptides and opioid receptors. Opioid mediation of f...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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Conditions:   Alcohol Use Disorder;   Couples;   Behavior, Addictive Interventions:   Behavioral: PartnerCHESS;   Behavioral: A-CHESS Sponsors:   University of Wisconsin, Madison;   University of Massachusetts, Worcester Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Condition:   Smoking (Tobacco) Addiction Interventions:   Behavioral: Exercise condition;   Behavioral: Healthy diet condition Sponsor:   The University of Hong Kong Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Condition:   Opioid Abuse and Addiction Intervention:   Other: MBC4OUD Sponsors:   University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;   National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
A  letter to the editor in the August 14 New England Journal of Medicine by researchers at the University of Michigan proudly reported on the results of their effort, called the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC), to reduce the volume of opioids prescribed for postoperative pain. The Collaborative developed a set of guidelines for its participating prescribers.As a result, they found that from January 2017 through May 2018, the mean number of pills prescribed for postoperative pain decreased from 26 (+/-2) pills pre-guideline to 18 (+/ – 3) pills post-guideline. Patient pill consumption also dec...
Source: Cato-at-liberty - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
Is the phenomenon of what is called Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) a result of our " real life " cultural alienation or is it a product of our internet use?
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
Treating a pregnant woman who suffers from opioid addiction has no more harmful impact on the newborn compared to receiving no treatment at all, a new study says.
Source: Health News - UPI.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
__________ Psychiatric diagnosis ‘scientifically meaningless’ (Science Daily): “A new study, published in Psychiatry Research, has concluded that psychiatric diagnoses are scientifically worthless as tools to identify discrete mental health disorders. The study, led by researchers from the University of Liverpool, involved a detailed analysis of five key chapters of the latest edition of the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), on ‘schizophrenia’, ‘bipolar disorder’, ‘depressive disorders’, ‘anxiety disorders’ and ‘trauma-related disord...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Health & Wellness anxiety-disorders bipolar-disorder depressive disorders diagnostic labelling digital biomarkers DSM DSM-5 mental health mental health disorders psychiatric diagnosis psychiatry research sc Source Type: blogs
Conclusions Exercise addicts scored higher for the neuroticism personality trait and exhibited overactivation of the reward system and underactivation of the inhibition system. Overactivation of the reward system may be related to long-term exposure to exercise. Underactivation of the inhibition system may be a crucial factor in exercise addiction.
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research
This study served to validate an Italian version of the Internet Abusive Use Questionnaire (IAUQ-I) via a translation-back-translation process. A sample of 289 Italian university students participated in the study (73.70% females). The results of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis established the unidimensional factorial structure of the scale. Validity and reliability analyses indicated adequate results concerning the psychometric properties of the Italian IAUQ-I. We also found an association between IAUQ-I and self-esteem, and personality traits. This study shows that the IAUQ-I represents a valid instrumen...
Source: Swiss Journal of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
There are approximately 1,000 published articles on exercise addiction, which is characterized by exaggerated training yielding adverse effects. In contrast, there are less than 20 identified cases of exercise addiction in the literature. Recently, it was reported that there is an association between exercise addiction and passion. To test the impact of the latter on exercise addiction, we reanalyzed the combined data from two recent studies. High- and low-exercise volume groups differed in exercise addiction even after controlling for age and sex (p
Source: Swiss Journal of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
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