Intracerebroventricular administration of arginine vasotocin (AVT) induces anorexigenesis and anxiety-like behavior in goldfish
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Koh Araishi, Keisuke Watanabe, Takumi Yamazaki, Tomoya Nakamachi, Kouhei MatsudaAbstractArginine vasotocin (AVT) is known as a neurohypophyseal hormone that regulates water- and mineral-balance in non-mammalian vertebrates. Recent studies revealed that AVT also exerts central effects on behavior. The goldfish has several merits for evaluation of behavioral changes. However, there is few information on the behavioral action of AVT in this species. Here we examined the effects of AVT on food intake and psychomotor activity. AVT was administered intracer...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Circulating levels of lipocalin-2 are associated with fatty pancreas but not fatty liver
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Ruma G. Singh, Ngoc Nhu Nguyen, Aya Cervantes, Jin U. Kim, Charlotte Stuart, Maxim S. PetrovAbstractLipocalin-2 (LCN-2), a peptide with diverse expression pattern, has been identified as a biomarker of various diseases as well as a factor contributing to inflammatory responses associated with excess adiposity and ensuing metabolic disorders. Although the inter-relationship between LCN-2 and excess adiposity is increasingly recognized, little is known about the inter-relationship between LCN-2 and ectopic fat deposition. The present study aimed to inve...
Source: Peptides - July 3, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Hypothalamic nesfatin-1 mediates feeding behavior via MC3/4R-ERK signaling pathway after weight loss in obese Sprague-Dawley rats
In this study, obese rats lost weight in three ways: Calorie Restriction diet (CRD), Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We found an increase in nesfatin-1 serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels after weight loss in obese Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Moreover, weight loss also increased hypothalamic melanocortin 3/4 receptor (MC3/4R) and extracellular regulated kinase phosphorylation (p-ERK) signaling. Third ventricle administration of antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MON) against the gene encoding NUCB2 inhibited hypothalamic nesfatin-1 and p-ERK signaling, increased food intake and reduced body w...
Source: Peptides - June 30, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Protective effect of PACAP-38 on retinal pigmented epithelium in an in vitro and in vivo model of diabetic retinopathy through EGFR-dependent mechanism
In conclusion, data have suggested that PACAP-38 acts through EGFR phosphorylation in DR and this effect particularly occurs on RPE layer. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - June 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Natural ACE inhibitory peptides discovery from Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) strain C1
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Krittima Anekthanakul, Jittisak Senachak, Apiradee Hongsthong, Tossaton Charoonratana, Marasri RuengjitchatchawalyaAbstractBioactive peptides from natural sources are utilized as food supplements for disease prevention and are increasingly becoming targets for drug discovery due to their specificity, efficacy and the absence of undesirable side effects, among others. Hence, the ‘SpirPep’ platform was developed to facilitate the in silico-based bioactive peptide discovery of these highly sought-after biomolecules from Spirulina (Arthrospir...
Source: Peptides - June 21, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Structural analysis and mode of action of BMAP-27, a cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Sungtae Yang, Chul Won Lee, Hak Jun Kim, Hyun-Ho Jung, Jae Il Kim, Song Yub Shin, Sung-Heui ShinAbstractBMAP-27, a member of cathelicidin family, plays an important role against microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. BMAP-27 may exert antimicrobial effects through membrane integrity disruption, but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. To identify the structural features important for antimicrobial activity and propose a mechanism underlying antibacterial effects, we determined the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of BMAP-27 in a ...
Source: Peptides - June 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

The preprohormone expression profile of enteroendocrine cells following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats
ConclusionWe present a comprehensive mRNA expression profile of chromogranin A positive enteroendocrine cells following RYGB in rats. The data provides a region-specific characterization of all regulated preprohormone encoding genes in the rat GI tract including 16 not hitherto known. The comprehensive catalogue of preprohormone expression changes may support our understanding of hormone mediated effects of RYGB on diabetes remission and body weight reduction.Graphical abstract (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - June 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2019Source: Peptides, Volume 117Author(s): (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - June 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Anxiolytic Impact of Apelin-13 in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Involvement of Glucocorticoid Receptor and FKBP5
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Samaneh Aminyavari, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Fariba Khodagholi, Mehdi SanatiAbstractApelin-13 is known to be one of the predominant neuropeptides with marked protective role in circuits involved in mood disturbances. The most putative hypothesis in pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is Amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation which interrupt proper function of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and are associated with anxiety. Here, we assessed the potential anxiolytic effect of Apelin-13 in a rodent cognitive impairment model induced...
Source: Peptides - June 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Superoxide anions mediate the effects of angiotensin (1-7) analog, alamandine, on blood pressure and sympathetic activity in the paraventricular nucleus
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Juexiao Gong, Yihui Shen, Peng Li, Kun Zhao, Xuguan Chen, Yong Li, Yanhui Sheng, Bin Zhou, Xiangqing KongAbstractMicroinjection of alamandine into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increased blood pressure and enhanced sympathetic activity. The aim of this study was to determine if superoxide anions modulate alamandine’s effects in the PVN. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were recorded in anaesthetized normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Microinje...
Source: Peptides - June 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Introducing article numbering to Peptides
Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - June 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Peptide conjugates of lactoferricin analogues and antimicrobials—Design, chemical synthesis, and evaluation of antimicrobial activity and mammalian cytotoxicity
Publication date: July 2019Source: Peptides, Volume 117Author(s): Natalia Ptaszyńska, Katarzyna Olkiewicz, Joanna Okońska, Katarzyna Gucwa, Anna Łęgowska, Agata Gitlin-Domagalska, Dawid Dębowski, Jan Lica, Mateusz Heldt, Sławomir Milewski, Tzi Bun Ng, Krzysztof RolkaAbstractEight new peptide conjugates composed of modified bovine lactoferricin truncated analogues (LFcinB) and one of the three antimicrobials — ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LVX), and fluconazole (FLC) — were synthesized. Four different linkers were applied to connect a peptide and an antimicrobial agent. The FLC-containing peptidic con...
Source: Peptides - June 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Plasma orexin-A-like immunoreactivity levels and renal function in patients in a geriatric ward
In conclusion, plasma orexin-A-LI levels were negatively correlated with renal function in patients in a geriatric ward. Renal function may affect the study design and data interpretation in studies of plasma orexin-A-LI. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - June 3, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Apelin-13 attenuates motor impairments and prevents the changes in synaptic plasticity-related molecules in the striatum of Parkinsonism rats
In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on motor disorders and striatal synaptosomal expression of PSD-95, neurexin1, neuroligin, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu R1) and dopaminergic receptors (DR1 and DR2) in rat parkinsonism experimental model.6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was injected into the substantia nigra. Apelin-13 (1, 2 and 3 μg/rat) was administered into the substantia nigra one week after the 6-OHDA injection. Accelerating rotarod, beam-balance, beam-walking and bar tests were performed one month after the apelin injection. Immunohistochemistry staining of dopaminergic neurons was ...
Source: Peptides - May 30, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2019Source: Peptides, Volume 116Author(s): (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - May 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Effects of islet neogenesis associated protein depend on vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression modulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha
ConclusionOur results reinforce the concept that INGAP-PP enhances insulin secretion and β-cell mass, acting through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways and simultaneously activating angiogenesis through HIF-1α-mediated VEGF-A secretion. Therefore, INGAP-PP might be a suitable antidiabetic agent able to overcome two major alterations present in T2D. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - May 21, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Apelin-13 attenuates motor impairments and prevents the changes in synaptic plasticity- related molecules in the striatum of Parkinsonism rats
In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on motor disorders and striatal synaptosomal expression of PSD-95, neurexin1, neuroligin, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu R1) and dopaminergic receptors (DR1 and DR2) in rat parkinsonism experimental model.6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was injected into the substantia nigra. Apelin-13 (1, 2 and 3 µg/rat) was administered into the substantia nigra one week after the 6-OHDA injection. Accelerating rotarod, beam-balance, beam-walking and bar tests were performed one month after the apelin injection. Immunohistochemistry staining of dopaminergic neurons w...
Source: Peptides - May 21, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Oxytocin: Potential to Mitigate Cardiovascular Risk
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Allison B. Reiss, Daniel S. Glass, Eric Lam, Amy D. Glass, Joshua De Leon, Lora J. KasselmanAbstractCardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide, despite multiple treatment options. In addition to elevated lipid levels, oxidative stress and inflammation are key factors driving atherogenesis and CVD. New strategies are required to mitigate risk and most urgently for statin-intolerant patients. The neuropeptide hormone oxytocin, synthesized in the brain hypothalamus, is worthy of consideration as a CVD ancillary treatment be...
Source: Peptides - May 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Opioid Addiction
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Richard J. Bodnar (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - May 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: May 2019Source: Peptides, Volume 115Author(s): (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - May 2, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Endogenous opioid modulation of food intake and body weight: Implications for opioid influences upon motivation and addiction
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Richard J. BodnarAbstractThis review is part of a Special Issue dedicated to Opioid Addiction, and examines the influential role of opioid peptides, opioid receptors and opiate drugs in mediating food intake and body weight control in rodents. This review postulates that opioid mediation of food intake was an example of “positive addictive” properties that provide motivational drives to maintain opioid-seeking behavior and that are not subject to the “negative addictive” properties associated with tolerance, dependence and wi...
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Molecular evolution of CRH and CRHR subfamily before the evolutionary origin of vertebrate
Publication date: Available online 28 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Jason Sai Wun On, Aloysius Wilfred Raj Arokiaraj, Billy Kwok Chong ChowAbstractCorticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is well-cited for its important role in governing the stress responses via neuroendocrine system in vertebrates. After the identification of homologs of CRH receptor (CRHR) in both deuterostome and arthropod lineages, it was suggested that the ancestral homolog of CRH-CRHR molecular system is present in the bilaterian. However, homolog sequences from arthropods differ considerably from vertebrate CRH-like peptide sequences. Due to the...
Source: Peptides - April 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Genetic disruption of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A upregulates renal (pro) renin receptor expression in Npr1 null mutant mice
The objective of the present study was to determine whether targeted-disruption of Npr1 gene (encoding for guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A; GC-A/NPRA) upregulates pro(renin) receptor (P)RR expression and leads to the activation of MAPKs in Npr1 gene-knockout mice. The Npr1 homozygous (Npr1−/−; 0-copy), heterozygous (Npr1+/−; 1-copy), wild-type (Npr1+/+; 2-copy), and gene-duplicated (Npr1++/++; 4-copy) mice were utilized. To identify the canonical pathway of (P)RR, we administered ACE-1 inhibitor (captopril), AT1R blocker (losartan), and MAPKs inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580) to all Npr1 mic...
Source: Peptides - April 28, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Decreased synovial fluid pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) levels may reflect disease severity in post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament injury
ConclusionsSF PACAP concentrations showed an independent and negative association with disease severity in PTKOA following ACL injury. Local treatment with PACAP may act as a possible adjuvant therapy for delaying the process of PTKOA. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - April 28, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) affects hemocyte intracellular signaling pathways to regulate exocytosis and immune response in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Xu Lijun, Pan Luqing, Xin Zhang, Wei CunAbstractRecombinant Litopenaeus vannamei CHH (rLvCHH) was obtained from a bacterial expression system and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in exocytosis and immune response after rLvCHH injection (0.2 and 2 μg/shrimp) was investigated in this study. The results showed that CHH contents increased 51.4%-110.2% (0.2 μg/shrimp) and 65.0%-211.3% (2 μg/shrimp) of the control level. And the contents of three biogenic amines in hemolymph presented a similar variation pattern ...
Source: Peptides - April 28, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Anti-CGRP and anti-CGRP receptor monoclonal antibodies as antimigraine agents. Potential differences in safety profile postulated on a pathophysiological basis
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Giuseppe Tringali, Pierluigi NavarraAbstractCalcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is a peptide neurotransmitter with potent vasodilating properties. CGRP is believed to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of migraine. As such, CGRP and its receptors are obvious druggable targets for novel anti-migraine agents. While the development of small-molecule CGRP receptor antagonists started first, none of these agents is yet available in clinical practice. Conversely, both anti-CGRP and anti-CGRP receptor monoclonal antibodies (mABs) completed clinica...
Source: Peptides - April 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Glucoregulatory activity of Vesiculin in insulin sensitive and resistant mice
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Kate L. Lee, Jacqueline F. Aitken, Huai-L Hsu, Geoffrey M. Williams, Margaret A. Brimble, Garth J.S. CooperAbstractPancreatic islet-derived peptide hormones play key roles in the maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis and glucose balance, and defects in their regulation are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Peptides have also been used as lead compounds for therapeutics targeting metabolic disease. It is therefore important to understand the activity and function of islet hormones in both their target tissues and t...
Source: Peptides - April 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Multivalent Peptide and Peptidomimetic Ligands for the Treatment of Pain without Toxicities and Addiction
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Victor J. HrubyAbstractThe current opioid crisis has created a tragic problem in medicine and society. Pain is the most ubiquitous and costly disease in society and yet all of our “treatments” have toxicities, especially for prolonged use. However, there are several alternatives that have been discovered in the past fifteen years that have been demonstrated in animals to have none of the toxicities of current drugs. Many of the compounds are multivalent and have novel biological activity profiles. Unfortunately, none of these have been i...
Source: Peptides - April 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Osteopontin-derived synthetic peptide SVVYGLR has potent utility in the functional regeneration of oral and maxillofacial skeletal muscles
This study investigated the effects of SVVYGLR (SV) peptide, a thrombin-cleaved osteopontin-derived motif, on histopathological wound healing and functional repair after severe injury of skeletal muscles. A rat model of volumetric muscle loss bilateral masseter muscle was developed. A single dose of SV-peptide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was separately injected into the injured muscle belly. Histopathological and functional analyses were performed 1-8 weeks after the treatment. Behavioral analysis during free-feeding revealed that the feeding rate markedly increased in the SV-peptide group, in contrast, the PBS grou...
Source: Peptides - April 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

BZ043, a novel long-acting amylin analog, reduces gastric emptying, food intake, glycemia and insulin requirement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Caio Victor M.F. do Nascimento, Celimar Sinezia, Thayna Sisnande, Luís Maurício T.R. Lima, Paulo G.S. LacativaABSTRACTAmylin analogs are important adjunctive drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, a dual therapy with insulin involves inconvenient multiple injections. Here we describe a novel n-terminal PEGylated human amylin analog – BZ043 – and its potential to improve the control of glycemia using lower doses of insulin. The effect of BZ043 over the insulin-mediated control of fed-glycemia was investigated ...
Source: Peptides - April 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Genetic disruption of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A upregulates renal (pro)renin receptor expression in Npr1 null mutant mice
The objective of the present study was to determine whether targeted-disruption of Npr1 gene (encoding for guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A; GC-A/NPRA) upregulates pro(renin) receptor (P)RR expression and leads to the activation of MAPKs in Npr1 gene-knockout mice. The Npr1 homozygous (Npr1-/-; 0-copy), heterozygous (Npr1+/−; 1-copy), wild-type (Npr1+/+; 2-copy), and gene-duplicated (Npr1++/++; 4-copy) mice were utilized. To identify the canonical pathway of (P)RR, we administered ACE-1 inhibitor (captopril), AT1R blocker (losartan), and MAPKs inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580) to all Npr1 mice genotypes....
Source: Peptides - April 8, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Nesfatin-1: A novel regulatory peptide associated with acute myocardial infarction and Mediterranean diet
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Aliye Kuyumcu, Mevlut Serdar Kuyumcu, Mustafa Bilal Ozbay, Ahmet Goktug Ertem, Gulhan SamurAbstractWe evaluated the relationship between nesfatin-1 and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and Mediterranean diet scores. 67 patients with AMI and 33 patients with normal coronary arteries (control group) were included in the study. The patients with AMI were divided into 2 groups based on low (
Source: Peptides - April 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Elabela protects against podocyte injury in mice with streptozocin-induced diabetes by associating with the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Yixian Zhang, Yangwei Wang, Manyu Luo, Feng Xu, Yue Lu, Xiaoxi Zhou, Wenpeng Cui, Lining MiaoAbstractDiabetic nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes characterized by an increased rate of protein excretion in urine and kidney function loss. Elabela is a newly discovered peptide whose role in the regulation of diabetes is the major focus of this research. We established an in vivo model of Type 1 diabetes mellitus by injecting mice intraperitoneally with streptozotocin. The treatment group was administered Elabela for 6 months. In the present...
Source: Peptides - April 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Peptide Conjugates Of Lactoferricin Analogues And Antimicrobials — Design, Chemical Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Activity And Mammalian Cytotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Natalia Ptaszyńska, Katarzyna Olkiewicz, Joanna Okońska, Katarzyna Gucwa, Anna Łęgowska, Agata Gitlin-Domagalska, Dawid Dębowski, Jan Lica, Mateusz Heldt, Sławomir Milewski, Tzi Bun Ng, Krzysztof RolkaAbstractEight new peptide conjugates composed of modified bovine lactoferricin truncated analogues (LFcinB) and one of the three antimicrobials — ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LVX), and fluconazole (FLC) — were synthesized. Four different linkers were applied to connect a peptide and an antimicrobial agent. The FLC-containing pept...
Source: Peptides - April 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

The influence of high fat diet on plasma incretins and insulin concentrations in Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance undergoing ileal transposition
ConclusionsIT surgery itself seems to have rather limited incretin effects in rats, whose obesity is the result of HFD.Graphical abstract (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - April 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

The effect of Apelin-13 on pancreatic islet beta cell mass and myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism of experimental type 2 Diabetic Rats
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Jinghui Feng, Hang Zhao, Mengze Du, Xiuping WuAbstractApelin, a new identified adipokine, and its G protein–coupled receptor named APJ are widely expressed in various tissues. Apelin has been found to play important roles in the physiopathology of multiple diseases. Our aim is to assess the effect of long-term apelin treatment on serum insulin level and pancreatic islet beta-cell mass in the late stage of type 2 diabetes without hyperinsulinemia and to investigate the role of apelin in myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In the presen...
Source: Peptides - April 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

The role of phoenixin in behavior and food intake
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Martha A. Schalla, Andreas StengelAbstractThe recently discovered peptide phoenixin was initially implicated in reproduction as a regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary. Subsequently, various functions of phoenixin have been demonstrated including mediation of itching sensation, stimulation of vasopressin secretion, stimulation of white adipogenesis and hypothalamic nutrient sensing. Subsequently, additional actions of phoenixin have been described, namely effects on behavior....
Source: Peptides - April 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist decreases [Ca2+]i in airway smooth muscle cells by reducing the reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Miao Li, Yun-xiao ShangAbstractAirway smooth muscle (ASM) is involved in asthma airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), ASMC contraction, and the effect on reverse-mode Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) currents in ASMCs. In our study, primary rat ASMCs were cultured. ASMCs were identified by immunofluorescence. [Ca2+]i variations were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Cell s...
Source: Peptides - April 2, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

The discovery of shorter synthetic proteolytic peptides derived from Tob1 protein
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Rina Nakamura, Motomi Konishi, Masanari Taniguchi, Yusuke Hatakawa, Toshifumi AkizawaAbstractWe screened nearly 1000 synthetic peptides and found that JAL-AK22 (KYEGHWYPEKPYKGSGFRCIHI), which is derived from the BoxA domain in the Tob1 protein, activates both unfolded and folded proMMP-7. Interestingly, the smaller derivative of JAL-AK22, termed JAL-TA9 (YKGSGFRMI) possessed auto-proteolytic activity and cleaved three synthetic peptides fragment (MMP18-33, MMP18-40, and Aβ11-29) under physiological conditions. The kcat of JAL-TA9 was 4.58&thins...
Source: Peptides - March 30, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Satellite Symposium of to the 13th International Symposium on VIP, PACAP and related Peptides in Macau
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Leo Tsz On Lee (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - March 21, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Behavioral effects evoked by the beta globin-derived nonapeptide lvv-h6
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Kellen Rosa da Cruz, Danielle Ianzer, Larissa Córdova Turones, Lilian Liz Reis, Gabriel Camargo-Silva, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Elder Sales da Silva, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Carlos Henrique de Castro, Elson Alves Costa, Carlos H XavierAbstractLVV-hemorphin-6 (LVV-h6) is bioactive peptide and is a product of the degradation of hemoglobin. Since LVV-h6 effects are possibly mediated by opioid or AT4/IRAP receptors, we hypothesized that LVV-h6 would modify behavior. We evaluated whether LVV-h6 affects: i) anxiety-like behavior and lo...
Source: Peptides - March 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Inflammatory Mediators of Opioid Tolerance: Implications for Dependency and Addiction
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Lori N. Eidson, Anne Z. MurphyAbstractEach year, over 50 million Americans suffer from persistent pain, including debilitating headaches, joint pain, and severe back pain. Although morphine is amongst the most effective analgesics available for the management of severe pain, prolonged morphine treatment results in decreased analgesic efficacy (i.e., tolerance). Despite significant headway in the field, the mechanisms underlying the development of morphine tolerance are not well understood. The midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is a ...
Source: Peptides - March 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Peptides with Therapeutic Potential in the Venom of the Scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Zhongjie Li, Ping Hu, Wenlan Wu, Yong WangAbstractThe scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK) has generated significant interest due to the presence of biologically active peptides in its venom. In the past decade, dozens of different peptides from BmK have been identified. Most of the peptides are neurotoxins and are responsible for the toxicity of BmK venom. Other peptides, including neurotoxins and non-disulfide-bridged peptides, show potential anticancer, antimicrobial, analgesic, and anti-epileptic therapeutic effects. These peptides are attracti...
Source: Peptides - March 8, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Enkephalin related peptides are released from jejunum wall by orally ingested bromelain
Publication date: May 2019Source: Peptides, Volume 115Author(s): Paulo Eduardo Orlandi-Mattos, Rodrigo Barbosa Aguiar, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Jane Zveiter Moraes, Elisaldo Luiz de Araujo Carlini, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Luiz JulianoAbstractStem bromelain [EC 3.4.22.32] is a thiol-endopeptidase and orally recommended in traditional medicine due to its analgesic activity, but the mechanisms are not known. Proenkephalin is expressed in the nervous system, but also in the gastrointestinal tract, where it can be assessed by ingested stem bromelain. Here we demonstrated that stem bromelain hydrolyses synthetic proenkephalin fr...
Source: Peptides - March 8, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Possible application of trefoil factor family peptides in gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett’s esophagus
Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Adam Fabisiak, Adrian Bartoszek, Grzegorz Kardas, Natalia Fabisiak, Jakub FichnaAbstractGastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disorder of the digestive tract characterised mainly by a heartburn. Being one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases, the prevalence of GERD reaches up to 25.9% in Europe. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is an acquired condition characterized by the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium with metaplastic columnar epithelium. BE is believed to develop mainly from chronic GERD and is the mos...
Source: Peptides - March 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Enkephalin related peptides are released from jejum wall by orally ingested bromelain
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Paulo Eduardo Orlandi-Mattos, Rodrigo Barbosa Aguiar, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Junior, Jane Zveiter Moraes, Elisaldo Luiz de Araujo Carlini, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Luiz JulianoAbstractStem bromelain [EC 3.4.22.32] is a thiol-endopeptidase and orally recommended in traditional medicine due to its analgesic activity, but the mechanisms are not known. Proenkephalin is expressed in the nervous system, but also in the gastrointestinal tract, where it can be assessed by ingested stem bromelain. Here we demonstrated that stem bromelain hydrolyses synthetic ...
Source: Peptides - March 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2019Source: Peptides, Volume 113Author(s): (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - February 23, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Association of copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, with insulin resistance: influence of adolescence and psychological stress
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Camilla F. Thomsen, Rasmus Dreier, Tina S. Goharian, Jens P. Goetze, Lars B. Andersen, Jens Faber, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Anders Grøntved, Jørgen L. JeppesenABSTRACTIn middle-aged and elderly individuals, circulating copeptin concentrations, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, associates with insulin resistance (IR). Whether this association is present in adolescents and young adults is unclear. Because psychological stress associates with higher circulating copeptin concentrations and IR, it has been speculat...
Source: Peptides - February 17, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Antiaflatoxigenic effects of selected antifungal peptides
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Manju S Devi, RB. SashidharAbstractAflatoxins are potent carcinogenic mycotoxins produced as secondary metabolites mainly by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Control measures to curtail the contamination of aflatoxin in food products is still a challenge. Although there are several reports on the antifungal peptides, there is no specific study on the action of antifungal peptides on aflatoxin synthesis. This work details the effect of four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) - PPD1 (FRLHF), 66-10 (FRLKFH), 77-3 (FRLKFHF) and D4...
Source: Peptides - February 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Microinjection of 26RFa, an endogenous ligand for the glutamine RF-amide peptide receptor (QRFP receptor), into the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla (RVM), Locus Coelureus (LC), and Periaqueductal Grey (PAG) produces an analgesic effect in rats
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Koji Yoshida, Takahiro Nonaka, Shingo Nakamura, Miki Araki, Tatsuo YamamotoAbstract26RFa is an endogenous ligand for the QRFP receptor. We previously found that intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa produces an analgesic effect in a rat formalin test. In the present study, we directly tested the hypothesis that the analgesic effects of 26RFa in the formalin test are mediated in well-recognized regions of the descending inhibitory pain pathways, such as the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), locus coeruleus (LC), and periaqueductal grey (PAG...
Source: Peptides - February 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research