Concentration-dependent effects of CSF1R inhibitors on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells ex vivo and in vivo.

In this report, we compared the effect of two commonly used CSF1R inhibitors, PLX5622 and PLX3397, on microglia and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) numbers. In ex vivo cerebellar slices and adult mouse brain, both PLX compounds caused robust microglia loss; the kinetics of microglial depletion was more rapid with PLX5622. While high-doses of PLX5622 and PLX3397 reduced OPC number in primary cultures in vitro and ex vivo, low-doses of PLX5622 did not affect the number of OPCs or mature oligodendroglia in culture or in vivo. In adult mice, treatment with PLX5622 had no effect on OPC numbers for 7 days; however, a mild reduction was observed after 21 days in some CNS regions. In contrast, PLX3397 caused significant OPC loss after 7 days of treatment, despite only modest microglia depletion. Neither PLX compound had a remarkable effect on mature oligodendrocytes or myelin protein expression following long-term oral administration. Our results show that CSF1R inhibition with PLX5622 can selectively deplete microglia ex vivo and in vivo without affecting OPC number, demonstrating that microglia are not essential for OPC viability in ex vivo slice cultures or adult CNS tissues. PMID: 31029597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Jiaoyan Liu, Bing Yang, Minhui Li, Jing Li, Ying WanAbstractThiolated chitosan (CS-NAC) was synthesized and the selected CS-NAC was used together with silk fibroin (SF) to produce dual network CS-NAC/SF hydrogels. The CS-NAC/SF solutions with formulated compositions were able to form hydrogels at physiological temperature and pH. Rheological measurements showed that elastic modulus of some CS-NAC/SF gels could reach around 3 kPa or higher and was much higher than their respective viscous modulus, indicating that they behaved like st...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Publication date: 2019Source: European Urology Supplements, Volume 18, Issue 5Author(s): F. Salameh, O.E. O’Sullivan, B.A. O’Reilly
Source: European Urology Supplements - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
This study aimed to provide a better understanding of the altered molecular networks in BC from the gulf region. Herein, we compared the transcriptome of BC to adjacent normal tissue from six BC patients and identified 1,108 upregulated and 518 downregulated transcripts. A selected number of genes from the RNA-Seq analysis were subsequently validated using qRT-PCR. Differentially expressed (2.0-fold change, adj. p
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We report on the use of a rhomboid flap for partial closure of a tracheal stoma. The rhomboid flap is a local flap that is frequently used by plastic surgeons because of its broad applications and not being very invasive. This is a low invasive and simple technique for partial closure of an excessively enlarged stoma.
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
This study sought to compare patient demographics, operative course, and peri-operative outcomes between unilateral and bilateral cleft patients. Primary cleft lip repairs were isolated from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric Database (NSQIP-P). Unilateral and bilateral cases of primary cleft lip were identified by ICD codes. Demographics, comorbidities, and post-operative outcomes were compared between cohorts. Patients were propensity matched to control for differences before repeating the analysis. About 4550 cleft lip repairs were evaluated over the 5-year period. Of the cases where the cleft t...
Source: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: J Plast Surg Hand Surg Source Type: research
Haanstra and coauthors1 share the results from their randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of proximal colon chromoendoscopy for the detection of neoplasia at baseline and follow-up colonoscopy in patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) performed across 6 centers in the Netherlands. In the trial, indigo carmine chromoendoscopy application in the proximal colon was compared with standard white-light endoscopy (WLE) in 246 mismatch repair gene mutation carriers. Although chromoendoscopy led to a significantly increased median withdrawal time (19 vs 12 minutes), no improvement in the number of patients detected with neop...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
Treatment of acute triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear using arthroscopic suture repair has been used as a general treatment method, but it is difficult to obtain perfect results in all cases. We evaluated clinical and radiologic outcomes of the acute TFCC tear with distal radioulnar joint instability using the arthroscopic suture repair with pronator quadratus (PQ) advancement. Altogether, 80 patients (48 male, 32 female; mean ± SD age, 37.3 ± 11.5 years; mean ± SD follow-up, 23.7 ± 11.4 months) were enrolled in the study. Follow-up was at least 12 months (range, 12–38 months). ...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Hand Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusions Flexor tendon lacerations represent an important economic burden to our health care system, even when compared with other common hand conditions. Specifically, indirect costs, such as missed workdays, are the major contributor toward the total cost these injuries incur on society, accounting for upward of 89% of the total cost. This suggests that we should focus our efforts to improve treatments and rehabilitation protocols which decrease these indirect costs.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Hand Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusions The overall revision rate was 9.6%, which is relatively lower than that in other cleft centers. However, the repair technique and cleft care program should not be evaluated using the revision rate only. Various factors, including surgeons' preference, contribute to the indications for revision, and these factors can change with age. We plan to follow up the patients until our completion of the cleft care program and report the final revision rate.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Head and Neck Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusions The CSA system is an appropriate source for harvesting dual skin paddle CASP flap. Use of this flap for the reconstruction of complex soft-tissue defects in the extremities in children is an alternative approach that reduces morbidity and improves the cosmetic outcome at the donor site.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Microsurgery Source Type: research
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