Pediatric West Nile Virus-Associated Neuroinvasive Disease: A Review of the Literature

Over the past two decades, West Nile virus has become the most common arbovirus in North America, leading to several outbreaks and infecting thousands of people. Mosquitos help transmit the virus in the majority of cases, but transmission occurs via blood transfusions, organ transplantation, and possibly pregnancy and breastfeeding. While most infected patients experience mild to no symptoms, thousands of West Nile virus-associated neuroinvasive cases have been reported in the United States, with over 700 cases occurring in children from 2003 to 2016.
Source: Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Almost all the women in our study showed serological evidence of Dengue immunity, suggesting that microcephaly can occur in DENV immune mothers. T cell immunity to Zika virus showed a multifunctional response to the antigens Env and NS1 and immune regulatory responses to NS5 and C protein. Our data support an argument that different viral products may skew the antiviral response to a more pro or anti-inflammatory outcome, with an associated impact on immunopathogenesis.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ard Hildt Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) came first to public attention after it was found to be associated with congenital microcephaly during the outbreak in Brazil (2015–2016). Diagnosis of ZIKV suffers from extensive cross-reactivity with other Flaviviruses, which are circulating in many ZIKV epidemic areas. Due to the fatal outcome of ZIKV infection during pregnancy, detailed knowledge about neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes is crucial for the development of robust detection systems of protective antibodies. Therefore, additional information about ZIKV immunogenicity and antibody response is requi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 010 Peer Reviewer: Dr Jennifer Ho, ID physician QLD, Australia You are an ED doc working in Perth over schoolies week. An 18 yo man comes into ED complaining of fever, rash a “cracking headache” and body aches. He has just hopped off the plane from Bali where he spent the last 2 weeks partying, boozing and running amok. He got bitten by “loads” of mosquitoes because he forgot to take insect repellent. On e...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine arthralgia dengue fever rash Source Type: blogs
The Zika virus (ZIKV) can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. Resulting infection by this virus can cause early miscarriage and a pattern of severe birth defects in fetuses and infants. Therefore, a rapid diagnostic assay that can be performed throughout pregnancy in a clinical setting is vital for prenatal care of women living in areas where this virus may be transmitted.CDC has developed a RT-LAMP assay for the rapid screening of ZIKV RNA from urine and serum. As few as 10 copies of ZIKV RNA per microliter can be detected using this assay, showing that it is highly sensitive. It was also shown to be highly spec...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Discussion In areas of the US and Hawaii where there is potential risk of ZIKV transmission, detecting transmission should it occur is a key public health objective17. This poses a challenge for surveillance systems: to balance the probability of detecting ZIKV transmission with the resources needed to carry out surveillance when infections may be rare. An efficient surveillance system should have high sensitivity (a relatively high probability of detecting infections) and high specificity (a low probability of a positive test result in an individual without infection). Comparing three general surveillance systems, we fou...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus primarily transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes. Infection with ZIKV during pregnancy can affect the fetus causing microcephaly, neurological complications, and other birth defects. Adults are also at a heightened risk of developing Guillain-Barre syndrome and other neurological disorders. In response to the 2015-2016 Zika outbreak, CDC scientists developed a recombinant vaccine candidate as well as reagents and methods to detect ZIKV infection. The recombinant vaccine candidate utilizes adenovirus vector expressed viral envelope proteins. This vector-based vaccine candidate is an effic...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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