Bortezomib responsive refractory anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a central nervous system ; inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting adults and children. The use of first and second-line immunotherapies is supported. Recent reports suggest the efficacy of bortezomib in severe anti-NMDAR encephalitis in adult patients not responsive to second-line treatment, there are no data about paediatric patients. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramona Cordani, Concetta Micalizzi, Thea Giacomini, Matteo Gastaldi, Diego Franciotta, Francesca Fioredda, Silvia Buratti, Giovanni Morana, Daniela Pirlo, Salvatore Renna, Elio Castagnola, Marco Risso, Paola Lanteri, Maria Stella Vari, Maria Margherita Ma Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Seizures in Epilepsy with Eyelid Myoclonia may be Provoked by Eye Closure, not Fixation-removal
Epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia (EEM, also known as Jeavons syndrome) is a genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome with onset in childhood or adolescence.1,2 Affected individuals experience brief episodes of eyelid myoclonia, typically involving 4-6 Hz low amplitude rhythmic myoclonic jerks of the eyelids.1,2 These seizures occur spontaneously but can also be provoked by voluntary eye closure. Typically, patients have hundreds of seizures per day prior to treatment.1 The events may or may not be associated with impaired awareness, in which case they are classified as absence seizures with eyelid myoclonia. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kenneth A. Myers, Maryam Oskoui Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Infantile-onset syndromic cerebellar ataxia and CACNA1G mutations
Congenital ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy are clinically heterogeneous conditions with different age of onset and diverse molecular basis. The hypothesis-free approach of genomic sequencing has led to the discovery of new genes implicated in these disorders and the identification of unexpected genotype-phenotype correlations. While a recurrent heterozygous mutation (p.Arg1715His) in CACNA1G is known to cause adult-onset spinocerebellar ataxia 42 (SCA42 *616795), gain of function mutations in this gene have recently been identified by WES in four children with cerebellar atrophy and ataxia, psychomotor delay and...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sabina Barresi, Maria Lisa Dentici, Francesca Manzoni, Emanuele Bellacchio, Emanuele Agolini, Simone Pizzi, Andrea Ciolfi, Mark Tarnopolsky, Lauren Brady, Giacomo Garone, Antonio Novelli, Davide Mei, Renzo Guerrini, Alessandro Capuano, Chiara Pantaleoni, Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurocritical Care: From Field to Follow-up
Over the last few decades pediatric care has become increasingly subspecialized as the breadth and depth of knowledge of how to care for children expands. Pediatric critical care emerged as a subspecialty in the 1980 ’s. More recently, pediatric neurocritical care has gained momentum as its own subspecialty focused on managing acute neurologic diseases and injuries (Glass et al. 2010; LaRovere& Riviello 2008). As providers have established important clinical pathways for improving patient care and neurologic outcomes in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) (Riviello et al. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: R éjean M. Guerriero, Kristin P. Guilliams Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage and hospitalization in childhood
Intraventricular hemorrhage is a serious neonatal complication associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, but the relationship with other childhood morbidities is unclear. We sought to assess the association of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage with the risk of morbidity up to 12 years of age. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Amarpreet Kaur, Thuy Mai Luu, Prakesh S. Shah, Aimina Ayoub, Nathalie Auger Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

PURA syndrome and myotonia: a case report
Mutations in PURA (coding for purine-rich element binding protein A) have recently been shown to cause the neurodevelopmental disorder previously associated with 5q31.3 microdeletion syndrome1,2. To date, children with PURA syndrome have been described with neonatal hypotonia, hypersomnolence, hypothermia, respiratory compromise, and feeding difficulties. All reported patients have moderate-severe neurodevelopmental delays with some later developing epilepsy and nonepileptic hyperkinetic movements (dystonia, dyskinesia, eye movement abnormalities). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Steven P. Trau, Carolyn E. Pizoli Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Seizures and outcome one year after neonatal and childhood cerebral sinovenous thrombosis
Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a treatable cause of brain injury, acute symptomatic seizures and remote epilepsy. Our objective was to prospectively study epilepsy and neurologic outcomes in neonates and children one year after CSVT diagnosis. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Aleksandra Mineyko, Adam Kirton, Lori Billinghurst, Nana Nino Tatishvili, Max Wintermark, Gabrielle deVeber, Christine Fox, SIPS Investigators Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Masthead
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Meetings of Interest
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multiple sclerosis and the choroid plexus: emerging concepts of disease immunopathophysiology
The coexistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and intracranial neoplasms is very rare, and whether this occurrence can be explained by a causal relationship or by coincidence remains a matter of debate. Possible roles of the choroid plexus as a site of tumor cell invasion and leukocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) have been hypothesized in recent studies. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Grant A. Dixon, Carlos A. P érez Tags: Clinical Observations Source Type: research

Electroencephalography Findings in Bathing Reflex Epilepsy
Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy which is triggered by bathing irrespective of the water temperature or bathing style. Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by motor, sensory, or cognitive stimuli [1]. It is proposed that such patients have regions of cortical hyper-excitability overlapping with areas physiologically activated during these specific sensory stimulations and cognitive or motor activities [1]. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - September 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Romesa Bint Ameen, Lina Barker, Muhammad Shahzad Zafar Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Are Ketamine infusions a viable therapeutic option for refractory neonatal seizures?
Ketamine is a NMDA receptor antagonist that works by binding to the phencyclidine binding site; thereby blocking influx of cations through the NMDA receptor channel. Its use to treat refractory status epilepticus in adults and older children is well documented. Maturational changes in neonatal NMDA and GABA receptor expression and function make NMDA receptor antagonists, like ketamine, attractive potential therapeutic agents for treatment of refractory seizures in the newborn. However, descriptions of its use in this age group are limited to two case reports. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - September 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: R.J. Huntsman, L. Strueby, W. Bingham Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Sociodemographic factors in pediatric epilepsy surgery
Despite documented efficacy of surgical treatment in carefully-selected patients, surgery is delayed and/or underutilized in both adult and children with focal onset epilepsy. The reasons for surgical delay are often assumed or theorized, and studies have predominantly been in the adult population. In order to focus on a more targeted pediatric population and to determine identifiable reasons for intervention, this study aimed to investigate time to epilepsy surgery amongst pediatric patients with medically intractable epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and to identify sociodemographic and clinical ass...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - September 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hudin N. Jackson, Nisha Gadgil, I-Wen Pan, Dave F. Clarke, Kathryn M. Wagner, Christopher A. Cronkite, Sandi Lam Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings associated with Cognitive Impairment in Children and Adolescents with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Zambia
Cognitive impairment is common in children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a potentially useful tool to investigate the pathophysiology of HIV-associated cognitive impairment and may serve as a biomarker in future clinical trials. There is little published data on brain imaging in children with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Owen Dean, Alexandra Buda, Heather R. Adams, Sylvia Mwanza-Kabaghe, Michael J. Potchen, Esau G. Mbewe, Pelekelo P. Kabundula, Sarah Mohajeri Moghaddam, Gretchen L. Birbeck, David R. Bearden Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Treatment of chorea in childhood
Chorea is a movement disorder characterized by ongoing random-appearing sequences of discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Chorea results from dysfunction of the complex neuronal networks that interconnect the basal ganglia, thalamus and related frontal lobe cortical areas. The complexity of basal ganglia circuitry and vulnerability of those circuits to injury explains why chorea results from a wide variety of conditions. Because etiology-specific treatments or effective symptomatic treatments are available for causes of chorea, defining the underlying disease is important. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - September 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanem Yilmaz, Jonathan W. Mink Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The 2018 Pediatric Neurology Trainee Publication Award
Please join the journal ’s selection committee and the editors in congratulating Dr. Guilia Benedetti from the C. S. Mott Children’s Hospital in Ann Arbor, who is the recipient of the 2018 Pediatric Neurology Trainee Publication Award. The committee selected her article from the articles published in 2018 by child neur ology and neurosurgery residents and fellows who participated in the journal’s trainee mentoring program. There were several outstanding trainee submissions last year, making the selection process even more difficult than usual. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - September 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mark S. Scher, Galen Breningstall, Donald Gilbert, Lori Jordan, Yasmin Khakoo, Jean-Baptiste LePichon Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Masthead
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Meeting of Interest
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rhythmic tongue thrusting: A useful clinical sign
We read with great interest the study by Saeedi et. al. on tongue protrusion dystonia(TPD) in pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration(PKAN)1. They also highlighted other important causes of TPD including tardive dystonia, post-hypoxic, neuroacanthocytosis, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Tongue thrusting has also been described in healthy infants where it occurs due to the immaturity of neuromuscular function of orofacial musculature2. However, rhythmic tongue thrusting and persistence beyond 6 months of age is abnormal and may serve as an early marker of dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP)3. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bhanudeep Singanamala, Ramalingeshwara Noolu, Priyanka Madaan, Lokesh Saini Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Sleep wake disturbances after acquired brain injury in children surviving critical care
Sleep wake disturbances (SWD) are under-evaluated among children with acquired brain injury surviving critical care. We aimed to quantify severity, phenotypes, and risk factors for SWD. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cydni N. Williams, Mary E. Hartman, Cindy T. McEvoy, Trevor A. Hall, Miranda M. Lim, Steven A. Shea, Madison Luther, Kristin P. Guilliams, Rejean M. Guerriero, Christopher C. Bosworth, Juan A. Piantino Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Unmet needs in the evaluation, treatment, and recovery for 167 children affected by acute flaccid myelitis reported by parents through social media
We aimed to characterize outcomes of 167 children affected by acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) by leveraging the power of social media. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Riley Bove, William Rowles, Mia Carleton, Erin Olivera, Mikell Sheehan, Heather Post Werdal, Rachel Scott, LaMay Axton, Leslie Benson Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Neuroaspergillosis as the presenting sign of a chronic granulomatous disease
A 13-year-old girl presented with a two-month history of intermittent low-grade fever and tickling in her left hand and left side of the face. At the physical examination, left-sided paresthesia and hyposthenia in upper extremities were present. Routine laboratory tests and viral and bacterial assays were negative; antibody titers of Aspergillus species were positive. At brain magnetic resonance, numerous gadolinium-picking nodules were found bilaterally, with perilesional edema and moderate midline shift (Figure 1a,b). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Giulia Salomone, Piero Pavone, Filippo Greco, Pierluigi Smilari, Agata Fiumara, Andrea D. Pratic ò Tags: Visual Diagnosis Source Type: research

Multidelay Arterial Spin Labeling MRI in the Assessment of Cerebral Blood Flow: Preliminary Clinical Experience in Pediatrics
We attempted to demonstrate the clinical applicability and utility of a three-dimensional multidelay arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging technique in pediatric neuroimaging through a series of case studies. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Garima Suman, Jerome A. Rusin, R. Marc Lebel, Houchun H. Hu Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Multi- Delay Arterial Spin Labeling MRI of Cerebral Blood Flow: Preliminary Clinical Experience in Pediatrics
To demonstrate the clinical applicability and utility of a 3D multi-delay arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique in pediatric neuroimaging through a series of case studies. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Garima Suman, Jerome A. Rusin, R.Marc Lebel, Houchun H. Hu Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Genetics of Common Pediatric Brain Tumors
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumor in pediatrics and represent the largest cause of childhood cancer-related mortality. Improvements have occurred in the management of these patients leading to better survival, but significant morbidity persists.With the era of next generation sequencing, considerable advances have occurred in the understanding of these tumors both biologically and clinically. This information has impacted diagnosis as well as management. Subgroups have been identified, improving risk stratification. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fatema Malbari, Holly Lindsay Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Response to Yatim and K ılıç. “How to Approach Vulnerable Adolescents and Young Adults With Psychogenic Nonsyncopal Collapse”
A very acute pain in any of the more sensible parts of the body, or violent affections of the mind, as terror, grief, anger, or disappointments, will sometimes so strongly affect the whole nervous system, as to bring on hysteric faintings, with convulsions, altho' the body be in every respect healthful and sound …Robert Whytt, MD, FRS (1765) (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Geoffrey L. Heyer Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Response: Letter to Editor from Yatim et al.
[Editor ’s note: I entered this reply on behalf of the author, who is traveling. I an NOT an author. Henceforth, Dr. Heyer (geoffreyheyer@yahoo.com) should be considered the sole author and the corresponding author. Please remove this note before formatting.]“A very acute pain in any of the more sensibl e parts of the body, or violent affections of the mind, as terror, grief, anger, or disappointments, will sometimes so strongly affect the whole nervous system, as to bring on hysteric faintings, with convulsions, altho’ the body be in every respect healthful and sound…”Robert Whytt, M.D. (Sou...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Geoffrey L. Heyer Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Utility of Rapid Sequence Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Guiding Management of Patients With Neonatal Seizures
To determine whether the use of rapid sequence magnetic resonance imaging (rsMRI) is associated with improved efficiency of care when managing infants with suspected neonatal onset seizures. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Theresa Czech, Andrea C. Pardo Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Atypical Intracerebral Developmental Venous Anomalies in Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A Case Series and Review of Literature
Intracranial vascular abnormalities in Surge-Weber syndrome (SWS), including leptomeningeal angiomatosis, anomalous cortical venous structures, and transmedullary developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), are well recognized. Prominent vascular flow voids on T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are occasionally identified in patients with SWS, raising concern of arteriovenous malformations (AVM), a congenital high-flow vascular malformation with a risk of bleeding. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Aimen S. Kasasbeh, Amit Kalaria, Anne M. Comi, Warren Lo, Doris D.M. Lin Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Utility of Rapid Sequence MRI in guiding management of patients with neonatal seizures
To determine whether the use of rapid sequence magnetic resonance imaging (rsMRI) is associated with improved efficiency of care when managing infants with suspected neonatal onset seizures. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Theresa Czech, Andrea C. Pardo Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Social-Emotional Status Of Children With Uterine Exposure To The Zika Virus
During the 2015-16 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil, hospital surveillance for congenital Zika infection (CZI) was conducted at the Jos é Maria de Magalhães Neto reference maternity hospital, located in Salvador-Brazil, between February and December 20161. Normocephalic infants with prenatal exposure to ZIKV were recruited if their serological testing or a polymerase-chain-reaction assay (PCR) for ZIKV were positive. All their mot hers reported ZIKV infection symptoms during pregnancy and had anti-ZIKV IgG positivity at the time of delivery. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Adriana Virg ínia Barros Faiçal, Juliana Menezes Gomes Cabral de Oliveira, Nara C. Andrade, Angelina Xavier Acosta, Isadora Cristina de Siqueira Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

How to approach vulnerable adolescents and young adults with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse
Psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse (PNSC) in adolescents and young adults are common and important issue as mentioned by G.L. Heyer (1), so we thank both G.L. Heyer and Pediatric Neurology for attention to this vulnerable population. We would like to add an idea of how to approach them. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Aylin Yetim, Ay şe Kılıç Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Dichlorphenamide for Primary Periodic Paralysis in Adolescents Compared With Adults
Primary periodic paralyses (PPP) are a group of rare, hereditary skeletal muscle diseases characterized by episodic muscle weakness. Dichlorphenamide (DCP) for PPP was effective and well tolerated in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, including one with adolescents. This analysis describes effects of DCP among adolescents and adults. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Emma Ciafaloni, Fredric Cohen, Robert Griggs Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Ischemic Stroke Following Ergotamine Overdose
The use of ergotamine in the treatment of migraine has become disputed because of its significant side effects, such as arterial vasospasm particularly affecting the peripheral arteries.1 However, there is conflicting evidence about the effect of ergotamine on cerebral blood flow.2-4 At present, ergotamine continues to be utilized, albeit off-license, for the treatment of refractory migraine in pediatric patients.5 Yet, there is a lack of evidence supporting ergotamine's utility and safety in migraine treatment. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nadja F. Bednarczuk, Ming Lim, Ata Siddiqui, Karine Lascelles Tags: Clinical Letter Source Type: research

Neurocysticercosis Among Zambian Children and Adolescents with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Geographic Information Systems Approach
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the brain and a leading cause of epilepsy in resource-limited settings. While NCC and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infections have commonly been reported, there is little data on how they interact. As part of an observational study of HIV and cognition in Lusaka, Zambia, we identified a cluster of subjects with NCC. We hypothesized that neighborhood of residence may be an important factor driving clustering of NCC, and used a Geographic Information Systems approach to invstigate this association. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Alexandra Buda, Owen Dean, Heather R. Adams, Sylvia Mwanza-Kabaghe, Mike Potchen, Esau G. Mbewe, Pelekelo Kabundula, Sarah Mohajeri Moghaddam, Milimo Mweemba, Beauty Matoka, Manoj M. Mathews, Gretchen L. Birbeck, David R. Bearden Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Ischaemic Stroke Following Ergotamine Overdose
The use of ergotamine in the treatment of migraine has become disputed due to its significant side effects, such as arterial vasospasm particularly affecting peripheral arteries[1]. However, there is conflicting evidence about the effect of ergotamine on cerebral blood flow[2 –4]. Currently, ergotamine continues to be utilised, albeit off-licence, for the treatment of refractory migraine in paediatric patients[5]. Yet, there is a lack of evidence supporting ergotamine’s utility and safety in migraine treatment[5]. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nadja F. Bednarczuk, Ming Lim, Ata Siddiqui, Karine Lascelles Tags: Clinical Letter Source Type: research

The end of the beginning: the journey to molecular therapies for spinal muscular atrophy
A span of 125 years stretches from the first descriptions of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in 18911 and 18932 through the identification of deletions in SMN1 as the most common pathogenic mutation in 19953 to the first officially approved therapy for this devastating disease in 2016. This disease-modifying treatment is nusinersen, an antisense oligonucleotide compound that alters splicing of SMN2 so that it mimics healthy SMN1, and improves the clinical status of patients with early onset SMA (type 1)4,5 and later onset SMA (types 2 and 3)6,7, with affirmation from a clinical guideline8. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Christina A. Pacak, Peter B. Kang Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Current Status of Continuous Electroencephalographic Monitoring in Critically Ill Children
The utilization of continuous electroencephalographic monitoring in critical care units has increased significantly, and several consensus statements and guidelines have been published. The use of critical care electroencephalographic monitoring has become a standard of care in many centers in the United States and other countries. The most common indication is to detect electrographic seizures and status epilepticus. Other indications include monitoring treatment efficacy in patients with electrographic seizures and status epilepticus, evaluating the degree of disturbance of function in patients with encephalopathy, monit...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiuhua L. Bozarth, John McGuire, Edward Novotny Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

Current status of continuous EEG monitoring in critical ill children
The utilization of continuous EEG monitoring in critical care units has increased significantly and several consensus statements and guidelines have been published. The use of critical care EEG monitoring (CCEEG) has become a standard of care in many centers in the US and other countries. The most common indication is to detect electrographic seizures and status epilepticus. Other indications include monitoring treatment efficacy in patients with electrographic seizures and status epilepticus, evaluating degree of disturbance of function in patients with encephalopathy, monitoring brain function in patients treated with se...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiuhua L. Bozarth, John McGuire, Edward Novotny Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Ferrous Sulfate to Treat Insomnia in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Insomnia and low iron stores are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and low iron stores have been associated with sleep disturbance. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral ferrous sulfate to treat insomnia in children with ASD and low normal ferritin levels was performed. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ann M. Reynolds, Heidi V. Connolly, Terry Katz, Suzanne E. Goldman, Shelly K. Weiss, Ann C. Halbower, Amy M. Shui, Eric A. Macklin, Susan L. Hyman, Beth A. Malow Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Long-term outcome after bilateral perinatal arterial ischemic stroke
To characterize phenotype and outcomes of children with bilateral, large vessel perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Aleksandra Mineyko, Adam Kirton Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Wallerian Degeneration of the Cerebral Peduncle and Association with Motor Outcome in Childhood Stroke
To evaluate the presence of Wallerian degeneration and its relationship with sensorimotor deficits following childhood-onset arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Trish Domi, Gabrielle deVeber, David Mikulis, Andrea Kassner Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

MRI Evaluation of Wallerian Degeneration and Association with Motor Outcome in Childhood Stroke
and Purpose: To evaluate the presence of WD and its relationship to sensorimotor deficits following childhood-onset arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Trish Domi, Gabrielle deVeber, Dr. David Mikulis, Andrea Kassner Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Priorities for Newborn Screening of Genetic Epilepsy
Newborn screening is an important tool for secondary prevention of serious morbidity and mortality. Although several metabolic diseases that cause seizures are currently screened, no monogenic epilepsies are on the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel.1 Importantly, some monogenic epilepsies can be successfully treated when detected early in the newborn period. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: David L. Hess-Homeier, Christopher Cunniff, Zachary M. Grinspan Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Reply to Grinspan et  al.
This article concluded that, without any specific effort, the pediatric epilepsy community was consistent in the treatment of early-life ep ilepsy. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Steven G. Pavlakis Tags: Correspondence Reply Source Type: research

Reply to Grinspan et al.
I thank the writers of this letter for elucidating the techniques in their study (1). Their study was well done and likely meaningful, but that is not the point. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Steven G. Pavlakis Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Clinical Implementation of Targeted Gene Sequencing for Malformation of Cortical Development
Malformations of cortical developments (MCDs) comprise phenotypically heterogeneous conditions, which can be caused by germline or somatic mutations in a variety of genes. However, the diagnostic value of genetic testing in blood still remains to be elucidated. Here, we used targeted gene sequencing to identify MCDs caused by germline mutations and characteristics associated with pathogenic mutations. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sangbo Lee, Se Hee Kim, Borahm Kim, Seung-Tae Lee, Jong Rak Choi, Heung Dong Kim, Joon Soo Lee, Hoon-Chul Kang Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Preventive antiepileptic treatment in tuberous sclerosis complex: long-term, prospective trial
Drug-resistant epilepsy is the main risk factor for future intellectual disability in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Clinical epileptic seizures are often preceded by electroencephalographic changes that provide an opportunity for preventive treatment. The study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological and epilepsy outcomes at school age in tuberous sclerosis complex children who received preventive antiepileptic treatment in infancy. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sergiusz Jozwiak, Monika S łowińska, Julita Borkowska, Krzysztof Sadowski, Barbara Łojszczyk, Dorota Domańska-Pakieła, Dariusz Chmielewski, Magdalena Kaczorowska-Frontczak, Jagoda Głowacka, Kamil Sijko, Katarzyna Kotulska Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research