SCN8A Epilepsy, Developmental Encephalopathy, and Related Disorders
Understanding the precise genetic -basis of disease is one of the critical developments in medicine in the twenty-first century. Genetic testing has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases in children. Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing have particularly been useful in understanding the genetic basis of childhood epileptic encephalopathies characterized by early-onset seizures with significant developmental impairment and regression. In this review we describe the identification of a new epileptic encephalopathy caused by a de novo mutation in the SCN8A gene, which encodes for NaV1.6, a vit...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dinesh Talwar, Michael F. Hammer Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Family-centered care for children and families impacted by neonatal seizures: Advice from parents
Parents of neonates with seizures are at risk of mental health symptoms due to the impact of illness on family life, prognostic uncertainty, and the emotional toll of hospitalization. A family-centered approach is the preferred model to mitigate these challenges. We aimed to identify strategies to promote family-centered care through an analysis of parent-offered advice to clinicians caring for neonates with seizures. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - August 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Monica E. Lemmon, Hannah C. Glass, Ren ée A. Shellhaas, Mary Carol Barks, Simran Bansal, Dana Annis, Jennifer L. Guerriero, Betsy Pilon, Courtney J. Wusthoff, Taeun Chang, Janet S. Soul, Catherine J. Chu, Cameron Thomas, Shavonne L. Massey, Nicholas S. A Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Moving Toward Understanding Autism: Visual-Motor Integration, Imitation, and Social Skill Development
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a behavioral phenotype characterized by impaired development of social-communicative skills and excessive repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Despite high phenotypic heterogeneity in ASD, a meaningful subpopulation of children with ASD ( ∼90%) show significant general motor impairment. More focused studies on the nature of motor impairment in ASD reveal that children with ASD are particularly impaired on tasks such as ball catching and motor imitation that require efficient visual-motor integration (VMI). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Daniel E. Lidstone, Stewart H. Mostofsky Tags: Symposium Proceedings Source Type: research

The Pediatric Neurology Trainee Publication Award Winner: Kerri Neville
Child neurologists continue to identify new ways to help children and young adults with neurologic illness despite the COVID-19 pandemic, and journal submissions have been at an all-time high. Recognizing and supporting talented trainees to lead the next generation of clinical pediatric neuroscientists is essential. Please join the journal ’s Trainee Award Selection Committee and the editors in congratulating Kerri Neville, MD (Fig) from the C.S Mott Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, the recipient of the 2020 Pediatric Neurology Trainee Publication Award for her article titled “Imple...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yasmin Khakoo, J. Nicholas Brenton, Audrey C. Brumback, Jay Desai, John R. Mytinger, James J. Reese, Morris H. Scantlebury Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Characterizing Baclofen Withdrawal: A National Survey of Physician Experience
We studied physicians ’ opinions and experiences concerning clinical concerns, perceived severity, occurrence, and management of baclofen withdrawal due to abrupt discontinuation. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Natalie S. Schmitz, Linda E. Krach, Lisa D. Coles, John Schrogie, James C. Cloyd, Robert L. Kriel Tags: Symposium Proceedings Source Type: research

Beyond The Guidelines: How We Can Improve Healthcare For People With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Around The World
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex International (TSCi) is a consortium of organisations that support individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) around the world. In order to improve care for TSC on a global level, TSCi identified the need to expand understanding about existing resources available in other countries, what individuals and caregivers value in TSC care, key gaps between needs and reality in each country, and ways these gaps can be addressed by advocacy organisations around the world. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Clare Stuart, Carla Fladrowski, Jennifer Flinn, Berit Öberg, Micaela Rozenberg, Angela Peron, Catherine A. Smith Source Type: research

Evaluating Sleep Disturbances in Children with Rare Genetic Neurodevelopmental Syndromes
Adequate sleep is important for proper neurodevelopment and positive health outcomes. Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in children with genetically determined neurodevelopmental syndromes compared to typically developing counterparts. We characterize sleep behavior in Rett (RTT), Angelman (AS) and Prader-Willi (PWS) syndromes in order to identify effective approaches for treating sleep problems in these populations. We compared sleep-related symptoms across individuals with these different syndromes to each other, and to typically developing controls. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Olivia J. Veatch, Beth A. Malow, Hye-Seung Lee, Aryn Knight, Judy O. Barrish, Jeffrey L. Neul, Jane B. Lane, Steven A. Skinner, Walter E. Kaufmann, Jennifer L. Miller, Daniel J. Driscoll, Lynne M. Bird, Merlin G. Butler, Elisabeth M. Dykens, June-Anne Gol Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Updated International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Diagnostic Criteria and Surveillance and Management Recommendations
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease affecting multiple body systems with wide variability in presentation. In 2013, Pediatric Neurology published articles outlining updated diagnostic criteria and recommendations for surveillance and management of disease manifestations. Advances in knowledge and approvals of new therapies necessitated a revision of those criteria and recommendations. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hope Northrup, Mary E. Aronow, E. Martina Bebin, John Bissler, Thomas N. Darling, Petrus J. de Vries, Michael D. Frost, Zo ë Fuchs, Elizabeth S. Gosnell, Nishant Gupta, Anna C. Jansen, Sergiusz Jóźwiak, J. Chris Kingswood, Timothy K. Knilans, Francis X Source Type: research

Miller Fisher Syndrome in a child associated with Covid-19 infection
We report a case of post-COVID Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS)in a 7-year-old child who presented with acute onset diplopia, nasal twang, drooling and an unsteady gait. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ophthalmoplegia and VII,IX,X nerve palsies. He was ataxic, hyporeflexic with power of 4/5 in all limbs. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Veena Raghunathan, Maninder Dhaliwal, Pratibha Singhi, Sunit Singhi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cryoglobulinemic vasculitic mononeuritis multiplex in a teenager
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: M. Cardon, B. Syed, C. Krishnan Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

TSC1 Mosaicism leading to Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma but not Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
A previously healthy 10-year-old boy presented with nausea, vomiting, and severe morning headaches. His evaluation ultimately included head imaging about 9 months after symptom onset that revealed an intraventricular brain tumor. This was resected with rapid resolution of all symptoms. Routine neuropathologic evaluation of the tumor was consistent with a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), which is almost always found in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1. Despite an extensive assessment for TSC including brain and kidney imaging, echocardiogram, ophthalmology examination, and routine genetic testing o...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: A. Hall, G. Westlake, B.P. Short, M. Pearson, K.C. Ess Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Nicotine patch improved autosomal dominant sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy
Autosomal dominant sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (ADSHE) is a genetic focal epilepsy associated with mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Mutations in two major nAChR subunit genes, CHRNA4 and CHRNB2, are commonly associated with ADSHE (1). In up to one third of patients with ADSHE, seizures are refractory to anti-seizure medications. Here, we report complete seizure freedom with transdermal nicotine in two pediatric patients from the same family with medically-refractory ADSHE. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sang M. Nguyen, Laura Deering, Gregg T. Nelson, Sharon S. McDaniel Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Masthead
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Performance in hand coordination tasks and concurrent functional MRI findings in 13-year-olds born very preterm
Fine motor and coordination problems are frequently reported among adolescents born preterm. We aimed to assess performance in hand coordination tasks and to compare concurrent brain activation between adolescents born very preterm and full-term at 13 years. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Karoliina Uusitalo, Leena Haataja, Virva Saunavaara, Annika Lind, Victor Vorobyev, Joni Tilli, Riitta Parkkola, Sirkku Set änen, PIPARI Study Group Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Transitory and Vestigial Structures of the Developing Human Nervous System
As with many body organs, the human central nervous system contains many structures and cavities that may have had functions in embryonic and fetal life but are vestigial or atrophic at maturity. Examples are the septum pellucidum, remnants of the lamina terminalis, Cajal-Retzius neurons, induseum griseum, habenula, and accessory olfactory bulb. Other structures are transitory in fetal or early postnatal life, disappearing from the mature brain. Examples are the neural crest, subpial granular glial layer of Brun over cerebral cortex, radial glial cells and subplate zone of cerebral cortex. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Harvey B. Sarnat Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Early use of Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography to Stratify Neonatal Encephalopathy
The dynamic nature of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after birth necessitates reliable biomarkers to identify infants with evolving brain injury. This prospective cohort aims to use serial Doppler ultrasonography (US) to measure cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and resistance index (RI) to help detect the time and evolution of the clinical encephalopathy. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Kiran R. Natique, Yudhajit Das, Maricel N. Maxey, Pollieanna Sepulveda, Larry S. Brown, Lina F. Chalak Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Epilepsy is Heterogeneous in Early-Life Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Epilepsy in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) typically presents with early onset, multiple seizure types, and intractability. However, variability is observed amongst individuals. Here, detailed individual data on seizure characteristics collected prospectively during early life were used to define epilepsy profiles in this population. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - July 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: S. Katie Z. Ihnen, Jamie K. Capal, Paul S. Horn, Molly Griffith, Mustafa Sahin, E. Martina Bebin, Joyce Y. Wu, Hope Northrup, Darcy A. Krueger, TACERN study group Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

The names of things: the 2018 Bernard Sachs lecture
In 2018, I was honored to receive the Bernard Sachs Award for a lifetime of work expanding knowledge of diverse neurodevelopmental disorders. Summarizing work over more than 30 years is difficult but is an opportunity to chronicle the dramatic changes in the medical and scientific world that have transformed the field of Child Neurology over this time, as reflected in my own work. Here I have chosen to highlight 5 broad themes of my research beginning with my interest in descriptive terms that drive wider understanding and my choice for the title of this review. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: William B. Dobyns Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The complex interplay of cortex, cerebellum and age in a cohort of pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.
The neurodevelopmental impairment in tuberous sclerosis has a multifactorial origin. Various factors have been proposed as predictors of neurological outcome such as tuber load, early seizure onset and TSC2 mutation. Cerebellar lesions have been associated with worse neuroradiological phenotype but its contribution to the clinical phenotype is not well understood. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Christina Sidira, Efthymia Vargiami, Athanasia Anastasiou, Persefoni Talimtzi, Maria Kyriazi, Pinelopi Dragoumi, Maria Spanou, Argirios Ntinopoulos, Efterpi Dalpa, Athanasios Evangeliou, Dimitrios I. Zafeiriou Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Threatening blindness in a child with typical haemolytic uremic syndrome
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute kidney failure in children under five years of age, following a gastrointestinal infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and characterized by the presence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury (1). Central Nervous System (CNS) involvements are seen in 15% of cases, with clinical manifestations ranging from obnubilation to coma, seizures, stroke, and cortical blindness (2). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ana ïs Corgier-Pattberg, Marie Beylerian, Stephanie Clave, Mathilde Cailliez, Benoit Testud, Beatrice Desnous Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Kenneth swaiman: a festschrift to honor his legacy
Nina Schor, 2017 (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Stephen Ashwal, N. Paul Rosman, E. Steve Roach Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Risk of admission to the emergency room/ inpatient service after a neurology telemedicine visit during COVID-19 pandemic.
We compared emergency department (ED) and overnight inpatient admission (admission) rates within eight weeks of a home-based telemedicine visit during COVID -19 in 2020 compared to in-person visit (conventional visit) in 2019. This was a quality improvement project prompted by an adverse event after a telemedicine visit. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Charuta Joshi, Mona Jacobson, Silveira Lori, Stephanie Shea, Michele Yang, Krista Eschbach Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Advances in Epilepsy Surgery
A large number of patients suffer from epilepsy that is intractable an adversely effects a child's lifelong experience with addition societal burden that is disabling and expensive. The last two decades have seen a major explosion of new anti-seizure medication options. Despite these advances, children with epilepsy continue to have intractable seizures. An option that has been long available but little used is epilepsy surgery to control intractable epilepsy. We discuss an approach to selecting the appropriate pediatric patient for consideration, a detailed evaluation including necessary work up, the creation of an algori...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Fernando N. Galan, Alexandra D. Beier, Raj D. Sheth Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Comparison of Whole-Head Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Potential Application in Pediatric Neurology
Changes in cerebral blood flow in response to neuronal activation can be measured by time-dependent fluctuations in hemoglobin species within the brain; this is the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). There is a clinical need for portable neural imaging systems, such as fNIRS, to accommodate patients who are unable to tolerate an MR environment. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Julie C. Wagner, Anthony Zinos, Wei-Liang Chen, Lisa Conant, Marsha Malloy, Joseph Heffernan, Brendan Quirk, Jeffrey Sugar, Robert Prost, Julian B. Whelan, Scott A. Beardsley, Harry T. Whelan Tags: Symposium Proceedings Source Type: research

Compared Whole Head Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Functional Magnetic Imaging and Potential Application in Pediatric Neurology
Changes in cerebral blood flow in response to neuronal activation can be measured by time-dependent fluctuations in hemoglobin species within the brain. This is the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). There is a clinical need for portable neural imaging systems, such as fNIRS, to accommodate patients who are unable to tolerate an MR environment. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Julie C. Wagner, Anthony Zinos, Wei-Liang Chen, Lisa Conant, Marsha Malloy, Joseph Heffernan, Brendan Quirk, Jeffrey Sugar, Robert Prost, Julian B. Whelan, Scott A. Beardsley, Harry T. Whelan Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

The Neurological Manifestations of Phelan-McDermid Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a genetic disorder, caused by haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene on chromosome 22q13.3. PMS is characterized by neurobehavioral symptoms and signs including intellectual disability, speech and language impairment, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), hypotonia, and other motor abnormalities. In the brain, SHANK3 is expressed in neurons, especially in the synapse, and encodes a master scaffolding protein that forms a key framework in the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yitzchak Frank Tags: Symposium Proceedings Source Type: research

Theneurological manifestations of phelan-mcdermid syndrome
Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) is a genetic disorder, caused by haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene on chromosome 22q13.3. It is characterized by neurobehavioral symptoms and signs including intellectual disability, speech and language impairment, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), hypotonia and other motor abnormalities. In the brain, SHANK3 is expressed in neurons, especially in the synapse, and encodes a master scaffolding protein that forms a key framework in the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yitzchak Frank Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Masthead
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Portable Acquisition of Auditory ERPs: A Pilot Study of Premature Infants
Prior work suggests that event-related potential (ERP) studies in infancy may help predict developmental outcome. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: John P. Phillips, Christopher J. Pirrung, Isuru Weerasinghe, Game Kankanamage Kanishka, Yashika Satharasinghe, Thilina D. Lalitharatne, James F. Cavanagh, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, Jithangi Wanigasinghe Tags: Symposium Proceedings Source Type: research

Portable Acquisition of Auditory ERPs – A Pilot Study of Premature Infants
Prior work suggests that event related potential (ERP) studies in infancy may help predict developmental outcome. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: John P. Phillips, Christopher J. Pirrung, Isuru Weerasinghe, Game Kankanamage Kanishka, Yashika Satharasinghe, Thilina D. Lalitharatne, James F. Cavanagh, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, Jithangi Wanigasinghe Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

“The Child is the Father of the Man”: A Tribute to Ken Swaiman
My career path to a richer understanding of fetal and neonatal neurology (FNN) honors Ken Swaiman ’s influence on my training. Our life-long friendship reinforced a life-course perspective to the neurologic care for children across the lifespan. “The Child is the Father of the Man”, a quote from a poem by William Wordsworth (1802) entitled “My Heart Leaps Up” applies a poetic reference to the origins of memory. While self-absorbed academics apply this reference to one’s chosen specialty, I was reminded that the American rock group “The Beach Boys” also put to music the same i...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mark Scher Tags: Opinion Paper Source Type: research

EEG Spectral Power - A Proposed Physiological Biomarker to Classify The Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Severity in Real Time
The objectives of this prospective cohort study were to measure the EEG power as an objective biomarker of the evolution of the clinical encephalopathy in newborns with mild to severe HIE. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Srinivas Kota, Kaushik Jasti, Yulun Liu, Hanli Liu, Rong Zhang, Lina Chalak Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Validity and reliability of the Neuromuscular Gross Motor Outcome
Approved treatments in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have resulted in unprecedented gains for many individuals. Use of available outcomes, typically developed for a specific type of SMA, do not cover the range of progression, often resulting in a battery of functional testing being completed at visits. Our objective was to validate the Neuromuscular Gross Motor Outcome (GRO) as a tool to quantify function in SMA across the span of abilities. Patients with genetically confirmed SMA completed functional testing at each visit including the Neuromuscular GRO and other appropriate gross motor outcomes. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - June 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Lindsay N. Alfano, Megan A. Iammarino, Natalie F. Reash, Brenna R. Powers, Kiana Shannon, Anne M. Connolly, Megan A. Waldrop, Garey H. Noritz, Richard Shell, Chang-Yong Tsao, Kevin M. Flanigan, Jerry R. Mendell, Linda P. Lowes Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Severe bradyarrhythmia during adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment in a patient with infantile spasms
We studied with great interest the research conducted by Sharma et al. on cardiac side effects of oral steroids in patients with epileptic spasms 1. The research highlighted that steroids can induce reversible bradycardia. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is the first-line treatment for patients with infantile spasms (IS). We wish to share our experience with the cardiac side effects exhibited during ACTH treatment. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 31, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Han Xie, Faliang Zhou, Ye Wu Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Discovery of Glut 1 Deficiency Syndrome: Cerebrospinal Fluid Inspiration and Serendipity
I am pleased to author this article in memory and honor of my mentor, Kenneth F. Swaiman. Steve Roach and Stephen Ashwal inspired me to describe and publish the back story of the discovery of Glut 1 Deficiency Syndrome (Glut1DS) based upon a talk I gave for the Bresnan course in Boston in 2016 for the 25th anniversary of the Glut1DS publication in the NEJM. [1] In doing so, this will also reference my relationship with Kenneth F. Swaiman and my training at the University of Minnesota 1979 through 1982 and next two years as a faculty member with adjoining offices with Ken. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ronald I. Jacobson Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Preterm Infants With Bilirubin Encephalopathy Beyond Three Years Corrected Age
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in preterm infants with bilirubin encephalopathy (BE) become less clear as the infants age. We assessed MRI findings in children with preterm BE older than 36  months corrected age (CA). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Akihisa Okumura, Yukihiro Kitai, Hiroshi Arai, Masahiro Hayakawa, Yoshihiro Maruo, Takashi Kusaka, Tetsuya Kunikata, Satoko Kumada, Ichiro Morioka Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

MRI Findings in Preterm Infants with Bilirubin Encephalopathy beyond 3 Years of Corrected Age
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in preterm infants with bilirubin encephalopathy (BE) become less clear as the infants age. We assessed MRI findings in children with preterm BE older than 36 months corrected age (CA). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Akihisa Okumura, Yukihiro Kitai, Hiroshi Arai, Masahiro Hayakawa, Yoshihiro Maruo, Takashi Kusaka, Tetsuya Kunikata, Satoko Kumada, Ichiro Morioka Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

A relentless commitment to the children we serve
Two men uniquely changed my life. One is my incredible husband of 45 years. The other was Ken Swaiman. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Meryl Lipton Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurology at the Boston City Hospital: the Early Years (1969 to 1986)
As I look back at my years at Boston City Hospital (BCH), I am reminded that this festschrift is in honor of Ken Swaiman, of whom I was a long-time friend and admirer. As almost everyone recognizes, Ken had an enormous impact on how child neurology developed and one of the ways he did this was his personal involvement with many of us that had lifelong effects on our careers and personal lives. At the end of my seventh year in the Child Neurology Society (CNS), I was one of two nominees to assume its presidency (1978 to 1979). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: N. Paul Rosman Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Pediatric neurology at the boston city hospital: the early years (1969-1986)
As I look back at my years at Boston City Hospital (BCH), I am reminded that this festschrift is in honor of Ken Swaiman, of whom I was a long-time friend and admirer. As most everyone recognizes, Ken had an enormous impact on how child neurology developed and one of the ways he did this was his personal involvement with many of us that had life-long effects on our careers and personal lives. At the end of my seventh year in the CNS, I was one of two nominees to assume its Presidency (1978-79). The other was John Menkes, a world-renowned pediatric neurologist and playwright. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: N. Paul Rosman Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Juvenile Dermatomyositis Triggered by SARS-CoV-2
We read with interest the article by Kaur et  al. describing transverse myelitis in a child with COVID-19.1 We wish to describe a child who developed juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) associated with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This infection has been associated with various inflammatory/autoimmune s ymptoms and the presence of autoantibodies.2-4 (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Eduardo Liquidano-Perez, Mar ía Teresa García-Romero, Marco Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Mariana Maza-Morales, Marian K. Rivas-Calderón, Beatriz Bayardo-Gutierrez, Edwin Pardo-Díaz, Selma C. Scheffler-Mendoza Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Juvenile Dermatomyositis triggered by SARS-CoV-2 in a Mexican Child
We read with interest the article entitled “Transverse Myelitis in a Child With COVID-19” (1). We hereby report a unique pediatric patient presenting a severe form of juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This infection has been associated with inflammatory/autoimmune symptoms and the presence of autoantibo dies. (2-4) (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Eduardo Liquidano-Perez, Mar ía Teresa García-Romero, Marco Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Mariana Maza-Morales, Marian K. Rivas-Calderón, Beatriz Bayardo-Gutierrez, Edwin Pardo-Díaz, Selma C. Scheffler-Mendoza Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

IncobotulinumtoxinA Efficacy / Safety in Upper-Limb Spasticity in Pediatric Cerebral Palsy: Randomized Controlled Trial
This randomized, phase 3 study with double-blind main period (MP) and open-label extension (OLEX; NCT02002884) assessed incobotulinumtoxinA safety and efficacy for pediatric upper-limb spasticity treatment in ambulant/non-ambulant (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I –V) patients, with the option of combined upper- and lower-limb treatment. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Edward Dabrowski, Henry G. Chambers, Deborah Gaebler-Spira, Marta Banach, Petr Ka ňovský, Hanna Dersch, Michael Althaus, Thorin L. Geister, Florian Heinen Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Kenneth Swaiman and His Role in the Development of Child Neurology in China
When we heard the news of Professor Kenneth Swaiman's passing, we felt extremely sad. We always remembered his support for the development of pediatric neurology in China, and our hearts were filled with admiration and gratitude for what he had done and what he represented [Figure 1]. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuwu Jiang, Xiru Wu Tags: Opinion Paper Source Type: research

Kenneth Swaiman in Minnesota: Personal Reflections
Kenneth Swaiman entered my life in July 1963. I was in my first month as a pediatric intern working to acquire basic skills. Ken, early in his first faculty appointment, swept onto my ward with his entourage of trainees to consult on one of the patients. My inexperience did not allow me to appreciate all of what transpired that day but the recommendations about the patient were helpful. My professional relationship with Ken started that day and endured until his retirement. Therefore I welcome an opportunity describe him from our lengthy association. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Lawrence A. Lockman Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance characteristics of Bal ó concentric sclerosis in children
We present the clinical data, radiological appearance and development of lesions in eight children . (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: El żbieta Jurkiewicz, Paulina Opyrchał, Dominika Sławińska, Iwona Puzio-Bochen, Agnieszka Pytlewska, Marcin Roszkowski, Katarzyna Kotulska Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Clinical Profile and Long-term Outcome in Neonatal Cerebral Sinus Venous Thrombosis
This study aimed to determine the factors involved in long-term neurological outcomes in neonatal CSVT patients. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Isabella Herman, Cemal Karakas, Troy A. Webber, Stephen F. Kralik, Danielle S. Takacs, Kristen Fisher, Ethan A. Edmondson, James J. Riviello, Gary D. Clark, Davut Pehlivan Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Implementation Science to Improve Quality of Neurological Care
Neurological disorders are the leading cause of disability and the second leading cause of death globally. To challenge this enormous disease burden, scientists are pursuing innovative solutions to maintain and improve the quality of neurologic care. Despite the availability of many effective evidence-based practices, many patients with neurological disorders cannot access these (or receive them inefficiently after a long delay) and may be exposed to unnecessary, expensive, and potentially harmful treatments. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - May 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Debopam Samanta, Sara J. Landes Tags: Review Article Source Type: research