Residual vision activation and the brain-eye-vascular triad: Dysregulation, plasticity and restoration in low vision and blindness - a review.

Residual vision activation and the brain-eye-vascular triad: Dysregulation, plasticity and restoration in low vision and blindness - a review. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2018 Nov 08;: Authors: Sabel BA, Flammer J, Merabet LB Abstract Vision loss due to ocular diseases such as glaucoma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy, are generally considered an exclusive affair of the retina and/or optic nerve. However, the brain, through multiple indirect influences, has also a major impact on functional visual impairment. Such indirect influences include intracerebral pressure, eye movements, top-down modulation (attention, cognition), and emotionally triggered stress hormone release affecting blood vessel dysregulation. Therefore, vision loss should be viewed as the result of multiple interactions within a "brain-eye-vascular triad", and several eye diseases may also be considered as brain diseases in disguise. While the brain is part of the problem, it can also be part of the solution. Neuronal networks of the brain can "amplify" residual vision through neuroplasticity changes of local and global functional connectivity by activating, modulating and strengthening residual visual signals. The activation of residual vision can be achieved by different means such as vision restoration training, non-invasive brain stimulation, or blood flow enhancing medications. Modulating brain functional networks and improving vascular ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

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Abstract BACKGROUND/AIMS: In order to address the eye care needs of the increasing numbers of elderly Chinese globally, there is a need for comprehensive understanding on the longitudinal trends of age-related eye diseases among Chinese. We herein report the key findings from the baseline Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES-1), and describe the rationale and methodology of the 6-year follow-up study (SCES-2). METHODS: 3353 Chinese adults who participated in the baseline SCES-1 (2009-2011) were invited for the 6-year follow-up SCES-2 (2015-2017). Examination procedures for SCES-2 included standardised ocular, sy...
Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Br J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
-Aranguez A Abstract The eye is a complex organ constituted by several compartments with exclusive and specialized properties that reflect their diverse functions. Although the prevalence of eye pathologies is increasing, mainly because of its correlation with aging and of generalized lifestyle changes, the pathogenic molecular mechanisms of many common ocular diseases remain poorly understood. Therefore, there is an unmet need to delve into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of eye diseases to preserve ocular health and reduce the incidence of visual impairment or blindness. Proteomics analysis stands as ...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
Abstract: The lifestyle of modern society has changed significantly with the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) technologies in recent years. Artificial intelligence is a multidimensional technology with various components such as advanced algorithms, ML and DL. Together, AI, ML, and DL are expected to provide automated devices to ophthalmologists for early diagnosis and timely treatment of ocular disorders in the near future. In fact, AI, ML, and DL have been used in ophthalmic setting to validate the diagnosis of diseases, read images, perform corneal topographic ma...
Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Abstract AIM: To estimate the prevalence, causes and risk factors for presenting distance and near vision impairment (VI) in Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: This is a national, population-based survey using multistage, cluster random sampling in 120 clusters with probability-proportionate-to-size methods. Stage 1 included standardised, community-based measurement of visual acuity. Stage 2 invited all 4263 people aged ≥40 years for comprehensive clinic-based assessment. The Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre graded fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography images independently. RESULTS: The...
Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Br J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
Retinal degenerative diseases such as macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy constitute the leading cause of blindness in the industrialized world. There is a continuous demand in investigative ophthalmic research for the development of new treatment modalities for retinal therapy. Unfortunately, efforts to identify novel neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agents have often been hindered by an experimental model gap that exists between high-throughput methods via dissociated cells and preclinical animal models. Even though dissociated cell culture is rapid and high-throughput, it is limited in its abil...
Source: Cells Tissues Organs - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
RP Abstract Approximately 500,000 blind and 1 million visually impaired persons live in Germany, which lacks a national blind registry. Therefore data from social welfare agencies and population-based studies are used to estimate prevalence and incidence. Main causes for severe visual impairment and blindness are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic eye diseases. We observed a relative decline of the incidence of severe visual impairment and blindness over the last decades, which is primarily due to improved ophthalmic care and better treatment options. However, the absolute number of subjects ...
Source: Der Ophthalmologe - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Ophthalmologe Source Type: research
Rationale: The peak of blood glucose was during 9 PM to 3 AM. There is a stable, spontaneous and short-term abnormal increase of blood glucose. The pathophysiological mechanism is unknown. It is speculated that the cause might be the imbalance of the glucose-regulating hormone that is caused by the disorder of the biological clock system. Patient concerns: The case was a 73-year old man with bilateral glaucoma (only mild light perception) and was hospitalized to establish a viable hypoglycemic plan. He received 4 shots of insulin enhancement, oral meditation, pre-mixed insulin treatment during the 22 days. However, hi...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Discussion According to the World Health Organization, about 1.3 billion people have some form of visual impairment. Most people with visual impairments are>50 years old, more are female than male, and more live in resource-limited areas than resource-rich areas. Most visual impairments are avoidable (80%) in all age groups with the leading causes globally and across ages being uncorrected refractive errors and cataracts. The most common causes of blindness are: Refractive errors, uncorrected Cataract Age-related macular degeneration Glaucoma Diabetic retinopathy Corneal opacity Trachoma The exact numbers vary by regi...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Conclusion: Data from applications for blindness certificates provide valuable information regarding different causes of VI that might otherwise not be eligible for blindness certification and provide an insight into the overall trends in disease profile and service delivery.
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress, inflammation and autophagy are implicated in biochemical and morphological changes in these ocular tissues. The development of therapy is a major target for the management care of these ocular diseases. PMID: 30644339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
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