Cholera Threatens a Comeback Worldwide

Tents set up at Alsabeen hospital in Sana'a Yemen for screening suspected cholera cases.By Anna KucirkovaTEXAS, USA, Nov 2 2018 (IPS)Cholera outbreaks across history regularly killed a hundred thousand or more. It isn’t well known today because it was essentially eliminated in the Western world. It last erupted in the U.S. in the 1800s, eradicated by water and sewage treatment systems that prevented it from spreading via contaminated water. However, cholera is making a comeback around the globe, and it could again become a major killer.Cholera is caused by eating or drinking something contaminated with the Vibrio cholera bacteria. Because it is waterborne, Western cases tend to occur when someone eats contaminated sea food.In the developing world, people drinking water from rivers where others bathe and defecate contribute to its spread. That is why the World Health Organization (WHO) records around 150,000 cholera cases per year.Cholera remains common in places with poor sanitation systems or where they do not yet exist. That is why cholera is considered epidemic in places like Africa, Latin America and South Asia.Tropical climates that don’t get cold enough to kill the bacteria, wet soil that breeds it, and unsanitary groundwater that mixes with drinking water can cause one patient’s effluent to spread to an entire community.The literal environment prevents the bacteria from being truly eradicated, resulting in it being found in overcrowded slums. Storms a...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Environment Featured Global Headlines Health Humanitarian Emergencies IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse Population Poverty & SDGs TerraViva United Nations Water & Sanitation Source Type: news

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In this study, we isolated a virulent strain of DTMUV (SDS) from sparrows near a duck farm and attenuated it via serially passaging (alternately for 100 passages) in specific pathogen-free chicken and duck embryos. We attenuated the virus after the 60th passage (SDS-60), based on the production of embryos that were free of visible lesions and still alive. The 70th adapted strain (SDS-70), obtained with a virus titer of 10−2.46 EID50 was chosen to be the live attenuated vaccine. After immunizing ducklings with the SDS-70 strain, they obtained 100% protection against infection by the SDS-10 virulent strain. Our data de...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Diagnosing parapharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis can be challenging, but should be suspected and ruled out in cases of post-operative odynophagia, fever, and/or neck swelling and thoracic pain. Diagnosis is made based on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings. Prompt broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage should be initiated. Other severe complications such as meningitis should also be considered. PMID: 30898186 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: J Laryngol Otol Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: Journal of Molecular Structure, Volume 1186Author(s): Vinodkumar, Jathi KeshavayyaAbstractThree novel bioactive azo dyes were synthesized by a classical diazo-coupling method using sulfamethazine with three different N, N-dimethyl aniline derivatives as coupling components under appropriate experimental conditions. The structural features of the newly synthesized compounds were explored by using various analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Further, these compounds were assessed for the different pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tuberculosis, antioxidant and an...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
This study reported results obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), polarization measurement, and weight loss, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results were excellently complemented with the results obtained from density functional theory, i.e. DFT and molecular dynamics, i.e. MD. These hydrazones inhibited corrosion by adsorbing themselves on the metal surface which was confirmed by SEM-EDX and XPS results. All the synthesized inhibitors showed appreciable eff...
Source: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate ichroma™ IGRA-TB, a novel point-of-care platform for assaying IFN-γ release, and to compare it with QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 60 healthy subjects, and blood samples were obtained in QFT-GIT blood collection tubes. The blood collection tubes were incubated at 37°C, and culture supernatant was harvested after 18-24 hours. IFN-γ responses were assessed by the ichroma™ IGRA-TB cartridge and the QFT-GIT IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three act...
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Charissa C Naidoo, Georgina R Nyawo, Benjamin G Wu, Gerhard Walzl, Robin M Warren, Leopoldo N Segal, Grant TheronSummaryThe diverse microbial communities within our bodies produce metabolites that modulate host immune responses. Even the microbiome at distal sites has an important function in respiratory health. However, the clinical importance of the microbiome in tuberculosis, the biggest infectious cause of death worldwide, is only starting to be understood. Here, we critically review research on the microbiome's associatio...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
all A successful anti-cancer vaccine construct depends on its ability to induce humoral and cellular immunity against a specific antigen. Targeting receptors of dendritic cells to promote the loading of cancer antigen through an antibody-mediated antigen uptake mechanism is a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy. Researchers have been targeting different dendritic cell receptors such as Fc receptors (FcR), various C-type lectin-like receptors such as dendritic and thymic epithelial cell-205 (DEC-205), dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), and Dectin-1 to enhanc...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Publication date: 23–29 March 2019Source: The Lancet, Volume 393, Issue 10177Author(s): Rajasekharan K Nayar, Anoop T Nair, Muhammed Shaffi, Kamala Swarnam, Anant Kumar, Minu Abraham, Jinbert Lordson, Chitra Grace
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Operating clinical analyzers within recommended parameters can be challenging during outbreak response. Using the Piccolo Xpress point-of-care blood chemistry analyzer on guinea pig blood, we found that values of many analytes are still readily comparable when samples and reagent discs are handled at various conditions outside of manufacturer's recommendations. PMID: 30900978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
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