What is the Odds Ratio for Testicular Cancer after Cryptorchidism?

Discussion Cryptorchidism is the failure of one or both testes to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum. Congenital undescended testis (UDT)is common in young infants (1-4% in term infants and 45% in preterm infants) in that the testes will be palpable but remain high, but most testes will descend by 3-6 months and by 9 months of age only 1% remain undescended. The scrotum often appears underdeveloped. Sometimes the testes cannot be identified and is intra-abdominal at birth. Intra-abdominal testes are less likely to migrate to the scrotum and therefore are more likely to remain undescended. Acquired undescended testis is thought to be caused by the spermatic cord not elongating at the same rate as the body (especially the pelvis). A common cause is a fibrous remnant of the processus vaginalis that does not elongate. The scrotum may be normal or underdeveloped. Retractile testes are testis that remain high in the scrotum and/or groin but can be brought down into the scrotum without difficulty. Orchiopexy, where the testes is surgically placed into position within the scrotum, is recommended to be accomplished by around 1 year of age because of the increased risks of cosmetic problems, infertility and testicular malignancy. Cosmetic problems are not uncommon. Boys and men who underwent orchiopexy as infants often will have a smaller testicle or for it to be aligned higher in the scrotum after puberty. Rates of testicular atrophy are about 3-4% and increase to ~14% with ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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This study investigated the relationship of American Indian boarding school attendance and chronic physical health. We hypothesized boarding school attendance would be associated with an increased number of chronic physical health problems. We also examined the relationship between boarding school attendance and the 15 chronic health problems that formed the count of the chronic health conditions. American Indian attendees had a greater count of chronic physical health problems compared with nonattendees. Father's attendance was independently associated with chronic physical health problems. Attendees were more likely to h...
Source: Family and Community Health - Category: Primary Care Tags: Health Equity Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 52Author(s): Meimei Wang, Hang Ma, Zhaoxing Li, Yang Yu, Liangyu Liu, Xuegang Li, Xiaoli YeAbstractThe aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effects of SPG-56 and intestinal microbes on the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). An in-vivo model of CRC was generated by transplanting BALB/c nude mice with HCT-116 cells and tumor progression was monitored after treatment with SPG-56 (150 mg/kg), Lactobacillus fermentum (2 × 108 cfu/0.2 ml) + SPG-56 (150 mg/kg) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, 20 mM/0.2 ml). All thr...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
This study aimed to examine the growth inhibitory effect of the lower concentrations of β-carotene in HepG2 cells. Beta-carotene purified from Gracillaria sp. inhibited viability of HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This growth inhibitory effect was well correlated with increased apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis induction by β-carotene was associated with increased caspase-3 activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blot analysis showed a significant decrease in the expression of Bcl-2, PARP, and NF-kB protein, and an increase in the protein expression of Bax. Beta-carotene also...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
During recent years, an increasing percentage of male infertility has to be attributed to an array of environmental, health and lifestyle factors. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the intense expos...
Source: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusions: Renal Klotho expression in human sepsis-acute kidney injury and in mouse models of sepsis was significantly decreased and correlated with renal damage. Recombinant Klotho intervention diminished organ damage, inflammation, and endothelial activation in the kidney and brain of lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice. Systemic Klotho replacement may potentially be an organ-protective therapy for septic patients to halt acute, inflammatory organ injury.
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Online Laboratory Investigations Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS The results of this research indicate that the metastases of non-small cell lung cancer can predict RET rearrangement of the primary tumor tissue in the majority of cases. Testing for RET rearrangement in metastases can be used as an alternative to testing of primary tumor tissue if it is inaccessible. PMID: 30429449 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
Authors: Di C, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Wang F, Chen Y, Gan L, Zhou R, Sun C, Li H, Zhang X, Yang H, Zhang H Abstract Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles shed from all cell types and play a major role in communication and transportation of materials between cells due to their ability to transfer proteins and nucleic acids from one cell to another. Analogous in size and function to synthetic nanoparticles, exosomes offer many advantages, rendering them the most promising candidates for targeted drug or gene delivery vehicles. Exosomes can also induce chemoresistance or radioresistance of tumor cells. Studies about the related m...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
Authors: Vodovar D, Langrand J, Tournier N, Mégarbane B Abstract Since the 2000s, a concerning increase in opioid-analgesic-related overdoses and deaths has been reported in the United States. In contrast with opioid overdoses reported in the 80-90s mostly involving heroin, currently it is the misuse of opioid analgesics that is mainly responsible for opioid overdoses. This crisis is related to factors (not limited to the US) which occurred during the 90s and which have led to a broad prescription of opioids in non-cancer pain. In Europe and France, there is (but to a much lesser extent) an increase in ...
Source: Revue de Medecine Interne - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Rev Med Interne Source Type: research
CHELMSFORD (CBS) – Infertility can be a painful experience for couples trying to start a family. It’s a roller coaster ride of emotion that Shawn and Shannon McNamee know well. For more than a year, Shannon injected herself hundreds of times. They tried several rounds of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Nothing worked. “You would get really hopeful and optimistic, then it would crash. The results came back negative every time,” Shawn told WBZ-TV. The McNamees decided to adopt and now their living room is filled with toys and their hearts with love. Their son Logan is happy and curious and in no way int...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Boston News Health Healthwatch Syndicated Local Dr. Mallika Marshall Embryo Adoption Source Type: news
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents more than about 80% of the lung cancer. The early stages of NSCLC can be treated with complete resection with a good prognosis. However, most cases are detected at...
Source: BMC Medical Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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