Molecular classification of adult gliomas: recent advances and future perspectives

Purpose of review This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular classification of adult gliomas. Recent findings According to the 2016 WHO classification, five main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and histone H3.3 mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the integration of additional biomarkers, in particular CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytomas, TERT promoter mutations, EGFR amplification, chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss in IDH-wildtype astrocytomas, and FGFR1 mutations in midline gliomas. Histone H3.3 G34R/V defines a distinct subgroup of hemispheric IDH-wildtype high-grade gliomas occurring in young patients and FGFR gene fusions characterize a subgroup of IDH-wildtype glioblastomas that could benefit from specific treatment approaches. RNA sequencing may identify targetable gene fusions in circumscribed gliomas lacking classical BRAF alterations. In chordoid gliomas, recurrent PRKCA mutations could serve as a new diagnostic marker. Among comprehensive molecular analysis methods, DNA methylation profiling appears as a particularly powerful approach to identify new molecular subgroups of gliomas and to classify difficult cases. Summary The classification of adult gliomas may be improved by the integration of additional biomarkers and/or by comprehensive molecular analysis, in particular DNA...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

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Conditions:   Glioma;   Pilocytic Astrocytoma;   Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma;   Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma;   Ganglioglioma;   Optic Pathway Glioma;   Diffuse Astrocytoma Intervention:   Drug: C-11 Methionine Sponsor:   St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Contributors : Ningning Li ; Kastytis Sidlauskas ; Ying Zhang ; Sebastian BrandnerSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusHuman astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas are defined by mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 or 2. Mutant IDH1 causes the production and accumulation of the metabolite 2 hydroxyglutarate, which induces genome-wide hypermethylation, and is thought to be a driver mutation of these tumours. However, there are multiple contradictory effects of mutant IDH1 in cell lines and in vivo models, prompting us to study the effect of mutant...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
Contributors : Ningning Li ; Kastytis Sidlauskas ; Ying Zhang ; Sebastian BrandnerSeries Type : Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusHuman astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas are defined by mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 or 2. Mutant IDH1 causes the production and accumulation of the metabolite 2 hydroxyglutarate, which induces genome-wide hypermethylation, and is thought to be a driver mutation of these tumours. However, there are multiple contradictory effects of mutant IDH1 in cell lines and in vivo models, prompting us to study the effect of mu...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
AbstractObjective5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) –guided resection of gliomas in adults enables better delineation between tumor and normal brain, allowing improved resection and improved patients’ outcome. Recently, several reports were published regarding 5-ALA for resection of pediatric brain tumors. The aim of the study was to determine th e intracellular fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in pediatric brain tumors by hyperspectral imaging and to compare it with visually observed intraoperative fluorescence.Methods5-ALA was administered orally 4  h prior to surgery. During tumor resection, the surg...
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Low grade gliomas (LGG; World Health Organization (WHO) grade I and II) include astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, and collectively prognosticate a relatively favorable outcome with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) compared to high grade gliomas (HGG; WHO grade III and IV) [1 –4]. The age-adjusted annual incidence of LGG is approximately 1.0–1.7 cases per 100,000 person-years worldwide, with 10-year survival greater than 80% in pediatric subjects, and greater than 60% in adult subjects [1,5,6].
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Positron emission tomography (PET) is important in the noninvasive diagnostic imaging of gliomas. There are many PET studies on glioma diagnosis based on the 2007 WHO classification; however, there are no studies on glioma diagnosis using the new classification (the 2016 WHO classification). Here, the authors investigated the relationship between uptake of 11C-methionine (MET), 11C-choline (CHO), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on PET imaging and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) status (wild-type [IDH-wt] or mutant [IDH-mut]) in astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors according to the 2016 WHO cl...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Interdisciplinary NeurosurgeryAuthor(s): Kara L. Krajewski, Silvia Hernández-Durán, Jakob Matschke, Tammam AbboudAbstractWe demonstrate two unusual cases of malignant swelling and rapid fatal outcome as a form of the “wounded glioma syndrome” after biopsy of diffuse anaplastic gliomas in two young men.In the first case, the lesion was throughout the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes and extending into the basal ganglia with a small contrast-enhancing lesion in the temporal lobe. The patient underwent an open biopsy of the contrast...
Source: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2019Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Umbreen Hafeez, Siddarth Menon, Bella Nguyen, Caroline Lum, Gregory Gaughran, Ganesalingham Pranavan, Lawrence Cher, Anna K. Nowak, Hui K. Gan, Sagun ParakhAbstractThere is limited information on the patterns of care and outcomes of high grade gliomas (HGGs) in young adults, in particular, the impact it has on a person’s employment. We retrospectively identified young adult patients (age ≤ 40 years old) with newly diagnosed high grade gliomas treated between January 2013 and June 2018 across four major neuro-onc...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In conclusion, MGMT promoter methylation status and tumor location were identified as novel prognostic factors in adult PAs, pointing at distinct molecular subtypes and detecting patients in need of close observance and intensified treatment.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Being the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death, glial tumors are highly diverse tumor entities characterized by important heterogeneity regarding tumor malignancy and prognosis. However, despite the identification of important alterations in the genome of the glial tumors, there remains a gap in understanding the mechanisms involved in glioma malignancy. Previous research focused on decoding the genomic alterations in these tumors, but due to intricate cellular mechanisms, the genomic findings do not correlate with the functional proteins expressed at the cellular level. The development of mass sp...
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research
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