Model of Persistent Salmonella Infection: Salmonella enterica Serovar Pullorum Modulates the Immune Response of the Chicken from a Th17-Type Response towards a Th2-Type Response Bacterial Infections

Salmonella enterica infection affects a wide range of animals and humans, and a small number of serovars cause typhoid-like infections, one characteristic of which is persistent infection in convalescents. Avian-specific S. enterica serovar Pullorum produces systemic disease in young chickens, which is followed by a carrier state in convalescent birds, leading to infection of the ovary at sexual maturity and vertical transmission. However, the immunological basis of persistent infection remains unclear. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is taxonomically closely related but does not show this characteristic. Differences in the immune responses between S. Pullorum and S. Enteritidis were compared by using Salmonella-infected chicken monocyte-derived macrophages (chMDMs) and CD4+ T lymphocytes that had been cocultured with infected chMDMs or chicken splenocytes in vitro and also in 2-day-old chickens in vivo. In comparison with S. Enteritidis, S. Pullorum-infected chMDMs showed reduced mRNA expression levels of interleukin-12α (IL-12α) and IL-18 and stimulated the proliferation of Th2 lymphocytes, with reduced expression of gamma interferon (IFN-) and IL-17 and increased expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13. There was little evidence of clonal anergy or immune suppression induced by S. Pullorum in vitro. S. Pullorum also increased the levels of expression of IL-4 and decreased the levels of IFN- in the spleen and cecal tonsil of infected birds. This suggests that S. Pul...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Bacterial Infections Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Elma L. Leite, Wydemberg J. Araújo, Tatiana R. Vieira, Karoline S. Zenato, Priscylla C. Vasconcelos, Samuel Cibulski, Patricia E.N. Givisiez, Marisa R.I. Cardoso, Celso J.B. Oliveira
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we present a new method for the simultaneous detection of CXCR4, mesodermal markers and NCCs markers during chicken embryo developmental stages HH18 –HH25 by combining double whole-mount in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunostaining on floating vibratome sections. The simultaneous detection of CXCR4 and markers for the mesodermal and neural crest cells in multiple labelling allowed us to compare complex gene expression patterns and it could b e easily used for a wide range of gene expression pattern analyses of other chicken embryonic tissues. All steps of the procedure, including the preparation of p...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
This study was undertaken to compare the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in chickens generated by different vaccine formulations. Eighty day-old Lohmann layer chicks were divided into four groups of twenty birds each for the experiment. This comprised a non-vaccinated negative control group (NEG), a group vaccinated with the live 9R vaccine by the injection route (SC), a group vaccinated with alginate-coated chitosan microparticles encapsulating live plasmid-cured S. Gallinarum strain 9 (PC) by the oral route and a group vaccinated with a weak attenuated live S. Gallinarum strain 9 encapsulated in alginate-coa...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
This report describes the dynamics of FQ-associated mutations in the highly resistant in FQ mutants in S. Enteritidis. In addition, we characterized a deletion in the ramRA integenic region, demonstrating that this frequent mutation in the highly resistant FQ mutants provide resistance or reduce susceptibility to multiple families of antibiotics. Introduction Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major zoonotic pathogen worldwide (Bangtrakulnonth et al., 2004; Scallan et al., 2011). Infections caused by this pathogen have been mainly associated with gastroenteritis, an acute self-limiting intestinal infection. Howeve...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
AbstractFowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused bySalmonella Gallinarum (SG), and H9N2 influenza infection are two economically important diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant (JOL967) to deliver highly conserved extracellular domains of H9N2 M2 (M2e) to induce protective immunity against both H9N2 infection and FT. To increase the immunogenicity of M2e, we physically linked it with CD40L and cloned the fusion gene into either prokaryotic constitutive expression vector pJHL65 or mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1+. Then pJHL65-M2eCD40L or pcDNA-M2eCD40L r...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractFowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused bySalmonella Gallinarum (SG), and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two economically important avian diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant, JOL967, to deliver spike (S) protein 1 of IB virus (V) to elicit protective immunity against both FT and IB in chickens. The codon optimized S1 nucleotide sequence was cloned in-frame into a prokaryotic constitutive expression vector, pJHL65. Subsequently, empty pJHL65 or recombinant pJHL65-S1 plasmid was electroporated into JOL967 and the resultant clones were designated as ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, the data from the present showed that the JOL1814 can be an effective bivalent vaccine candidate against H5N3 LPAI and fowl typhoid infection in poultry while still offering sero-surveillance property against H5 avian influenza virus.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG) is a Gram-negative intracellular host-adapted pathogen that causes fowl typhoid (FT). Attenuated strains of SG are proven and widely used vaccine candidates because of its advantages like induction of strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of chicken bone marrow-derived DCs (chBM-DCs) with an attenuated SG (JOL1355) strain that secretes a heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein previously shown to successfully vaccinate chickens. ChBM-DCs were isolated and cultured in the presence of recombinant...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract Soluble plantain (Musa paradisiaca) nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) have previously been shown to prevent pathogenic interaction with the intestinal epithelium. Here, we examined whether plantain NSP could prevent the invasion of the intestinal mucosa by Salmonella enterica Gallinarum, a causative agent of fowl typhoid. In vitro assays using B1OXI cells were performed with monolayers pretreated with/without plantain NSP, before inoculation with Salm. Gallinarum 287/91. Chicks were fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing 50 mg day−1 plantain NSP, followed by oral inoculation with Salm. ...
Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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