The latest consensus on antiemetics

Purpose of review The present review summarizes and discuss the most recent updated antiemetic consensus. Recent findings Two new neurokinin (NK)1-receptor antagonists, netupitant and rolapitant, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency and incorporated in the latest versions of the MASCC/ESMO, ASCO, and NCCN guidelines. Guidelines all recommend a combination of a serotonin (5-HT)3-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a NK1-receptor antagonist in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) with the addition of the multireceptor targeting agent, olanzapine, as an option in cisplatin or anthracycline-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. A combination of a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a NK1-receptor antagonist is also recommended in patients receiving carboplatin-based chemotherapy, although based on a lower level of evidence. In spite of the development of new antiemetics, nausea has remained a significant adverse effect. Olanzapine is an effective antinausea agent, but sedation can be a problem. Therefore, the effect and tolerability of multitargeting, nonsedative agents like amisulpride, should be explored. Summary Guidelines recommend a combination of a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and an NK1-receptor antagonist in HEC and carboplatin-based chemotherapy. The addition of olanzapine can be useful in cisplatin-based and anthracycline-cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy in particular i...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Shoichi Deguchi, Kazuaki Nakashima, Koji Muramatsu, Koichi Mitsuya, Takuma Oishi, Kensei Shirata, Nakamasa Hayashi, Takashi Sugino, Masahiro Endo, Yoko NakasuAbstractWe aimed to estimate the frequency of intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS) in susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in consecutive patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and to determine if pretreatment heterogeneity of PCNSL is predictive of response to chemotherapy by using ITSS on SWI. We retrospectively examined 29 immunocompete...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Urology Case ReportsAuthor(s): Mehdi Kardoust Parizi, Solmaz Ohadian Moghadam, Seyed Ali MomeniAbstractGenitourinary tract liposarcoma is considered as the second most commonly reported type of sarcomas. Renal liposarcoma with tumor invasion to inferior vena cava (IVC) is distinctly rare. This tumor has a relatively indolent clinical course with risk of local recurrences (20%-85% rate) after surgery. Angiomyolipomas (AML) are the most important differential diagnosis because both are large fat-containing lesions. Herein, a patient with upper pole kidney liposarcoma w...
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2019Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology, Volume 45, Issue 9Author(s): D. Scott Merrell, Thomas J. McAvoy, Mary Caitlin King, Michelle Sittig, Eugene V. Millar, Carol Nieroda, Jessica L. Metcalf, Faith C. Blum, Traci L. Testerman, Armando SardiAbstractPseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a subtype of peritoneal carcinomatosis that is traditionally treated by cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). A growing body of evidence suggests that microbes are associated with various tumor types and have been found in organs and cavities that were onc...
Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionInitial tumor load has not been found associated with PFS after complete surgery. Adipocytes-enriched areas and right mesocolic areas involvement were associated with poor prognosis in patients receiving primary debulking surgery. Larger-scale studies are needed to assess whether initial tumor load has a prognostic impact even after complete cytoreductive surgery is achieved.
Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
The objective of this analysis was to assess the pharmacokinetics of pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab in Chinese patients with early breast cancer. Samples for pertuzumab and trastuzumab pharmacokinetic analysis were taken from Chinese patients during cycle 1 of treatment and at steady-state in cycle 10. Noncompartmental analysis was used to estimate minimum and maximum serum concentrations (Cmax and Cmin), area under the concentration-time curve, clearance, and other pharmacokinetic parameters. In 15 patients, mean steady-state Cmax and Cmin pertuzumab serum concentrations (368 ± 177 μg/ml, and 122 &pl...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Papers Source Type: research
We describe the case of a 53-year-old Asian male enrolled in LUX-Lung 8 who experienced long-term benefit from afatinib following failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. The patient received afatinib, and remained progression-free for 14.7 months according to investigator review. Overall survival was 17.7 months. Tolerability-guided dose adjustments helped facilitate long-term afatinib use by mitigating drug-related adverse effects. Next-generation sequencing revealed that multiple genetic aberrations were present, including epidermal growth factor receptor copy number amplification, and mutations in ERBB4, ALK, RET, and B...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
In this study, we show that Ras function can be inhibited by zoledronic acid (ZA) owing to its ability in inhibiting protein prenylation. Using in-vitro cell culture system and an in-vivo xenograft mouse model, the effects of ZA on cervical cancer cell growth and survival were determined. The molecular mechanisms of ZA’s action were analyzed focusing on prenylation and its downstream signaling pathways. ZA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of multiple cervical cancer cell lines regardless of their cellular origin and genetic profiling. The combination of ZA with paclitaxel or doxorubicin was superior to a...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Papers Source Type: research
This study demonstrates that the NRF2 pathway may serve as a therapeutic target in NSCLC, and ginseng compounds may be effective for the treatment of this disease.
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Papers Source Type: research
Authors: Hamdan D, Nguyen TT, Leboeuf C, Meles S, Janin A, Bousquet G Abstract Breast cancer remains a major health issue in the world with 1.7 million new cases in 2012 worldwide. It is the second cause of death from cancer in western countries. Genomics have started to modify the treatment of breast cancer, and the developments should become more and more significant, especially in the present era of treatment personalization and with the implementation of new technologies. With molecular signatures, genomics enabled a de-escalation of chemotherapy and personalized treatments of localized forms of estrogen-depend...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Conclusions: TAM are well preserved and can be studied in TSC of gastric cancer. Iron deprivation significantly increased tumor cell apoptosis. PMID: 31413815 [PubMed]
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
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