Lingual and Jaw Kinematic Abnormalities Precede Speech and Swallowing Impairments in ALS

AbstractEarly identification of bulbar involvement in persons with ALS is critical for improving diagnosis and prognosis; however, efficacious diagnostic markers have not yet been identified. The purpose of this study was to determine whether kinematic changes of the tongue and jaw during swallowing, measured using 3D electromagnetic articulography (EMA), predate clinically identifiable symptoms of speech and swallowing impairment in persons diagnosed with ALS. Data were collected from 16 adults diagnosed with ALS and 18 neurotypical controls. Groups were aged matched. Eligible participants with ALS were tolerating an unrestricted diet (FOIS  = 7), produced intelligible speech (>  97%), and had a speaking rate greater than 150 words per minute. Participants completed a 3-mL water swallow task, during which EMA recorded kinematic measures of the anterior and posterior regions of tongue including lingual speed, range of motion, duration, coordination, and efficiency. Jaw spe ed and range of motion were also recorded. Persons diagnosed with ALS demonstrated reduced posterior lingual range of motion (11.40 mm ± 4.01 vs. 16.07 mm ± 5.27), slower posterior lingual speeds (83.67 mm/s ± 47.96 vs. 141.35 mm/s ± 66.54), increased lingual movement duratio n (13.46 s ± 6.75 vs. 9.21 s ± 3.28), and reduced lingu...
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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