Substances used and prevalence rates of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among healthy subjects.

Substances used and prevalence rates of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among healthy subjects. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014 Sep 12; Authors: Franke AG, Bagusat C, Rust S, Engel A, Lieb K Abstract Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) is defined as the use of any psychoactive drug with the purpose of enhancing cognition, e.g. regarding attention, concentration or memory by healthy subjects. Substances commonly used as CE drugs can be categorized into three groups of drugs: (1) over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as coffee, caffeinated drinks/energy drinks, caffeine tablets or Ginkgo biloba; (2) drugs being approved for the treatment of certain disorders and being misused for CE: drugs to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the stimulants methylphenidate (MPH, e.g. Ritalin(®)) or amphetamines (AMPH, e.g. Attentin(®) or Adderall(®)), to treat sleep disorders such as modafinil or to treat Alzheimer's disease such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; (3) illicit drugs such as illicit AMPH, e.g. "speed", ecstasy, methamphetamine (crystal meth) or others. Evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials shows that the abovementioned substances have limited pro-cognitive effects as demonstrated, e.g. regarding increased attention, increased cognitive speed or shortening of reaction times, but on the same time poses considerable safety risks on the consumers. Prevalence rates for the...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Neurología (English Edition)Author(s): F.J. Ros Forteza
Source: Neurologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, next only to Alzheimer disease. As the average age of the United States and European populations increases, physicians caring for the elderly will be confronted with an increasing number of PD patients.
Source: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Preface Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lack of conclusive results, this test shows multiple applications that would allow disentangling diverse cognitive impairments in ADHD patients. ANT could analyze diverse cognitive mechanisms that could be compromised in these patients (tonic and phasic alerting, temporal and spatial expectancy, degree of interference of the distractor stimuli, attentional blinking o inhibition of return). This test could help to perform a better characterization of ADHD patients further than the classical forms considered nowadays (unattended and combined). PMID: 31713229 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista de Neurologia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between marijuana use and the prevalence, severity, and rate of occurrence of tinnitus.Study designCross-sectional analysis of nationally representative data.SettingNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012.Subjects and methodsStatistical analysis was performed on data collected from 2705 non-institutionalized adults aged 20–69 who underwent audiometric testing and were administered questionnaires about hearing, drug use, current health status, and medical history.ResultsThe use of marijuana at least once per month for the previous 12 m...
Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: Damaskos C, Garmpis N, Kollia P, Mitsiopoulos G, Barlampa D, Drosos A, Patsouras A, Gravvanis N, Antoniou V, Litos A, Diamantis E Abstract The globalization of the Western lifestyle has resulted in a dramatic increase of diabetes mellitus, a complex, multifactorial disease. Diabetes mellitus is a condition often associated with disorders of the cardiovascular system. It is well established that three quarters of diabetics, aged over 40, will die from cardiovascular disease and are more likely than non-diabetics to die from their first cardiovascular event. Therefore, risk stratification is necessary to ind...
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research
Publication date: 12 November 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 7Author(s): Rui Tiago Peixoto, Lynne Chantranupong, Richard Hakim, James Levasseur, Wengang Wang, Tasha Merchant, Kelly Gorman, Bogdan Budnik, Bernardo Luis SabatiniSummaryThe neural substrates and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the onset of cognitive and motor deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) remain unclear. Mutations in ASD-associated SHANK3 in mice (Shank3B−/−) result in the accelerated maturation of corticostriatal circuits during the second and third postnatal weeks. Here, we show that during this period, there i...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that nondependent alcohol drinking exacerbates the onset and magnitude of AD-like neural and behavioral pathology. We first evaluated the impact of voluntary 24-h, two-bottle choice home-cage alcohol drinking on the prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuroproteome in C57BL/6J mice and found a striking association between alcohol drinking and AD-like pathology. Bioinformatics identified the AD-associated proteins MAPT (Tau), amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), and presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) as the main modulators of alcohol-sensitive protein networks that included AD-related proteins ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 148Author(s): Douglas B. Matthews, Amelia Schneider, Abigail Kastner, Samantha Scaletty, Rachel SzenayAbstractThe population of most countries is increasing and the United Nations predicts that by the year 2050 those over the age of 60 years old will increase from 900 million individuals to approximately 2.1 billion individuals (United Nations, 2015). The increase in the number of older individuals will place a strain on many national health care systems making it important to investigate behaviors in the aged that may negatively impact general heal...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
We reported DEGs with a nominal p-value of 0.8. The network construction was created using blockwiseModules function for consideration of computer efficiency. The module detection criteria were as follows: minimum module size of 50, deepsplit of 4, and merge threshold of 0.25. The merged modules were then summarized with module eigengene (ME) correlations>0.75. MEs were defined by their first principal component and were labeled with different colors as module names in the Results section. After the modules were generated, we conducted different enrichment analysis to explore the functional interpretation of genes withi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, the studies presented in the current review demonstrate that CBD has the potential to limit delta-9-THC-induced cognitive impairment and improve cognitive function in various pathological conditions. Human studies suggest that CBD may have a protective role in delta-9-THC-induced cognitive impairments; however, there is limited human evidence for CBD treatment effects in pathological states (e.g. schizophrenia). In short, they found that CBD may help alleviate the negative impact of a person with schizophrenia from taking cannabis, both in the psychotic and cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. T...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Alternative and Nutritional Supplements Disorders General Research Treatment cannabidiol Cannabis cbd cbd oil Marijuana THC Source Type: blogs
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