Characterization of Stress and Innate Immunity Resistance of Wild-Type and {Delta}p66 Borrelia burgdorferi Bacterial Infections

Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common arthropod-borne disease in the United States. B. burgdorferi evades host immune defenses to establish a persistent, disseminated infection. Previous work showed that P66-deficient B. burgdorferi (p66) is cleared quickly after inoculation in mice. We demonstrate that the p66 strain is rapidly cleared from the skin inoculation site prior to dissemination. The rapid clearance of p66 bacteria is not due to inherent defects in multiple properties that might affect infectivity: bacterial outer membrane integrity, motility, chemotactic response, or nutrient acquisition. This led us to the hypothesis that P66 has a role in mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (mCRAMP; a major skin antimicrobial peptide) and/or neutrophil evasion. Neither wild-type (WT) nor p66 B. burgdorferi was susceptible to mCRAMP. To examine the role of neutrophil evasion, we administered neutrophil-depleting antibody anti-Ly6G (1A8) to C3H/HeN mice and subsequently monitored the course of B. burgdorferi infection. p66 mutants were unable to establish infection in neutrophil-depleted mice, suggesting that the important role of P66 during early infection is through another mechanism. Neutrophil depletion did not affect WT B. burgdorferi bacterial burdens in the skin (inoculation site), ear, heart, or tibiotarsal joint at early time points postinoculation. This was unexpected given that prior in vitro studies demonstrated neutrop...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Bacterial Infections Source Type: research

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The diagnosis of acute Lyme disease is not straightforward. Therefore it is important to develop new strategies to improve diagnostic processes. Detailed analysis of patients’ B cell repertoires by High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) revealed antigen-associated “signatures” which have a huge potential to support diagnosis of acute infections. The human B cell immune response to Borrelia burgdorferi – the causative agent of Lyme disease – has mainly been studied at the antibody level, while less attention has been given to the cellular part of the humoral immune response. There are indications tha...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Vancomycin is active in vitro and in vivo in mouse systems against Lyme disease borrelia; however, there are no published data on the efficacy of vancomycin in patients with Lyme disease and no convincing theoretical advantages of vancomycin over the currently used and highly effective orally administered antimicrobial agents, including doxycycline, amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil. In addition, vancomycin may cause a wide variety of potentially serious adverse effects and requires the placement of an intravenous catheter. It is concluded that vancomycin is a much less attractive option for the...
Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Wien Klin Wochenschr Source Type: research
In this study, we compared factors that may have an influence on DNA extraction namely commercially available DNA extraction kits vs alkaline hydrolysis for DNA extraction. The methods were applied to questing Ixodes (I.) ricinus ticks and Borrelia cultures of defined cell concentrations. A total of 69 questing I. ricinus ticks were collected. From 34 ticks, total DNA was extracted using a commercial DNA extraction kit. Thirty-five ticks were treated with 1.25 % ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH). Six ticks from each batch were placed in 70 % ethanol (EtOH) for one week prior to DNA extraction to see the effect of EtOH preservatio...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Horm Metab Res 2019; 51: 326-329 DOI: 10.1055/a-0885-7169Dyslipidemia and dyslipoproteinemia are common causes of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, intracellular bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi, utilize host lipids to survive and disseminate within the host. Recent data suggest that elevated lipids are a contributing factor to the maintenance and severity of Lyme disease and its complications. Here we review and discuss the role of lipids in Borreliosis and report on a pilot trial to examine the potential roles of circulating lipids and lipoproteins in patients with Borrelia infection. In thi...
Source: Hormone and Metabolic Research - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Endocrine Care Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur results show that Tp0136 facilitates differential level of binding to cell lines representing various host tissues, which highlights the importance of this protein in colonization of human organs byT.pallidum and resulting syphilis pathogenesis.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Researchers from across Europe, including the University of East London, mapped reports of the Lyme disease-causing Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria in ticks from 2010 to 2017.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
We report the case of a 62-year-old woman presenting with asymmetrical tetraparesis and hyporeflexia. Initially the presumed diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome with a possible functional component was suspected and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin was initiated. Due to partial response to therapy and further test results including positive serologies and cerebrospinal fluid antibodies for Borrelia, the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis was considered. Furthe r exploring revealed the possibility of exposure to ticks although there was no report of typical skin lesions. Daily physical therapy and appropriate an...
Source: Case Reports in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWith co-infection of tick-borne pathogens being commonplace, diagnostic improvements remain important. Developing in vivo models might allow more insight into human pathogenesis. Continued ecological and human case studies are key to better epidemiological understanding, guiding intervention strategies. PMID: 31064634 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
In this study, the proteomic profile of the surface-associated proteins from M. bovis BCG Moreau was compared to the BCG Pasteur reference strain. The methodology used was 2DE gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry techniques (MALDI-TOF/TOF), leading to the identification of 115 proteins. Of these, 24 proteins showed differential expression between the two BCG strains. Furthermore, 27 proteins previously described as displaying moonlighting function were identified, 8 of these proteins showed variation in abundance comparing BCG Moreau to Pasteur and 2 of them presented two different domain hits. Moonlighting ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Lyme disease (LD) is an infectious multi-system illness caused by the bacterial genus Borrelia and spread by bites of infected ticks. Although most patients are successfully treated by timely antibiotic therapy, ...
Source: BMC Public Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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