Antibiotic identified that reduces infection risk in young leukemia patients

(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital) St. Jude Children's Research Hospital investigators report preventive antibiotic therapy, particularly with levofloxacin, reduced the odds of infections in at-risk pediatric leukemia patients early in cancer treatment.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

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In this study they also showed PTX3 localized in NETs formed after neutrophil activation (5). Proteomics analysis revealed that PTX3 forms complexes with two anti-microbial proteins [azurocidin (AZU1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)] associated to NETs (30). More recently, PTX3 localization in NETs has been confirmed, and the colocalization with AZU1 and MPO has been defined more accurately (31). Further investigation will be needed to understand the involvement of PTX3 interaction with AZU1 and MPO in their antibacterial role during NET formation. Regulation of Complement Activation PTX3 interaction with microorganisms is not...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We report that the bifunctional compounds enhance the interactions between primary human neutrophils and A. fumigatus in vitro, using three microfluidic assay platforms. The bifunctional compounds significantly enhance the recruitment of neutrophils, increase hyphae killing by neutrophils in a uniform concentration of drug, and decrease hyphal tip growth velocity in the presence of neutrophils compared to the antifungal targeting moiety alone. We validated that the bifunctional compounds are also effective in vivo, using a zebrafish infection model with neutrophils expressing the appropriate EM receptor. We measured signif...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionOur findings support PST use in immunocompromised hosts. The widespread use of PST in patients with cancer will allow for optimal use of antimicrobial therapy and stewardship, which are vital in a population at increased risk for infections.
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions:In this pilot program, IPOP liposomal daunorubicin and cytarabine induction and management appears to be safe and to significantly reduce the length of hospitalization in patients with secondary AML. Future analyses with larger samples of patients are needed to further evaluate patient outcomes, safety and financial implications based on decreased inpatient hospital utilization.DisclosuresNo relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 902. Health Services Research-Malignant Diseases: Poster II Source Type: research
Abstract Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is an abdominal infection reported primarily in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following chemotherapy, especially cytarabine, a notable efficacious cytotoxic agent for AML remission. Specific data regarding the impact of different cytarabine schedules and/or antibacterial regimens for NEC are sparse. The aim of the study was to identify the predictors of outcome within 30 days of NEC onset. NEC episodes were retrospectively pinpointed among 440 patients with newly diagnosed AML hospitalized in our Institution, over a 10‐year period, for receiving chemotherapy prot...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
Authors: Portugal R, Nucci M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Typhlitis is an abdominal complication of cancer chemotherapy, affecting mostly patients receiving intensive chemotherapeutic regimens with high potential to induce mucosal damage, such as patients with acute leukemia. Despite being relatively frequent, there are no randomized trials or high-quality cohort studies addressing important aspects of the diagnosis and management of the disease. Areas covered: In this review we discuss the gaps in the literature, acknowledging that the evidences for recommendations regarding the management of typhlitis are mostly expert...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe practice of discharging patients with persistent neutropenia who are afebrile with negative blood cultures produces acceptable rates of readmission and subsequent infection and does not lead to increased morbidity and mortality.
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
In this report, a case of brucellosis-related febrile neutropenia in a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) was presented. A 56-year-old male patient presenting with fever, petechiae/purpura, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and anemia was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory studies revealed a hemoglobin level of 8.27 g/dl, leukocyte count of 77.100 k/ml, absolute neutrophil count of 200 k/ml, and platelets at 94.200 k/ml. The patient was diagnosed as AML-M1 and piperacillin/tazobactam was started as the first-line antibiotic therapy due to the febrile neutropenia. On admission, blood and urine cultures were nega...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Scenario A 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is receiving empirical intravenous antibiotic treatment for febrile neutropenia. On day 2 of her admission you are notified from the microbiology laboratory that she has a blood culture positive with a Gram-negative bacillus. You wonder if she has risk factors for antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteraemia and if her empirical antibiotic therapy should be adjusted. Structured clinical question In a child with cancer (patient) what risk factors (‘intervention’) affect probability of growth of an antibiotic resistant Gram-negative organism in blood...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: ADC Archimedes, Oncology, Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases, Child health, Screening (epidemiology), Screening (public health) Source Type: research
Purpose of review: Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among neutropenic cancer patients, particularly those with acute leukaemia. Even with empiric therapy, case fatality rates of neutropenic pneumonias remain unacceptably high. However, recent advances in the management of neutropenic pneumonia offer hope for improved outcomes in the cancer setting. This review summarizes recent literature regarding the clinical presentation, microbiologic trends, diagnostic advances and therapeutic recommendations for cancer-related neutropenic pneumonia. Recent findings: Although neutropenic patients acquire pathogens both in commu...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Alimuddin Zumla and Michael S. Niederman Source Type: research
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