TWiV 458: Saliva of the fittest

The TWiVians present an imported case of yellow fever in New York City, and explain how a dengue virus subgenomic RNA disrupts immunity in mosquito salivary glands to increase virus replication. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode ASM Conference on Viral Manipulation of Nuclear Processes Roger W. Hendrix, 74 (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette) Roger Hendrix video on TWiV #135 Yellow fever in traveler returning from Peru (MMWR) Dengue subgenomic RNA in mosquito salivary gland (PLoS Path) Image credit Letters read on TWiV 458 This episode is brought to you by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Part of the U.S. Department of Defense, the Agency’s Chemical and Biological Technologies Department hosts the 2017 Chemical and Biological Defense Science &Technology Conference to exchange information on the latest and most dynamic developments for countering chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. Find out more at http://www.cbdstconference.com Weekly Science Picks Kathy - Antibody validation Editorial Asilomar meeting report Dickson - Despommierphotoart.com Alan - NOAA Hurricane Hunters Rich - Awakenings by Oliver Sacks (encephalitis lethargica) Vincent - Goodnight Lab by Chris Ferrie Listener Picks Pete - Change Agent by Daniel Suarez Paul - Pasteur's Gambit by Stephen Dando-Collins Maureen - Discovery Documentary First...
Source: This Week in Virology - MP3 Edition - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: podcasts

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AbstractThe Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the vector borne causes of encephalitis found in southeastern Asia. This positive single-stranded RNA virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which notably includes dengue, tick-borne, West Nile, Zika as well as yellow fever, and transmits to humans by infected mosquitos. The main site of interactions for antibodies against this virus is the envelope protein domain III (ED3). The present report investigates the time-dependent structural and conformational changes of JEV ED3 functional epitopes and escape mutants by computer simulations. The results indicate the ...
Source: Immunologic Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study aimed to develop: (i) an one-step duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay to efficiently and simultaneously detect and quantify DENV and ZIKV; (ii) a fourplex RT-qPCR to differentiate and quantify the four DENV serotypes. The detection limit of the duplex assay was 0.028 and 0.065 FFU (focus forming unit)/ml for DENV and ZIKV respectively. The lower limit of analytical sensitivity of fourplex assay was 0.01 FFU/ml for DENV-1 and 0.1 FFU/ml for DENV-2,-3 and -4. The assessment of specificity indicated both assays were highly specific to targeted viruses with negative resul...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
Abstract Mosquitoes spread several life-threatening diseases such as malaria, filaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever and are associated with millions of deaths every year across the world. However, insecticides of synthetic origin are conventionally used for controlling various vector-borne diseases but they have various associated drawbacks like impact on non-targeted species, negative effects on the environment, and development of resistance in vector species by alteration of the target site. Plant extracts, phytochemicals, and their nanoformulations can serve as o...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
The genus Flavivirus encompasses several worldwide-distributed arthropod-borne viruses including, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encepha...
Source: Virology Journal - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In conclusion, benzavir-2 was a potent inhibitor of flavivirus infection, which supported the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of benzavir-2.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Mosquitoes are principal vector of several vector-borne diseases affecting human beings leading to thousands of deaths per year and responsible for transmitting diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, Zika virus, Japanese encephalitis, and lymphatic filariasis. In the present study, we evaluated the different solvent extracts of mangrove Avicennia marina for their toxicity against larvae of three major mosquito vectors, as well as selected microbial pathogens. The larvicidal mortality of third instars was observed after 24 h. Highest larval mortality was found for the acetone extrac...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur data point to an important role of flavivirus-specific IgM during the transient early stages of infection, by contributing substantially to neutralization and by counteracting ADE. In addition, our results highlight structural differences between strains of Zika and dengue viruses that are used for analyzing infection-enhancement by cross-reactive antibodies. These findings underscore the possible impact of specific antibody patterns on flavivirus disease and vaccination efficacy.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we demonstrate that the MEK/ERK inhibitor AZD6244 has potent antiviral efficacyin vitro against DENV-2, DENV-3, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). We also show that it is able to protect AG129 mice from a lethal challenge with DENV-2 (D2S20). The molecule is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. The effect of AZD6244 on the DENV life cycle was attributed to a blockade of morphogenesis. Treatment of AG129 mice twice daily with oral doses of AZD6244 (100  mg/kg/day) prevented the animals from contracting dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)-like ...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, Zika, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus present substantial global health burdens. New vaccines are being sought to address safety and manufacturing issues associated with current live attenuated vaccines. Here, we describe a new insect-specific flavivirus, Binjari virus, which was found to be remarkably tolerant for exchange of its structural protein genes (prME) with those of the aforementioned pathogenic vertebrate-infecting flaviviruses (VIFs). Chimeric BinJ/VIF-prME viruses remained replication defective in vertebrate cells but replicated with high efficiency in mosq...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Abstract Flaviviruses comprise several medically important viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus and Zika virus (ZIKV). A large outbreak of DENV and ZIKV occurred recently, leading to many cases of illness and death. However, despite decades of efforts, we have no clinically specific therapeutic drugs against DENV and ZIKV. Previous studies showed that inflammatory responses play a critical role in dengue and Zika pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we examined a series of novel anti-inflammatory compounds and found that treatment with compound 2d c...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
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