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How an unlikely cellular 'antenna' can impair brain development

(University of North Carolina Health Care) An antenna-like structure on cells, once considered a useless vestige, can cause defects in the brain's wiring similar to what's seen in autism, schizophrenia, and other disorders. In the lab, UNC scientists prevented defects by restoring signaling though these structures called primary cilia.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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Abstract By means of a novel methodology that can statistically derive patterns of co‐alterations distribution from voxel‐based morphological data, this study analyzes the patterns of brain alterations of three important psychiatric spectra—that is, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive‐compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD). Our analysis provides five important results. First, in SCZD, ASD, and OCSD brain alterations do not distribute randomly but, rather, follow network‐like patterns of co‐alteration. Second, the clusters of co‐altered areas form a net of a...
Source: Human Brain Mapping - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Authors: Cummings MA, Proctor GJ, Stahl SM Abstract Tardive dyskinesia remains a significant, potentially stigmatizing or crippling adverse effect for any patient treated with an antipsychotic medication. While second- and third-generation antipsychotics have exhibited lower annual incidence rates for tardive dyskinesia than classic or first-generation agents, 3.9% versus 5.5%, the estimated incidence rate is only modestly lower. When coupled with the fact that second- and third-generation antipsychotic medications have come to be employed in treating a wider range of disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, moo...
Source: Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses Source Type: research
AbstractEvolution often deals in genomic trade-offs: changes in the genome that are beneficial overall persist even though they also produce disease in a subset of individuals. Here, we explore the possibility that such trade-offs have occurred as part of the evolution of the human brain. Specifically, we provide support for the possibility that the same key genes that have been major contributors  to the rapid evolutionary expansion of the human brain and its exceptional cognitive capacity also, in different combinations, are significant contributors to autism and schizophrenia. Furthermore, the model proposes t...
Source: Human Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, we examined the relationship between handedness and glioma risk in a large case –control study (1849 glioma cases and 1354 healthy controls) and a prospective cohort study (326,475 subjects with 375 incident gliomas). In the case–control study, we found a significant inverse association between left handedness and glioma risk, with left-handed persons exhibiting a 35% reduc tion in the risk of developing glioma [odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–0.83] after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, and state of residence; similar inverse associations...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: 11 January 2018 Source:Cell, Volume 172, Issues 1–2 Author(s): James Ashley, Benjamin Cordy, Diandra Lucia, Lee G. Fradkin, Vivian Budnik, Travis Thomson Arc/Arg3.1 is required for synaptic plasticity and cognition, and mutations in this gene are linked to autism and schizophrenia. Arc bears a domain resembling retroviral/retrotransposon Gag-like proteins, which multimerize into a capsid that packages viral RNA. The significance of such a domain in a plasticity molecule is uncertain. Here, we report that the Drosophila Arc1 protein forms capsid-like structures that bind darc1 mRNA in neurons a...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
e;n O Abstract Neuropsychiatric disorders arise from the alteration of normal brain developmental trajectories disrupting the function of specific neuronal circuits. Recent advances in human genetics have greatly accelerated the identification of genes whose variation increases the susceptibility for neurodevelopmental disorders, most notably for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. In parallel, experimental studies in animal models-most typically in mice-are beginning to shed light on the role of these genes in the development and function of specific brain circuits. In spite of their limitations, un...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Neurobiol Source Type: research
This study used the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire to explore the level of consequences of 104 caregivers involved with adults with High Functioning ASD (HF-ASD) and compared these with the consequences reported by caregivers of patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia. Caregivers involved with adults with an HF-ASD experience overall consequences comparable to those involved with patients with depression or schizophrenia. Worrying was the most reported consequence. More tension was experienced by the caregivers of ASD patients, especially by spouses. More care and attention for spouses of adults with an ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source:Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Author(s): Han-yu Zhou, Xin-lu Cai, Michael Weigl, Peter Bang, Eric F.C. Cheung, Raymond C.K. Chan Multisensory temporal integration could be compromised in both autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and may play an important role in perceptual and cognitive impairment in these two disorders. This review aimed to quantitatively compare the sensory temporal acuity between healthy controls and the two clinical groups (ASD and SSD). Impairment of sensory temporal integration was robust and co...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
We report changes in the psychiatric symptom profile in the course of development of a young boy with a 22q11.2DupS syndrome, from early childhood to adolescence. The boy's psychiatric presentation was characterized by features of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), with ADHD in early childhood, a single psychotic episode in mid-infancy, and executive impairment in adolescence. We discuss the importance of an in-depth assessment of cognitive functions in children with22q11.2DupS throughout their development. PMID: 29307791 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Medical Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Eur J Med Genet Source Type: research
Abstract The psychological effects of brain-expressed imprinted genes in humans are virtually unknown. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic condition mediated by genomic imprinting, which involves high rates of psychosis characterized by hallucinations and paranoia, as well as autism. Altered expression of two brain-expressed imprinted genes, MAGEL2 and NDN, mediates a suite of PWS-related phenotypes, including behaviour, in mice. We phenotyped a large population of typical individuals for schizophrenia-spectrum and autism-spectrum traits, and genotyped them for the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs850807...
Source: Biology Letters - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Biol Lett Source Type: research
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