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How an unlikely cellular 'antenna' can impair brain development

(University of North Carolina Health Care) An antenna-like structure on cells, once considered a useless vestige, can cause defects in the brain's wiring similar to what's seen in autism, schizophrenia, and other disorders. In the lab, UNC scientists prevented defects by restoring signaling though these structures called primary cilia.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 20 May 2018 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): Michael S. Breen, Aliza P. Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A. Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J. Zar, Kerry J. Ressler, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Dan J. Stein Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Author(s): Emma J. Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P. Aggleton The cingulum bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum’s composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle. To help understand its complex structure, this review begins with detailed, comparative descriptions of the multiple connections comprising the cingulum bundle. N...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Recent theories propose that schizophrenia/schizotypy and autistic spectrum disorder are related to impairments in Bayesian inference i.e. how the brain integrates sensory information (likelihoods) with prior knowledge. However existing accounts fail to clarify: i) how proposed theories differ in accounts of ASD vs. schizophrenia and ii) whether the impairments result from weaker priors or enhanced likelihoods. Here, we directly address these issues by characterizing how 91 healthy participants, scored for autistic and schizotypal traits, implicitly learned and combined priors with sensory information. This was accomplishe...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors. However, fewer studies have examined the role of direct activation of maternal T-cells during pregnancy using microbial agents. Bacterial s...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): Ruthy Glass, Sara Norton, Nicholas Fox, Alexander W. Kusnecov Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors....
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Comprehension abilities of educated adults with HFA could be higher than average in situations that do not involve social interaction. Tendency to perseveration in the presence of adequate concept formation ability may reflect the clinical symptoms of rigidity and repetitive behavior. In patients with higher levels of functioning and education, their diagnosis appears to be weakly associated with cognitive functioning. The potential roles of other variables, such as environmental factors, during development deserve further exploration in future studies. PMID: 29730869 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Turkish Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Turk Psikiyatri Derg Source Type: research
(Scripps Research Institute) The new research opens the door to studying common brain conditions such as autism, schizophrenia, addiction and Alzheimer's disease under reproducible conditions in a dish.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
(Canadian Association for Neuroscience) The Canadian Association for Neuroscience is proud to announce that Karun Singh (McMaster University) will receive the 2018 CAN Young Investigator Award on May 15th 2018 in Vancouver. Dr. Singh's research has broadened our understanding of the genetics of brain development, and of the risk factors underlying neurodevelopmental disorders. His work has uncovered new disease mechanisms for autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia which are paving the way forward to identify new therapeutics.
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Abstract Cytokines and chemokines are potent modulators of brain development and as such, dysregulation of the maternal immune system can result in deviations in the fetal cytokine balance, altering the course of typical brain development, and putting the individual on a "pathway to pathology". In the current study, we used a multi-variate approach to evaluate networks of interacting cytokines and investigated whether alterations in the maternal immune milieu could be linked to alcohol-related and alcohol-independent child neurodevelopmental delay. This was achieved through the measurement of 40 cytokine...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): Tamara S. Bodnar, Charlis Raineki, Wladimir Wertelecki, Lyubov Yevtushok, Larisa Plotka, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Gordon Honerkamp-Smith, Alan Wells, Matthieu Rolland, Todd S. Woodward, Claire D. Coles, Julie A. Kable, Christina D. Chambers, Joanne Weinberg Cytokines and chemokines are potent modulators of brain development and as such, dysregulation of the maternal immune system can result in deviations in the fetal cytokine balance, altering the course of typical brain development, and putting the individual on a “pathway ...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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