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How an unlikely cellular 'antenna' can impair brain development

(University of North Carolina Health Care) An antenna-like structure on cells, once considered a useless vestige, can cause defects in the brain's wiring similar to what's seen in autism, schizophrenia, and other disorders. In the lab, UNC scientists prevented defects by restoring signaling though these structures called primary cilia.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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"It's not what you said; it's how you said it!" How many times have you said or heard that while interacting with a family member or colleague? It is clear that tone of voice (modulations in pitch, loudness, and rhythm of speech, together called prosody) conveys a great deal of intent and emotion in nearly every exchange. Imagine that your spouse's response to a very special birthday gift is "I've never seen anything like it," spoken in a completely monotone voice. You would not be able to tell if he or she loves it or hates it. On the flip side, suppose you say to your spouse, lovingly, "I can har...
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Executive function, Frontotemporal dementia, Dementia aphasia EDITORIALS Source Type: research
Publication date: 14 September 2017 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 657 Author(s): Alexandra Turano, Jennifer H. Lawrence, Jaclyn M. Schwarz During development, microglial progenitor cells migrate into the brain from the periphery, a process critical to the maturation of the developing brain. Although they perform functions similar to mature, adult microglia, immature microglia are distinct from mature microglia. Activation of immature microglia, via an early-life immune challenge, can lead to persistent changes in microglial function, resulting in long-term neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. Early-life immune activa...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
__________ Neuroscience used to be the monopoly of a few elite universities located in a handful of countries. Neuropsychology used to be a quaint niche discipline relatively unconnected to the larger world of neuroscience and content in its methods with paper-and-pencil tests. Neuroscience itself was relatively unconcerned with higher-order cognition, and the very term “cognitive neuroscience” was often met with rolled eyes by scientists working in more established areas of brain research (a personal observation made in the 1980s and even 1990s on more than one occasion). And the ...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Health & Wellness Professional Development Alexander-Luria clinical psychologists cognition cognitive-psychologists disease Executive-Functions frontal-lobe medical neurologists neuropsychologists Neuropsyc Source Type: blogs
Publication date: 17 September 2017 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 359 Author(s): Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara Many neuropsychiatric disorders show localized dysfunction in specific cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying such region-specific vulnerabilities are unknown. Post-mortem analyses have demonstrated a selective reduction in the expression of parvalbumin (PV) in GABAergic interneurons in the frontal rather than the sensory cortex of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum dis...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Yamashita &N Ozaki
Source: Translational Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
α 7-nACh is one of the major nicotinic cholinergic receptor subtypes found in the brain. It is broadly expressed in the hippocampal and cortical neurons, the regions which play a key role in memory formation. Although α 7-nACh receptors may serve as postsynaptic receptors mediating classical neurotransmission, they usually function as presynaptic modulators responsible for the release of other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, γ -aminobutyric acid, dopamine, and norepinephrine. They can, therefore, affect a wide array of neurobiological functions. In recent years, research has found that a large numbe...
Source: Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej - Category: Research Tags: Review article Source Type: research
(NIH/National Institute of Mental Health) Researchers have produced the first direct evidence that parts of our brains implicated in mental disorders may be shaped by a 'residual echo' from Neanderthal DNA in our genomes. Evidence from MRI scans suggests that such ancient genetic variation may affect the way our brains work today -- and may hold clues to understanding deficits seen in schizophrenia and autism-related disorders.
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
In this study we have examined changes in hypoglossal motor neuron function in the LgDel mouse model of 22q11DS. Hypoglossal motor neurons from LgDel mouse pups have action potentials with afterhyperpolarizations, mediated by a large conductance charybdotoxin-sensitive Ca-activated K current, that are significantly shorter in duration and greater in magnitude than those in wild-type pups. In addition, the amplitude, but not frequency, of glutamatergic excitatory glutamatergic postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) is diminished, and GABAergic, but not glycinergic, neurotransmission to hypoglossal motor neurons was reduced in LgDel ...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Comparing the social features of the two conditions could lead to better treatments and a deeper understanding of each -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
Source: Scientific American - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Mind Behavior & Society Mental Health Source Type: research
This study investigates the balance of excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in a non-clinical sample with high and low trait SD, as glutamate and GABA abnormalities are reported across the autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Participants were 18 low (10 female) and 19 high (9 female) SD scorers aged 18 to 40 years who underwent 1H-MRS for glutamate and GABA+macromolecule (GABA+) concentrations in right and left hemisphere superior temporal (ST) voxels. Reduced GABA+ concentration (p= 0.03) and increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio (p= 0.003) in the right ST voxel for the hi...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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