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How an unlikely cellular 'antenna' can impair brain development

(University of North Carolina Health Care) An antenna-like structure on cells, once considered a useless vestige, can cause defects in the brain's wiring similar to what's seen in autism, schizophrenia, and other disorders. In the lab, UNC scientists prevented defects by restoring signaling though these structures called primary cilia.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewCopy number variation (CNV) disorders arise from the dosage imbalance of one or more gene(s), resulting from deletions, duplications, or other genomic rearrangements that lead to the loss or gain of genetic material. Several disorders, characterized by multiple birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities, have been associated with relatively large (>  1 Mb) and often recurrent CNVs. CNVs have also been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders including autism and schizophrenia as well as other common complex diseases. Thus, CNVs have a significant impact on human...
Source: Current Genetic Medicine Reports - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Researchers at UCLA have developed a method to produce improved brain organoids, or “mini brains,” that they claim mimic the structure of the human brain more closely than previous attempts. The investigators used the organoids to study how the Zika virus infects and destroys brain tissue, and identify potential treatments, but the mini brains could also be useful in studying neurological/neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Brain organoids have been covered by Medgadget previously. However, what sets the new organoids apart is the researchers’ claims that they more c...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Genetics Neurology Source Type: blogs
Publication date: 11 October 2017 Source:Neuron, Volume 96, Issue 2 Author(s): Isabella Farhy-Tselnicker, Adriana C.M. van Casteren, Aletheia Lee, Veronica T. Chang, A. Radu Aricescu, Nicola J. Allen The generation of precise synaptic connections between developing neurons is critical to the formation of functional neural circuits. Astrocyte-secreted glypican 4 induces formation of active excitatory synapses by recruiting AMPA glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic cell surface. We now identify the molecular mechanism of how glypican 4 exerts its effect. Glypican 4 induces release of the AMPA receptor clustering factor n...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
UCLA researchers have developed an improved technique for creating simplified human brain tissue from stem cells. Because these so-called “mini brain organoids” mimic human brains in how they grow and develop, they’re vital to studying complex neurological diseases.In a study published in the journal Cell Reports, the researchers used the organoids to better understand how Zika infects and damages fetal brain tissue, which enabled them to identify drugs that could prevent the virus ’s damaging effects.The research, led by senior author Ben Novitch, could lead to new ways to study human neurological ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017 Source:Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Author(s): Minhui Ouyang, Huiying Kang, John A. Detre, Timothy P.L. Roberts, Hao Huang The human brain is remarkably complex with connectivity constituting its basic organizing principle. Although long-range connectivity has been focused on in most research, short-range connectivity is characterized by unique and spatiotemporally heterogeneous dynamics from infancy to adulthood. Alterations in the maturational dynamics of short-range connectivity has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizoph...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated whether BBOX 1 expression was related to psychiatric disorder in an animal model.
Source: Psychiatry Research - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
In this study we introduce the novel idea that recurring persistent network activity (Up states) in the neocortex at the reduced level of the brain slice may be used as an endophenotype of brain disorders that will help us understand not only how local microcircuits of the cortex may be affected in brain diseases, but also when, since an important issue for the design of successful treatment strategies concerns the time window available for intervention. PMID: 28971403 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
lloria E, Canal Bedia R Abstract Since their separation as independent diagnostics, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have been conceptualized as mutually exclusive disorders. Similarities between both disorders can lead to misdiagnosis, especially when it comes to average-IQ adults who were not identified during childhood. The aim of this review was to examine the occurrence of SSD in average-IQ adults with ASD. Electronic and manual searches identified a total of 278 references, of which 10 were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of SSD in the total ASD sa...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
Abstract  Reelin is a large secreted glycoprotein that regulates embryonic neuronal lamination and adult synaptic function. Secreted Reelin binds to lipoprotein receptors expressed on neurons. The Reelin-receptor interaction induces phosphorylation of an intracellular adaptor protein Dab1, which is required for normal embryonic brain development and adult brain functions. It has been suggested that Reelin hypofunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism, and Alzheimer's disease. Thus upregulation of Reelin activity may ameliorate the symptoms of...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
Have recent advances provided a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms contributing to autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia?Journal of Medical Genetics
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Pathology & Lab Medicine Journal Article Source Type: news
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