New antibody appears to re-activate immune system in cancer therapy

(Duke University Medical Center) Adding an investigational antibody to the chemotherapy rituximab appears to restore its cancer-killing properties in certain leukemia patients with a natural resistance to the drug, according to a small, proof-of-concept study by Duke Cancer Institute researchers.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Abstract Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) describes an asymptomatic expansion of blood cells descended from a single hematopoietic stem cell. Recent studies have shown that CH increases in frequency with aging, and is often driven by somatic mutations in genes that are recurrently mutated in hematologic malignancies. When CH is associated with a mutation in a leukemia-associated gene at a variant allele frequency of 0.02 or greater, it is termed "clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential" (CHIP).  CHIP has a 0.5-1% risk per year of progression to hematological neoplasia, and increases both all-cause ...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
cute;rton I Abstract Mucositis is the most common oral complication of cancer therapy. Oral mucositis in childhood is more frequent and severe compared to adults, especially in children with leukemia. Lesions develop as the chemotherapeutic agents attack the rapidly dividing cells of the oral mucous membrane. Patients may experience trouble in eating, drinking, swallowing or even speaking due to the significant pain caused by the ulceration of the oral mucosa. Oral mucositis has a direct impact on the quality of life and may affect survival. The regular assessment of the oral mucosa is crucial during chemotherapy ...
Source: Orvosi Hetilap - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Orv Hetil Source Type: research
Till 1998, a little was known about alternative forms of regulated cell death beside apoptosis. In present scenario, accumulating evidences suggest a form of programmed necrosis called Necroptosis which can be induced by various external stimuli including anticancer drugs, ionizing radiation, photodynamic therapy in the form of death domain receptor (DR) engagement by their respective ligands, TNF-alpha, Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL, under apoptosis deficient condition (caspase inhibitor),etc. receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP-1), a death domain containing kinase is the key molecule in necroptotic cell death pathway. On i...
Source: Oncology Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Immunotherapy is now the fourth pillar of cancer therapy, with surgery, radiation, and traditional chemotherapy being the remaining pillars. Over the past decade, enthusiasm for immunotherapy has increased because of, in part, data showing that it consistently improves overall survival in select patients with historically refractory cancers. This issue covers various aspects of immunotherapy ranging from use of 1) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to treat patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; 2) population pharmacokinetic/dynamic modeling to develop new immune checkpoint inhibitors; an...
Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Clin Pharmacol Ther Source Type: research
AbstractResistance to apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer and members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family of proteins are central regulators of apoptosis. Many cancers become resistant to chemotherapy and apoptosis by up-regulating BCL-2 and other family members, making these proteins attractive targets for cancer therapy. Venetoclax is an orally administered, small-molecule apoptosis stimulant that targets BCL-2 proteins by acting as a BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) mimetic. The drug is approved in the USA and EU as a monotherapy for the for the treatment of certain patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (C...
Source: Targeted Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Immunotherapy is a cut above chemotherapy and radiotherapy: at its best, it is significantly more effective and significantly less harmful to the patient. It has still required years, a great deal of funding, and many failures for those best approaches to arise. Nonetheless, the report here is a cheering example for the sizable fraction of us expected to suffer cancer at some point in the years ahead if the condition is not soon brought under medical control. This immunotherapy appears highly effective, and just importantly, adaptable to many types of cancer. This potential for broad application is the most important aspec...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSION Cognitive impairment can affect daily functioning, quality of life, and capacity to work in patients with cancer and those in remission. Consequently, cognitive assessment is now an important and necessary part of a comprehensive oncological care plan. Cancer-related cognitive impairment might be due to the direct effects of the cancer itself, nonspecific factors, or comorbid conditions that are independent of the disease and/or due to the adverse effects of the treatment or combination of treatments given for the disease. The prevalence and extent of cognitive impairment associated with cancer is recognized but...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognition Current Issue Neuro oncology Neurology Review cancer chemotherapy cognitive impairment neuropsychological assessment treatment Source Type: research
Abstract Natural derived enmein-type diterpenoids exert cytotoxicity against a wide range of human cancer cells. Yet their medicinal applications are hindered by insufficient potency for chemotherapy. Hence, a series of novel enmein-type diterpenoid hybrids coupled with nitrogen mustards were designed and synthesized to increase antitumor efficacy while reducing systemic toxicity. Most conjugates exhibited stronger antiproliferative activities than parent diterpenoids and nitrogen mustards, especially for multidrug-resistant tumor cell line Bel-7402/5-FU. Among them, compound E2 showed the most potent inhibitory a...
Source: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Eur J Med Chem Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
imann, Andreas Trumpp, Bernd Dörken, Johannes Zuber, Hinrich Gronemeyer, Michael Hummel, Gunnar Dittmar, Soyoung Lee &Clemens A. Schmitt Cellular senescence is a stress-responsive cell-cycle arrest program that terminates the further expansion of (pre-)malignant cells. Key signalling components of the senescence machinery, such as p16INK4a, p21CIP1 and p53, as well as trimethylation of lysine 9 at histone H3 (H3K9me3), also operate as critical regulators of stem-cell functions (which are collectively termed ‘stemness’). In cancer cells, a gain of stemness may have profound i...
Source: Nature - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
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