Excitotoxicity as a Common Mechanism for Fetal Neuronal Injury with Hypoxia and Intrauterine Inflammation.

Excitotoxicity as a Common Mechanism for Fetal Neuronal Injury with Hypoxia and Intrauterine Inflammation. Adv Pharmacol. 2016;76:85-101 Authors: Burd I, Welling J, Kannan G, Johnston MV Abstract Excitotoxicity is a mechanism of neuronal injury, implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic neurologic disorders, including perinatal brain injury associated with hypoxia-ischemia and exposure to intrauterine inflammation. Glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter, signals through N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors. Proper functioning of both of these receptors, in conjunction with glutamate signaling, is crucial for normal development. However, even a small imbalance can result in perinatal neuronal injury. Therefore, a mechanistic understanding of the role of excitotoxicity and the NMDA/AMPA receptor functions is critical to establishing the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and perinatal brain injury due to exposure to intrauterine inflammation. Evidence from experimental animal models and clinical studies indicates that both oxygen and glucose deficiencies play a major role in fetal neuronal injury. However, the connection between these deficiencies, excitotoxicity, and HIE is not well established. The excitotoxic mechanisms in animal models and humans have many parallels, suggesting that detailed animal studies can elicit clinically relevant disc...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

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Conclusions Stroke comprises ischemic stroke and ICH. The immuno-inflammatory process is involved in neural plasticity following events such as a hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. After ischemia, astrocytes, microglia, and MDMs play important roles during rehabilitation with the modulation of cytokines or chemokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1. Moreover, MiRNAs are also important posttranscriptional regulators in these glial mitochondrial responses to cerebral ischemia. ICH involves processes similar and different to those seen in ischemia, including neuronal injury, astrocytic and microglial/macrophage activation, and neu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study demonstrates that there is no role for the initiation of hypothermia during the acute phase of TBI (1, 2). However, it would be damaging to abandon the concept prematurely. Inflammation Also Paves the Way to Tissue Repair As soon as trauma occurs, the inflammatory cascade begins to take place. The deleterious role of inflammation in the secondary injury response is well-documented, hence the rationale to attempt early prophylactic hypothermia in TBI. However, inflammation also initiates tissue repair and regeneration (3–6). We now know that the secondary injury response accompanies the regenerating and h...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Four decades ago, surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA) was one of the biggest challenges in cardiovascular surgery.1 Apart from in-hospital mortality, spinal cord damage (SCD) was the most dreaded complication.1 In the meantime, much progress has been made, and the pathophysiology of SCD is now much better understood. Different approaches have been developed to protect against SCD, such as distal perfusion, staged clamping, hypothermia, and cerebrospinal fluid drainage.2,3 Reattachment of intercostal arteries is believed by some to be the most critical intervention,2,3 even though this has been discussed controversially.
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
CONCLUSION:  Early total correction of TOF during the first 60 days of life can be performed with low mortality and good intermediate-term survival and, from our point of view, "should be the gold standard for TOFs." PMID: 30738415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Source Type: research
In this study, we examined the benefits of early-onset, lifelong AET on predictors of health, inflammation, and cancer incidence in a naturally aging mouse model. Lifelong, voluntary wheel-running (O-AET; 26-month-old) prevented age-related declines in aerobic fitness and motor coordination vs. age-matched, sedentary controls (O-SED). AET also provided partial protection against sarcopenia, dynapenia, testicular atrophy, and overall organ pathology, hence augmenting the 'physiologic reserve' of lifelong runners. Systemic inflammation, as evidenced by a chronic elevation in 17 of 18 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokin...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
We live in an era of biotechnology, of tremendous year by year increases in the capacity to engineer the fundamental mechanisms of life and disease. The research community and funding institutions should aim high, aim at the new and the amazing, rather than slouching forward in the service of crafting yet more marginal, incremental improvements to existing forms of therapy. Sadly, mediocrity rules when it comes to all too much of the research community. Vision is lacking, and far too few people are willing to tread the roads yet untraveled. Why is it necessary to spend so much time and effort to convince people to f...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Int J Angiol DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1675204The goal of this study was to compare early postoperative outcomes and actuarial survival between patients who underwent repair of acute type A aortic dissection with deep or moderate hypothermia.A total of 132 consecutive patients from a single academic medical center underwent repair of acute type A aortic dissection between January 2000 and June 2014. Of those, 105 patients were repaired under deep hypothermia (
Source: International Journal of Angiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
AbstractThe idea of damage control (DC) is grounded on a sequential therapeutic strategy that supports physiological restoration over anatomic repair in critically injured patients. This concept is firstly described as damage control surgery (DCS) for war-wounded patients with abdominal exsanguinating trauma. The goal was to avoid prolonged operative times and prevent the outset of the lethal cycle of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy. Damage control orthopedics (DCO) is also based on this concept and it is applied in the treatment of some polytrauma patients with pelvic and long bones fractures as to avoid the &ldquo...
Source: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
ConclusionsHybrid aortic arch and FET repair with the Thoraflex hybrid graft appears to be associated with good clinical outcomes, despite being early in the learning curve with this graft. Further investigation with this device is warranted to establish its role within the variations of hybrid arch repair.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid aortic arch and FET repair with the Thoraflex hybrid graft appears to be associated with good clinical outcomes, despite being early in the learning curve with this graft. Further investigation with this device is warranted to establish its role within the variations of hybrid arch repair. PMID: 30291835 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research
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