Monitoring for Extra-Intestinal Cancers in IBD

Abstract Multiple studies have demonstrated an increased risk for extra-intestinal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, mainly from treatment modalities. Prominent cancers that are related to IBD treatment include the following: lymphoproliferative disorders associated with thiopurine use, hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma primarily in younger male patients on thiopurines and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents, non-melanoma skin cancers in patients treated with thiopurines and anti-TNF agents, and melanomas in patients who are on monotherapy with anti-TNF agents. In addition, women with IBD may have higher rates of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. The focus of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview on extra-intestinal cancers in IBD patients and how to monitor for these malignancies.
Source: Current Gastroenterology Reports - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsMRI may offer more superior diagnostic performance than CT for detecting T3-4 disease and EMVI, thereby supporting its alternative application to CT in local staging of colon cancer.
Source: European Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
tro V Abstract Immunotherapy has been showed as a promisor treatment, in special for hematological diseases. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CARs) which are showing satisfactory results in early-phase cancer clinical trials can be highlighted. However, preclinical models are critical steps prior to clinical trial. In this way, a well-established preclinical model is an important key in order to confirm the proof of principle. For this purpose, in this chapter will be pointed the methods to generate tumor cells expressing firefly Luciferase. In turn, these modified cells will be used to create a subcutaneous and...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
;o-Castro V Abstract Immunotherapy using T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has been proven effective in the treatment of leukemia and lymphomas resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical studies have shown excellent responses of CAR-T cells in a variety of B cell tumors. However, it is important to validate in vitro activity of these cells, though different sorts of assays, which are capable of measuring the cytotoxic potential of these cells. In this chapter, it will be pointed two methods to evaluate CAR-T cell killing potential against B cell malignancy cell lines. PMID: 31707679 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies are ex vivo manufactured cellular products that have been useful in the treatment of blood cancers and solid tumors. The quality of the final cellular product is influenced by several amenable factors during the manufacturing process. This review discusses several of the influences on cell product phenotype, including the raw starting material, methods of activation and transduction, and culture supplementation. PMID: 31707678 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
m KCR Abstract CAR-T cell immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic modality for cancer patients. The success of CAR-T cell therapy has been associated with the phenotype, activation and functional profiling of infused CAR-T cells. Therefore, immunophenotypic characterization of CAR-T cells during bioprocess is crucial for cell quality control and ultimately for improved antitumor efficacy. In this chapter, we propose a flow cytometry panel to characterize the immunophenotype of the CAR-T subsets. PMID: 31707677 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Lentiviral vectors are being used in a growing number of clinical applications, including T cell immunotherapy for cancer. As this new technology moves forward, a safety concern is the inadvertent recombination and subsequent development of a replication-competent lentivirus (RCL) during the manufacture of the vector material. To assess this risk, regulators have required screening of T cell products infused into patients for RCL. Since vector particles have many of the proteins and nucleotide sequences found in RCL, a biologic assay has proven the most sensitive method for RCL detection. As regulators ha...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer using T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is now an approved treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), inducing high response rates in patients. The infusion products are generated by using retro- or lentiviral transduction to induce CAR expression in T cells followed by an in vitro expansion protocol. However, use of viral vectors is cumbersome and is associated with increased costs due to the required high titers, replication-competent retrovirus (RCR) detection and production/use in a biosafety level 2 cul...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) cancer immunotherapy uses autologous immune system's cells, genetically modified, to reinforce the immune system against cancer cells. Genetic modification is usually mediated via viral transfection, despite the risk of insertional oncogenesis and off target side effects. In vitro-transcribed (IVT)-mRNA-mediated transfection could contribute to a much safer CAR therapy, since IVT-mRNA leaves no ultimate genetic residue in recipient cells. In this chapter, the IVT-mRNA generation procedure is described, from the selection of the target of the CAR T-cells, the cloning of the ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract One of the most versatile gene transfer methods involves the use of recombinant lentiviral vectors since they can transduce both dividing and nondividing cells, are considered to be safe and provide long-term transgene expression since the integrated viral genome, the provirus, is passed on to daughter cells. These characteristics are highly desirable when a modified cell must continue to express the transgene even after multiple cell divisions. Lentiviral vectors are often used to introduce protein encoding cDNAs, such as reporter genes, or for noncoding sequences, such as mediators of RNA interference o...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
;o AQ Abstract CAR-T cell therapy emerged in the last years as a great promise to cancer treatment. Nowadays, there is a run to improve the breadth of its use, and thus, new chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are being proposed. The antigen-binding counterpart of CAR is an antibody fragment, scFv (single chain variable fragment), that recognizes a membrane protein associated to a cancer cell. In this chapter, the use of human scFv phage display libraries as a source of new mAbs against surface antigen is discussed. Protocols focusing in the use of extracellular domains of surface protein in biotinylated format are p...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
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