Remodeling and Repair in Rhinosinusitis

Abstract Remodeling refers to the development of specific but potentially irreversible structural changes in tissue. Caucasian eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with polyps associated or not with cystic fibrosis was discriminated by edema from CRS without nasal polyps, characterized by extensive fibrotic fields. However, changes in epithelial and extracellular matrix structures are common findings in all types of chronic inflammatory diseases of upper airways, but rarely specific and highly variable in extend. Recent studies have shown that remodeling in CRS appears to occur in parallel, rather than purely subsequent to inflammation. Furthermore, some preferential remodeling associations can be recognized. Tremendous efforts have been put in research on coagulation factors, cytokines, growth factors, and proteases supporting all phases of upper airway remodeling. The current exploration of other CRS sub-groups and of the particular link with concomitant asthma aims to optimize the classification of CRS and its staging modes and to develop novel therapies.
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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In this study we examined the effect of Compound A, N-(2-Aminoethyl)-5-chloro-1H-indol-2-carboxamide a H4 receptor antagonist in allergic asthma mice model. Objective: To investigate the anti-asthmatic effect of compound A in in vivo, airway inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA) induced allergic asthma mouse model was used.Methodology: Allergic asthma was induced in Balb/c mice using ovalbumin. BAL fluid was examined for the level of IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-17 using ELISA. Furthermore, infiltration of leucocytes by histopathology and effect of compound A on signalling molecules were examined in lung tissue.Results: In mice...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
Abstract Acute toxicity assay by using microbes as bioindicators is an effective tool for reflecting the impact of water pollution on organisms. Until now, the suspended state of microbes is still mainly adopted, because the immobilized state of microbes will cause the poor stability of toxicity assay due to the microbes being reused. Here, an electrochemical biosensor based on biofilm was established for toxicity assay (TOX-biosensor), and the stress response of immobilized microbes in biofilm was demonstrated as the main factor that resulting in instability of the TOX-biosensor, and it can be induced by both of ...
Source: Analytica Chimica Acta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Anal Chim Acta Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Asthma and Allergy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Journal of Asthma and Allergy Source Type: research
Since their identification as a separate family of leukocytes, Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been shown to play crucial roles in immune-mediated diseases and repair mechanisms that restore tissue integrity after injury. ILCs mainly populate non-lymphoid tissues where they form intricate circuits with parenchymal cells to regulate tissue immunity and organ homeostasis. However, the specific phenotype and function of ILC populations that reside in specific anatomical locations, such as the kidney, still remains poorly understood. In this review, we discuss tissue-specific properties of kidney-residing ILCs and summarize ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractThe hallmark of Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated neoplasia is DNA mismatch repair protein (MMR) deficiency. Recent studies have demonstrated that histologically normal colonic crypts in patients with LS can exhibit deficient MMR expression. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of detecting MMR deficient crypts in random colonoscopic biopsies of normal mucosa in patients with and without LS. Forty-nine patients, including 33 with LS, 12 without LS, and 4 with germline MMR gene variants of uncertain significance (VUS), were prospectively and blindly evaluated by immunohistochemistry for MMR deficient ...
Source: Familial Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Trends in GeneticsAuthor(s): Feras E. Machour, Nabieh AyoubDefective double-strand break (DSB) repair leads to genomic instabilities that may augment carcinogenesis. DSBs trigger transient transcriptional silencing in the vicinity of transcriptionally active genes through multilayered processes instigated by Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Novel factors have been identified that ensure DSB-induced silencing via two distinct pathways: direct inhibition of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II...
Source: Trends in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Silvia De Rosa, Gianlorenzo Golino, Claudio RoncoAbstractStatus asthmaticus is a life-threatening disorder that can manifest in dangerous levels of hypercapnia and acidosis. The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) has been used successfully to control pH and PaCO2 in patients with acute severe asthma. The present report describes the use of this technology in near-fatal asthma with brain death, and awaiting organ harvest.The ProLUNG® system consists of a veno-venous hemoperfusion circuit with an artif...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our results did not show that S. aureus found in nasal mucosa membrane is significantly different in patients with or without NP. However, association of the presence of S. aureus in patients with nasal polyposis with asthma, allergy and inflammation has been shown. PMID: 31785225 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Neuro Endocrinol Lett Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated if IL-13 acidifies ASL pH and whether omeprazole modulates this response in vitro. Furthermore, we identified whether ASL pH is altered in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and whether it is associated with type-2 cytokines in nasal tissue in vivo.
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) represents a subset of chronic sinusitis with various causes. Some forms of the disease are driven by allergy, often in association with asthma. Refractory CRSwNP can be associated with cystic fibrosis and other clinical syndromes. More recent literature is presented regarding roles of innate immunity and superantigens. Effective treatment of CRSwNP requires careful endoscopic sinus surgery followed by an individualized treatment plan that often includes oral and topical steroids. Recidivism of polyps is common, and patients require long-term follow-up.
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
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