Role of Innate Immune System in Environmental Lung Diseases
AbstractThe lung mucosa functions as a principal barrier between the body and inhaled environmental irritants and pathogens. Precise and targeted surveillance mechanisms are required at this lung-environment interface to maintain homeostasis and preserve gas exchange. This is performed by the innate immune system, a germline-encoded system that regulates initial responses to foreign irritants and pathogens. Environmental pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), and other products of combustion (NO2, SO3, etc.), both stimulate and disrupt the function of the innate immune system of the lung, leading to the p...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 10, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulatory Requirements for the Quality of Allergen Products for Allergen Immunotherapy of Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMedicinal products for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) of food allergies have gained enormous momentum in recent years. With this new class of products entering marketing authorization procedures, compliance to regulatory requirements becomes a critical element. Here, an overview is provided on specific requirements and aspects concerning the quality control and manufacturing of these products.Recent FindingsRecent developments in the field of AIT for food allergies are divers, including products for oral, epicutaneous, and subcutaneous application, most notably targeting egg, milk, and peanut allergy...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 10, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hereditary Alpha-Tryptasemia: a Commonly Inherited Modifier of Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHereditary alpha-tryptasemia (H αT) is an autosomal dominant genetic trait and a common cause of elevated basal serum tryptase in Western populations. It is a risk factor for severe anaphylaxis among individuals with venom allergy and an established modifier of anaphylaxis and mast cell mediator–associated symptoms among patien ts with systemic mastocytosis. Understanding the physiology of tryptases and how this may relate to the clinical features associated with HαT is the first step in identifying optimal medical management and targets for novel therapeutics.Recent FindingsH &al...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 10, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Associations and Gene-Environment Interactions for Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAsthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Airway oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between oxidative and antioxidative processes in the airways. There is evidence that chronic damage caused by oxidative stress may be involved in asthmatic inflammation and reduced lung function. Given their biological antioxidant function, the antioxidant genes in theglutathione S-transferase (GST) family are believed to be associated with development and progression of asthma. This review aims to summarize evidence on the relationship betweenGST gene polymorphisms and asthma a...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 10, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

How to Incorporate Oral Immunotherapy into Your Clinical Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to discuss how to best incorporate oral immunotherapy into your clinical practice based on recent evidence and guidelines, and address controversies.Recent FindingsOral immunotherapy is the food immunotherapy treatment with the most literature supporting its use. Recent data from both randomized clinical trials and real-world studies show OIT is especially safe and effective in preschoolers, while avoidance may be less safe than previously thought. OIT guidelines support its use outside of research.SummaryOral immunotherapy can be safely and effectively incorporated in...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The COVID-19 Pandemic —an Epidemiological Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a matter of great concern worldwide. After the first wave, several countries, notably in the European Union, are suffering a very rapid increase in the number of cases in the pandemic second wave. Health systems are under stress; hospital beds and ICU beds are increasingly occupied by COVID-19 patients, and hospitals are struggling to keep their normal operations. We review some basic epidemiological data of this new disease, regarding its appearance, reproductive rate, ways of transmission, number of cases, death rate, usefulness of diagnostic tests, basic treatmen...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fatal Anaphylaxis: Epidemiology and Risk Factors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide clinicians with an understanding of risk factors associated with fatal anaphylaxis, and to promote individualized management plans with patients based upon key aspects of their clinical history.Recent FindingsWhile anaphylaxis can affect a significant percentage of the general population, death from anaphylaxis remains a rare outcome. The presence of asthma and peanut or tree nut allergy is associated with higher risk for severe or fatal anaphylaxis from foods. Specific triggers (medications, venom), underlying comorbid conditions, age, and use of some medications can also impact risk an...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 7, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Multidisciplinary Care for Severe or Uncontrolled Chronic Upper Airway Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA multidisciplinary approach is regarded as the best practice for many chronic diseases, such as cancer and asthma, with well-documented value. There is also evidence that it may be beneficial to patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and/or allergic airway disease presenting to tertiary referral centres. We discuss here whether and how organizing this kind of healthcare transition into a more integrated care pathway would benefit severe chronic upper airways disease (SCUAD) management.Recent FindingsBased on a recent related EUFOREA panel discussion, literature search, and review of the best o...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

What Is New in Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Year of the COVID Pandemic?
This article aims to summarize some recent trends in occupational allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), including dermatitis related to pandemic-level personal protective equipment in healthcare workers, hazards patients may experience when working from home, and occupational perspectives on the recent American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) allergens of the year and ACDS Core Allergen Series updates.Recent FindingsRecent ACDS Allergens of the Year may be particularly relevant to healthcare workers, including isobornyl acrylate, which is present in glucose sensors and propylene glycol present in hand cleansers and disinfec...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 29, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Herbal Medicines for Allergic Rhinitis: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo assess the effects of herbal medicine (HM) therapy in various durations and analyze the effects of HM separately by mechanism of action in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR).Recent FindingsThirty-two studies were included (2,697 patients, mean age 34.6 years). For the ≤ 4 weeks of treatment duration, HM brought greater benefits over placebo in reduction of total nasal symptoms score (standardized mean difference (SMD) −0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.98, −0.38;p
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 25, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Paget ’s Disease of Bone: Osteoimmunology and Osteoclast Pathology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to recognize clinical features of Paget ’s disease of bone and to describe how the osteoclast, a myeloid-derived cell responsible for bone resorption, contributes to the disease.Recent FindingsRecent studies have identified several variants inSQSTM1,OPTN, and other genes that may predispose individuals to Paget ’s disease of bone; studies of these genes and their protein products have elucidated new roles for these proteins in bone physiology.SummaryUnderstanding the pathologic mechanisms in the Pagetic osteoclast may lead to the identification of future tr...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 25, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nutritional Factors in Occupational Lung Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLung diseases such as asthma and COPD are major public health issues and related to occupational exposures. While therapies to limit the development and progression of these diseases are limited, nutrition interventions could offer potential alternatives to mediate the inflammation associated with these diseases. This is a narrative review of the current state of relevant nutrients on inflammation and respiratory outcomes associated with occupational exposures.Recent FindingsRelevant nutrients that have been investigated in recent years include omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, vitamin D, ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 25, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Stem Cell Therapy as a Treatment for Autoimmune Disease —Updates in Lupus, Scleroderma, and Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvidence for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) in autoimmune disease has been building since the 1990s; however, many clinicians may not yet be aware of its applications to autoimmune disease. We review the basic tenets of HCT and evidence for autologous HCT in multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and lupus with an emphasis on recent advanced phase trials.Recent FindingsIn MS, the phase 3 randomized MIST trial and the phase 2 randomized ASTIMS trial demonstrated the efficacy of autologous HCT in refractory MS over disease-modifying therapies and mitoxantrone, respectively....
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 24, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Skin Testing for Penicillin Allergy: a Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSelf-reported penicillin allergies are frequently reported, though more than 95% of those are not truly allergic when challenged. These patients are more likely to receive alternative antibiotic regimens resulting in the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics that may be less effective, more toxic, and/or more expensive than preferred agents. Given the significant burden on patient outcomes and the healthcare system, the ability to reconcile an allergy and broaden future antibiotic options is essential.Recent FindingsThis is a narrative review describing risk stratification for penicillin skin testing, ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 18, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A TRiP Through the Roles of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channels in Type 2 Upper Airway Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite their high prevalence, the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains unclear. Recently, transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels emerged as important players in type 2 upper airway inflammatory disorders. In this review, we aim to discuss known and yet to be explored roles of TRP channels in the pathophysiology of AR and CRS with nasal polyps.Recent FindingsTRP channels participate in a plethora of cellular functions and are expressed on T cells, mast cells, respiratory epithelial cells, and sensory neurons of the upper airways. In chronic ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 18, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Mimic of Ankylosing Spondylitis, Ochronosis: Case Report and Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOchronosis and alkaptonuria are manifestations of the same condition —a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a constitutional lack of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) with the consequent accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). In ochronosis, HGA undergoes autoxidation as well as enzymatic oxidation to form an ochronotic pigment that accumulates in c artilage and connective tissues. In the beginning, there is homogentisic aciduria and pigmentation of cartilages and other connective tissues. In later years, generalized osteoarthritis of the spine and large joints, termed ochrono...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Innovative Surgical Techniques for Nasal Septal Perforations: Management and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this study was to review and describe the main innovative surgical techniques for nasal septal perforation (NSP) repair that have been published in recent years.Recent FindingsSeveral techniques for NSP repair have been developed recently. The anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) flap is a versatile technique for middle-size perforations in different locations. The greater palatine artery (GPA) flap is an excellent option for anterior-most NSPs. The lateral nasal wall flap and the pericranial flap are the most appropriate techniques for large perforations.SummaryThe advent of these techniques...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Disease Presentation, Treatment Options, and Outcomes for Myeloid Immunodeficiencies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUp-to-date review on various types of immunodeficiencies with a significant myeloid component including some more recently described congenital disorders.Recent FindingsWhile a number of disorders have been described in the past, genetic sequencing has led to the identification of the specific disorders and clarified their pathophysiology. Advances in genetic therapies including genetic editing should provide future treatments beyond hematopoietic stem cell transplant for patients with these rare disorders.SummaryNeutrophils (or granulocytes) are a major contributor to infection surveillance and cl...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Emerging Therapies in Anaphylaxis: Alternatives to Intramuscular Administration of Epinephrine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAnaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, systemic allergic reaction that should be recognized and treated promptly. Intramuscular (IM) epinephrine is the first-line treatment for anaphylaxis and there are no absolute contraindications to its use. Despite its established track record of efficacy and safety, physicians and patients face barriers in the recognition and treatment of anaphylaxis, including the maintenance and appropriate use of epinephrine auto-injectors. This has led to investigation into potential alternatives to IM epinephrine administration in anaphylaxis.Recent FindingsThis revie...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Update on Insect Sting Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes improvement in diagnostic accuracy, prediction of outcomes, identifying high-risk factors, and refinements of treatment that continue to evolve over the past 5 –10 years.Recent FindingsThe risk of anaphylaxis is relatively low ( 90%). Use of recombinant venom allergens and basophil activation tests may improve diagnostic accuracy. Elevated serum tryptase (and possible mastocytosis) occurs in 10% of patients with insect sting allergy, and in 25% of those with hypotensive reactions. Rush VIT is proven safe and rapidly effective. There are known high-risk factors that justi...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Environmental Determinants of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AbstractPurpose for ReviewSince the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in China in late 2019 turned into a global pandemic, numerous studies have reported associations between environmental factors, such as weather conditions and a range of air pollutants (particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, etc.) and the first wave of COVID-19 cases. This review aims to offer a critical assessment of the role of environmental exposure risk factors on SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 disease severity.Recent FindingsIn this review, we provide a critical assessment of COVID-19 risk factors, identify gaps in our knowledge (e.g., indoo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cutaneous Manifestations Related to COVID-19 Immune Dysregulation in the Pediatric Age Group
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAt the juncture of the COVID-19 pandemic, the world is currently in an early phase of collecting clinical data and reports of its skin manifestations, and its pathophysiology is still highly conjectural. We reviewed cutaneous manifestations associated with COVID-19 in the pediatric age group.Recent FindingsChildren infected by SARS-CoV-2 usually develop milder respiratory symptoms, but cutaneous manifestations seem a little more prevalent than in adults. These skin features of infection by the coronavirus can be similar to those produced by other common viruses, but there are also reports of cases ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 25, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Infant Anaphylaxis: A Diagnostic Challenge
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInfant anaphylaxis has been increasing in incidence; however, significant gaps in the literature remain. The aim of this article is to review the most recent literature pertaining to infant anaphylaxis and discuss recent findings related to epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prevention.Recent FindingsThere is no accurate report of the incidence and prevalence of anaphylaxis in infancy. Food is the most common trigger for infant anaphylaxis reported. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis in infants is often missed, and, even when the diagnosis is made, epinephrine continues to be under-utilized. An epi...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 23, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Idiopathic Anaphylaxis: a Perplexing Diagnostic Challenge for Allergists
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this systematic review is to present the proposed theories of pathogenesis for idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA), to discuss its classification, its diagnostic approach, and management.Recent FindingsIA represents a major diagnostic challenge and is diagnosed when excluding the possible identifiable triggers of anaphylaxis. The current research, however, revealed that certain conditions including mastocytosis, mast cell activation syndromes, and hereditary alpha tryptasemia can masquerade and overlap with its symptomatology. Also, newly identified galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose mammalian red me...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Distinguishing Blau Syndrome from Systemic Sarcoidosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide a framework to distinguish Blau syndrome/Early Onset Sarcoidosis and Sarcoidosis clinically. We also discuss relevant differences in genetics, pathogenesis, and management of these diseases.Recent FindingsBlau syndrome and Sarcoidosis share the characteristic histologic finding of noncaseating granulomas as well as some similar clinical characteristics; nevertheless, they are distinct entities with important differences between them. Blau syndrome and Early Onset Sarcoidosis are due to one of numerous possible gain-of-function mutations inNOD2, commonly pres...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Management of Allergic Diseases During COVID-19 Outbreak
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has challenged healthcare system capacities and safety for health care workers, reshaping doctor-patient interaction favoring e-Health or telemedicine. The pandemic situation may make difficult to prioritize patients with allergies diseases (AD), face-to-face evaluation, and moreover concern about the possible COVID-19 diagnosis, since COVID-19 shared many symptoms in common with AD. Being COVID-19 a novel disease, everyone is susceptible; there are some advances on vaccine and specific treatment. We evaluate existing literature on allergic diseases (AD): all...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Asthma in Cystic Fibrosis: Definitions and Implications of This Overlap Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem, autosomal recessive disease that leads to progressive loss of lung function. Respiratory symptoms for both CF and asthma include cough, wheezing, and dyspnea. There is debate within the CF community on how to best define and distinguish CF-asthma overlap syndrome (CFAOS) from asthma-like features, though CFAOS is well-recognized. We aim to review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of asthma in CF and explore areas where further research is needed.Recent FindingsThere has been considerable improvement in the understanding and treatment of asthma over th...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chemosensory Dysfunction in Patients with COVID-19: What Do We Learn from the Global Outbreak?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChemosensory dysfunction in the patients with COVID-19 has been reported frequently in the studies from different regions of the world. However, the prevalence of smell and/or taste disorders presents significant ethnic and geographic variability. In addition, the pathogenesis of chemosensory dysfunction remains unclarified.Recent FindingsThis is a narrative review on the recent state of the prevalence, mechanism, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategy of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients during the global pandemic. The chemosensory dysfunction was analysis based on recent studies, whi...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 3, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Lipid Transfer Proteins as Food and Pollen Allergens Outside the Mediterranean Area
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of the prevalence and clinical manifestation of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP)-mediated allergies outside the Mediterranean area and to address potential reasons for the different geographical significance of LTP-driven allergies.Recent FindingsLTPs are major allergens in the Mediterranean area, which frequently can elicit severe reactions. Pru p 3 the LTP from peach is reported as genuine allergen and is considered a prototypic marker for LTP-mediated allergies. However, both food and pollen LTP allergies exist outside the Mediterranean area, but with lower clini...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 3, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19: a Rheumatologist ’s Take on the Lessons Learned
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTold from the viewpoint of rheumatologists, this review tells the story of hydroxychloroquine and its swift ascent to become a household name as a therapeutic strategy against the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. This review describes the history, mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic applications, and safety profile of hydroxychloroquine as an immunomodulatory and antiviral agent. It also summarizes the major studies that launched and assessed the use of hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 infection.Recent FindingsMore recent literature calls into question the long-held dogma that endolysosomal alkalin...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Approach to Perioperative Anaphylaxis in 2020: Updates in Diagnosis and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of the paper is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and manifestations of perioperative anaphylaxis (POA). We seek to review the most common culprits of POA and different diagnostic modalities for evaluation.Recent FindingsSpecific IgE testing has a limited role in POA evaluation due to lack of widespread availability and low sensitivity. Basophil activation testing is complementary to skin tests and can assist NMBA sensitivity diagnosis in complex cases. In the past years, there has been an exponential increase in suspected teicoplanin allergic reactions in the European U...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mast Cell-Specific MRGPRX2: a Key Modulator of Neuro-Immune Interaction in Allergic Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic asthma are complex disorders with significant public health burden. This review provides an overview of the recent developments on Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2; mouse counterpart MrgprB2) as a potential candidate to target neuro-immune interaction in AD and allergic asthma.Recent FindingsDomestic allergens directly activate sensory neurons to release substance P (SP), which induces mast cell degranulation via MrgprB2 and drives type 2 skin inflammation in AD. MRGPRX2 expression is upregulated in human lung mast cells and serum of asthmatic p...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis
ConclusionA comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms is necessary for optimal selection of AIT-responsive patients and monitoring treatment efficacy. Moreover, it could inspire novel and more efficient AIT approaches. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - December 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Epigenetics in the Chronic Sinusitis with Nasal Polyp
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a common and heterogeneous inflammatory disease. The underlying epigenetic mechanisms and treatment of CRSwNP are partially understood. Of the different epigenetic changes in CRSwNP, histone deacetylases (HDACs), methylation of DNA, and the levels of miRNA are widely studied. Here, we review the human studies of epigenetic mechanisms in CRSwNP.Recent FindingsThe promoters of COL18A1, PTGES, PLAT, and TSLP genes are hypermethylated in CRSwNP compared with those of controls, while the promoters of PGDS, ALOX5AP, LTB4R, IL-8, and FZD5 genes are hypo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Investigating Health Literacy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Descriptive Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInadequate health literacy is common among American adults, but little is known about the impact of health literacy in rheumatic diseases. The purpose of this article is to review studies investigating health literacy and its association with clinical outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Recent FindingsSeveral validated health literacy measures have been examined in SLE patients. Low health literacy is associated with worse patient-reported outcomes and lower numeracy with higher disease activity. Two studies found no association of low health literacy with medication adherence. One rando...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Olfactory Dysfunction in a Mexican Population Outside of COVID-19 Pandemic: Prevalence and Associated Factors (the OLFAMEX Study)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo study the prevalence of olfactory loss and its associated factors in a Mexican population a cross-sectional analytical study based on a  population interviewed about health, epidemiologic aspects, and sense of smell (tested with four scents: rose, banana, perfume, and gas) was conducted to evaluate olfactory detection, memory, and identification. Levels of sense of smell perception were determined when the participants detected, r ecognized, or identified all (normosmia), 1–3 (hyposmia), or none (anosmia) of the odorants. Associated factors of olfactory dysfunction were iden...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy —a US Regulatory Perspective
AbstractThe recent approval of Palforzia for treatment of peanut allergy by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) predicts that additional products for oral immunotherapy (OIT) are on the horizon. In this article, the authors review the legal framework by which the USFDA regulates products for OIT of food allergy and the clinical data that demonstrated that the safety and effectiveness profile of Palforzia supported approval and conclude with a discussion of oral food challenge (OFC) as a clinical endpoint to demonstrate safety and effectiveness of OIT products. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Frequency and Clinical Utility of Olfactory Dysfunction in COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ConclusionFrequency of OD in COVID-19 differs greatly across studies. Nevertheless, patients with reported OD were significantly more likely to test positive for COVID-19. Patient-reported OD is a highly specific symptom of COVID-19 which should be included as part of the pre-test screening of suspect patients. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cutaneous Manifestations in Adult Patients with COVID-19 and Dermatologic Conditions Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Health Care Workers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCOVID-19 (coronavirus viral disease 2019), due to the novel SARS-CoV-2, may present with different types of cutaneous manifestations of varying pathophysiology. During the ongoing pandemic, publications reporting dermatologic findings in COVID-19 continue to emerge.Recent FindingsCutaneous vasculopathy and microthrombus-related changes including acral and sacral lesions, retiform purpura, livedo reticularis, and cutaneous vasculitis are notable findings in adult patients. Other exanthems include urticaria or angioedema, morbilliform/maculopapular exanthems, erythema multiforme, and vesicular erupti...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Environmental Exposures in Atopic Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough genetic factors clearly play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD), the recent dramatic increase in the prevalence of AD in low- and middle-income countries is not consistent with only a role of genetic factors. These findings strongly suggest that environmental factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD.Recent FindingsWe reviewed the role of gene-environment studies; in utero exposures including tobacco smoke, alcohol, maternal stress, various digestive supplements, and gestational diabetes; early-life exposures including diet, gut microbiota, antibiotics, ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Coding Telemedicine Visits for Proper Reimbursement
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoding for patient visits and monitoring via telehealth have expanded over the past years with a wide acceptance of telemedicine as a consequence of the coronavirus pandemic. Coding topics of interest to the allergist/immunologist in regard to services provided via telemedicine will be of increasing importance in the coming years.Recent FindingsCPT coding for telephone as well as synchronous face-to-face telehealth visits has changed over the past few years. With the need for distancing and patient protection during the coronavirus pandemic, telehealth services have increased dramatically. The intr...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Review of Patient and Provider Satisfaction with Telemedicine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to describe the determinants of satisfaction with telemedicine (TM) and how they compare with in-person visits from both the perspective of patients and of providers.Recent FindingsThe use of TM will expand only if patients and providers are at least as satisfied with it as they are with in-person visits. Since deviations from expected care can result in reduced satisfaction regardless of the quality of the visit or objective medical outcomes, it is important to understand and to help form those expectations when possible. Patients consistently report 95 –100% sa...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: a Rare Disease?
The original version of this article contained errors in Table 3 on page 6. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pulmonary Surfactants: a New Therapeutic Target in Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLung tissues are highly susceptible to airway inflammation as they are inevitably exposed to inhaled pathogens and allergens. In the lungs, clearance of infectious agents and regulation of inflammatory responses are important for the first-line defense, where surfactants play a role in host defense mechanisms. In this review, clinical significance of pulmonary surfactants in asthma has been highlighted.Recent FindingsSurfactants, such as surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-D released from alveolar epithelium, reduce pathogen infection and control immune-cell activation. Especially, SP-D directly bin...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Safety of Intranasal Steroids: an Updated Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIntranasal corticosteroid sprays have been available as over-the-counter (OTC) medications since 2013. As such, clinicians need to be up-to-date with the risks and the safety of INS, as patients may have concerns and detailed questions. The following is a review of the recent medical literature regarding the safety profile, adverse reactions, and special populations using INS.Recent FindingsThe latest research on intranasal steroid sprays (INS) continue to confirm that INS rarely have significant local side effects, such as severe and persistent epistaxis. Recent studies looking at systemic side ef...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Evidence and Biomarkers Linking Allergy and Acute or Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Children: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewWe provide a systematic review of experimental and clinical evidences linking allergy to acute, including common cold, and chronic rhinosinusitis in children. Furthermore, we questioned if anti-allergy treatment may prevent the occurrence of rhinosinusitis or improve outcomes of its specific management.Recent FindingsAllergic rhinitis is a common childhood disease in industrialized countries that is responsible for a major impact on quality of life and healthcare resources. Over the years many authors tried to correlate allergy with comorbidities and in particular to the onset of rhinosinusitis...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Allergic Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper purports to review recent relevant publications on the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine in treating allergic diseases, to illustrate the  pertinent mechanisms of action of TCM, and to explore the possible role of TCM in the management of allergic diseases in the foreseeable future. As TCM embodies multiple treatment modalities, only the most popular two, namely CHM (Chinese herbal medicine) and acupuncture, were discussed. Publicat ions, especially reviews involving randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of TCM on allergic diseases, published up to June 201...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Asking the Right Questions —Human Factors Considerations for Telemedicine Design
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper was to provide a narrative review of human factors considerations for telemedicine. It also sought to provide readers a foundation of human factors thinking and methods that could be employed within their own practice.Recent FindingsThere are only a handful of articles that discuss the importance of user-centered design and human factors principles in relation to telemedicine systems.SummaryMost articles come to the conclusion that design flaws could have been avoided by involving stakeholders in the design and implementation of telemedicine. However, many of them lack the gu...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Child with Elevated IgE and Infection Susceptibility
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOver the last 13  years, the genetic etiologies have been determined for multiple conditions causing elevated serum IgE, infection susceptibilities, and variable other features. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, laboratory features, and genetics of these diseases caused by mutations in STAT3, DO CK8, PGM3, IL6ST, ZNF341, IL6R, IL6ST, CARD11, and CARD14, with particular focus given to STAT3LOF and DOCK8 deficiency.Recent FindingsDefining the phenotype of each of these syndromes with high IgE and infection susceptibility shows that some have a pronounced connective tissue phe...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

B Cell Disorders in Children: Part II
AbstractPurpose of ReviewB cell disorders result in decreased levels or function of immunoglobulins in an individual. Genetic mutations have been reported in a variety of B cell disorders. This review, in follow-up to a previous review, describes some rare B cell disorders as well as their known underlying genetic etiologies.Recent FindingsGenetic studies identify and permit precise classification of an increasing number of B cell disorders, leading to a greater understanding of B cell development and function.SummaryThe B cell disorders are rare diseases. While clinicians are most familiar with X-linked agammaglobulinemia...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research