Olfactory Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe sense of smell is today one of the focuses of interest in aging and neurodegenerative disease research. In several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson ’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, the olfactory dysfunction is one of the initial symptoms appearing years before motor symptoms and cognitive decline, being considered a clinical marker of these diseases’ early stages and a marker of disease progression and cognitive decline. Overall and un der the umbrella of precision medicine, attention to olfactory function may help to improve chances of success for neuroprotect...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food-Induced Anaphylaxis: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to provide an update of recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis, and management of food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA).Recent FindingsFood allergy prevalence and FIA rates continue to rise, but FIA fatalities are stable. Basophil and mast cell activation tests promise more accurate identification of food triggers. Oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy can desensitize a significant portion of subjects. Epinephrine use for FIA remains sub-optimal.SummaryAs the burden of food allergy continues to increase, it appears that the corresponding increase i...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Atypical Cutaneous Presentations of Sarcoidosis: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to provide the reader with an updated summary of the cutaneous manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis, with a particular emphasis on the predilection of sarcoidosis for scars, tattoos, and other areas of traumatized skin.Recent FindingsWhile the mechanism underlying the propensity for traumatized skin to develop sarcoidosis lesions remains unclear, several theories have been proposed including the idea that cutaneous sarcoidosis represents an exuberant, antigen-driven foreign-body response, as well as the theory that traumatized skin represents an immunocompromised distri...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Next-Generation of Allergen-Specific Immunotherapies: Molecular Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this article is to discuss how allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) can be improved through molecular approaches. We provide a summary of next-generation molecular AIT approaches and of their clinical evaluation. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of next generation molecular AIT forms for the treatment of severe manifestations of allergy and mention possible future molecular strategies for the secondary and primary prevention of allergy.Recent FindingsAIT has important advantages over symptomatic forms of allergy treatment but its further development is limited by the quality of the...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sulfonamide Drug Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe sought to review past and current literature on sulfonamide drug allergy and distill it in a practical manner to assist the clinician, specifically focusing on cross-reactivity and desensitization.Recent FindingsThere do not appear to be consistent genetic markers to reliably predict features of or the presence hypersensitivity reactions. Recent evidence continues to alleviate early concerns cross-reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and non-antibiotics.SummarySulfonamide drug allergy is frequently encountered by the practicing clinician. For sulfonamide antibiotics, delayed rash is the mo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 6, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Children: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Medical Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPediatric chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disorder that carries significant morbidity. The diagnosis requires sinus symptoms that persist despite standard medical therapy greater than 3  months. Viral infections, allergies, and anatomic differences in children lead to chronic obstruction of the osteomeatal complex.Recent FindingsChronic rhinosinusitis as a diagnosis is a conglomeration of multiple phenotypes and endotypes. As such, the diagnosis and management are complex. New survey studies provide some consensus on prevalence and management of this disease in children.SummaryIn this...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chronic Urticaria: Comparisons of US, European, and Asian Guidelines
We present differences from previous US, European, and Asian guidelines and reconcile the previous differences by summarizing the 2017 revision and update published by the EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/WAO. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides a brief history of newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), discusses the theoretical basis for the T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay, highlights the results of recent studies using the TREC, and provides practical advice for the evaluation of infants with an abnormal TREC assay.Recent FindingsCurrently, all but three states perform NBS for SCID in the USA. NBS using the TREC assay is highly sensitive in identifying infants with SCID and may also identify infants with T cell lymphopenia due to other causes such as congenital syndromes, mul...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Severe Atopic Dermatitis in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSevere atopic dermatitis (AD) in childhood leads to significant morbidity including psychosocial problems and infectious complications. There are only a few approved treatment options for these patients. These include topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus ointment, which are associated with potential side effects.Recent FindingsIn order to find better and safer treatments, further understanding of AD mechanisms is needed. Primary skin barrier defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, the suppression of skin barrier functions by Th2 inflammation also plays an important ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Update on Omalizumab for Urticaria: What ’s New in the Literature from Mechanisms to Clinic
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSince omalizumab has been approved for urticaria, numerous randomized and real-life observational trials have been published. We reviewed the period January 2017 –February 2018.Recent FindingsOmalizumab is effective for the control of urticaria recalcitrant to antihistamines in different populations globally. The ratio of total serum IgE 4-week/baseline ≥2 can predict response with a high likelihood. In observational real-life trials, doses have been adjusted on an individual basis: in some populations, up to two-thirds of the patients can be controlled with 150 mg/month; however, oth...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sinus and Upper Airway Surgery in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic sinus and upper airway disease in children is a common health problem encountered every day. Its pathophysiology is complicated which leads to different treatment options and approaches. We seek to review the current literature and evidence to surgical treatments.Recent FindingsMedical treatment with antibiotics and topical nasal sprays continues to be the first-line treatment. Surgical interventions include adenoidectomy, balloon catheter sinuplasty (BCS), and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Each modality has proven to be safe; however, its effectiveness is widely variable.SummaryMore rese...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

SLIT ’s Prevention of the Allergic March
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe progression of atopic disorders from atopic dermatitis in infants to allergic rhinitis and asthma in children, adolescents, and adults defines the allergy march. Allergen immunotherapy is the only causal treatment altering the immunological mechanism underlying the allergic diseases. The sublingual administration route is more acceptable than the subcutaneous one in pediatric age.Recent FindingsSeveral studies show the efficacy and safety profile of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for the treatment of respiratory allergy diseases, but few data are available on its effect of primary and secondar...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mast Cell Interactions and Crosstalk in Regulating Allergic Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent findings on mast cell biology with a focus on IgE-independent roles of mast cells in regulating allergic responses.Recent FindingsRecent studies have described novel mast cell-derived molecules, both secreted and membrane-bound, that facilitate cross-talk with a variety of immune effector cells to mediate type 2 inflammatory responses.SummaryMast cells are complex and dynamic cells that are persistent in allergy and are capable of providing signals that lead to the initiation and persistence of allergic mechanisms. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma-Related Outcomes in Children of Color of the USA: a Scoping Review of Literature Published Between 2013 and 2017
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGiven racial disparities in ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure and asthma risk, this review offers an overview of the literature investigating the ambient air pollution-asthma relationship in children of color between 2013 and 2017.Recent FindingsAAP is likely a key contributor to the excess burden of asthma in children of color due to pervasive exposure before birth, at home, and in school. Recent findings suggest that psychosocial stressors may modify the relationship between AAP and asthma.SummaryThe effect of AAP on asthma in children of color is likely modulated by multiple unique psychosoci...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES): Review of Recent Guidelines
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo increase understanding of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), a non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reaction to food, by reviewing a growing body of literature, including recently published international consensus guidelines.Recent FindingsFPIES primarily affects infants and young children and is characterized by the delayed onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, predominantly repetitive vomiting, in response to a trigger food. Symptoms are often severe and can lead to shock. Diagnosis can be challenging due to a wide differential diagnoses and lack of disease biomarkers. FPIES is ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 6, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of the Microbiome in Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResident microbial communities likely modify risk for allergic disorders, including food allergy. We review epidemiologic studies linking microbial exposures to food allergy risk and discuss the mechanisms by which the microbiome may modulate oral tolerance. We additionally address ongoing translational efforts in human microbiome studies.Recent FindingsEpidemiologic studies and murine models support that altered microbial exposures and colonization in early life modify food allergy risk. Differential microbiota confer protection or susceptibility to food allergy by modulating the regulatory tone o...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions: Presentation, Risk Factors, and Management
AbstractPurpose of StudyImmune-mediated adverse drug reactions occur commonly in clinical practice and include mild, self-limited cutaneous eruptions, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR). SCARs represent an uncommon but potentially life-threatening form of delayed T cell-mediated reaction. The spectrum of illness ranges from acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) to drug reaction with eosinophilia with systemic symptoms (DRESS), to the most severe form of illness, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN).Recent FindingsThere is emerging lit...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis as a Strategy for Preventing Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo evaluate the impact of allergic rhinitis (AR) on the development of asthma and to update readers on recent literature suggesting that early treatment of allergic subjects with immunotherapy may prevent asthma onset.Recent FindingsAR is frequently associated with asthma, leading to the concept that these two conditions are different aspects of the same disease. There is increasing evidence that AR precedes the onset of asthmatic symptoms and current treatment strategies are beneficial in symptom control with no impact prevention. There is limited knowledge about the risk factors responsible for t...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

How Do Storms Affect Asthma?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere are observations in various geographical areas that thunderstorms occurring during pollen seasons can induce severe asthma attacks in pollinosis patients.Recent FindingsAn accredited hypothesis explaining the association between thunderstorms and asthma suggests that storms can concentrate pollen grains at ground level, which may then release allergenic particles of respirable size in the atmosphere after their imbibition of water and rupture by osmotic shock. During the first 20 –30 min of a thunderstorm, patients affected by pollen allergy may inhale a high quantity of the allerg...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Climate Change and the Impact on Respiratory and Allergic Disease: 2018
Discussion will focus on changing pollen patterns, damp buildings with increased mold exposure, air pollution, and heat stress. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immigrant Respiratory Health: a Diverse Perspective in Environmental Influences on Respiratory Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to examine the prevalence of and impact of environmental exposures in the workplace and home on immigrant respiratory health in the USA.Recent FindingsFew studies report levels of workplace and home environmental exposures for immigrant children and adults, and documenting these findings is an important first step to addressing their respiratory health concerns. Rates of respiratory disease are lowest upon first arrival and increase with duration of residency in the USA. Community Health Workers may be an efficacious intervention to reducing exposures and improving lung he...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Precision Medicine in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic rhinosinusitis is a disease with high prevalence, significant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and it is associated with substantial healthcare and productivity costs. We face an urgent need to improve the level of disease control and achieve higher patient satisfaction and disease prevention. Precision medicine is increasingly recognized as the way forward in optimal patient care. The combination of personalized care, prevention of disease, prediction of success of treatment, and participation of the patient in the elaboration of the treatment plan is expected to guarantee ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Do Glutathione S-Transferase Genes Modify the Link between Indoor Air Pollution and Asthma, Allergies, and Lung Function? A Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGlutathione S-transferase (GST) genes are involved in oxidative stress management and may modify the impact of indoor air pollution. We aimed to assess the influence of GST genes on the relationship between indoor air pollution and allergy/lung function.Recent FindingsOur systematic review identified 22 eligible studies, with 15 supporting a gene-environment interaction. Carriers of GSTM1/T1 null and GSTP1 val genotypes were more susceptible to indoor air pollution exposures, having a higher risk of asthma and lung function deficits. However, findings differed in terms of risk alleles and specific ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Indoor Environmental Interventions and their Effect on Asthma Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of environmental interventions to improve outcomes in asthmatics has long been an elusive goal. While numerous interventions have been studied, the results of clinical trials have been mixed. This review aims to identify combinations of interventions that have been proven to be effective and to propose a model for using them in a clinical setting.Recent FindingsAn NIH workshop emphasized a need for research to identify effective interventions for reducing indoor exposures and improving asthma outcomes. A number of innovative measures were described, though evidence supporting their use was ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effect of Inhalant Organic Dust on Bone Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAgriculture remains a major economic sector globally, and workers experience high rates of chronic inflammatory lung and musculoskeletal diseases. Whereas obstructive pulmonary diseases are known risk factors for bone loss, the underlying relationship between lung inflammation and bone health is not well known.Recent FindingsAn agriculture organic dust extract inhalation animal model has recently linked lung injury-induced inflammation to systemic bone loss. This process is dependent upon lipopolysaccharide and the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Downstream systemic interleukin-6 is ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Tools for Inborn Errors of Human Immunity (Primary Immunodeficiencies and Immune Dysregulatory Diseases)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide an overview of diagnostic testing in primary immunodeficiency and immune dysregulatory disorders (PIDDs), particularly focusing on flow cytometry and genetic techniques, utilizing specific examples of PIDDs.Recent FindingsFlow cytometry remains a vital tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of immunological diseases. Its utility ranges from cellular analysis and specific protein quantitation to functional assays and signaling pathway analysis. Mass cytometry combines flow cytometry and mass spectrometry to dramatically increase the throughput of multivariate s...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Granulomatous-Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: a Case Report and Literature Review
We describe the second reported case of GLILD in a patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and review the recent literature surrounding GLILD.Recent FindingsGLILD is characterized by granulomata and lymphoproliferation. Consensus statements and retrospective and case-control studies have better elucidated the clinicopathological and radiographic manifestations of GLILD, allowing for its differentiation from similar conditions like sarcoidosis. Gaps of knowledge remain, however, particularly regarding optimal management strategies. Combination therapies targeting T and B cell populations have recently shown favor...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Current Status of Potential Therapies for IgE-Mediated Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to provide the reader with an updated summary of published trial data regarding the use of oral immunotherapy (OIT), sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), and epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) for treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies.Recent FindingsData from phase 2 trials for treatment of peanut allergy with OIT and EPIT reveal an increase in the threshold of reactivity for peanut-allergic children. Compared to EPIT, OIT promotes a greater increase in the threshold of reactivity; however, adverse events are more common with OIT.SummaryOIT, EPIT, and SLIT appear to modulat...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Impact of Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAir pollution is established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Ambient particulate matter (PM), a principal component of air pollutant, has been considered as a main culprit of the adverse effects of air pollution on human health.Recent FindingsExtensive epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated particulate air pollution is positively associated with the development of CVDs. Short-term PM exposure can trigger acute cardiovascular events while long-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent and can reduce life exp...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cutaneous Manifestations of Reactions to Biologics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to review the major adverse cutaneous reactions that have been reported to the most commonly used biologics.Recent FindingsAnti-TNF agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors have significant, immune-mediated cutaneous manifestations that can necessitate discontinuation. Anti-TNF agents, IL-6 inhibitors, and IL-12/23 inhibitors can paradoxically cause psoriasis flares or unmask previously undiagnosed psoriasis. IL-17 inhibitors are unique in increasing risk forCandida infections. Benign injection site reactions, non-specific rash, cellulitis, and hypersensitivity reactions ar...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammatory Biomarkers During Bacterial Acute Rhinosinusitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiagnosis of bacterial acute rhinosinusitis is difficult. Several attempts have been made to clarify the diagnostic criteria. Inflammatory biomarkers are easily obtainable variables that could shed light on both the pathophysiology and diagnosis of bacterial acute rhinosinusitis. The purpose of this review article is to assess literature concerning the course of inflammatory biomarkers during acute rhinosinusitis and the use of inflammatory biomarkers in diagnosing bacterial acute rhinosinusitis.Recent FindingsWe included C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell counts, ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Occupational Animal Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention.Recent Findings(1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Modified Allergens for Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDuring the past few decades, modified allergens have been developed for use in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with the aim to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects. This review aims to provide an overview of the different types of modified allergens, their mechanism of action and their potential for improving AIT.Recent FindingsIn-depth research in the field of allergen modifications as well as the advance of recombinant DNA technology have paved the way for improved diagnosis and research on human allergic diseases. A wide range of structurally modified allergens has been generated in...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Social Factors in the Development of Chronic Rhinosinusitis: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn an era where prevention is paramount, understanding social factors for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may facilitate preventive interventions that mitigate risk factors associated with the initiation or progression of the disease.Recent FindingsBoth passive and active smoking are clearly and unequivocally associated with both the incidence and the severity of rhinosinusitis, while there an increasing body of evidence linking social deprivation and low socioeconomic status with rhinosinusitis and its complications. However, overall, only a handful of studies were longitudinal, while the available s...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neurotrophins in Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAsthma is a chronic airway disease that affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Current treatment focuses on symptomatic relief by temporally dampening inflammation and relaxing the airway. Novel combative strategies against asthma and hopefully a cure are yet to be developed. The goal of this review is to summarize recent literature on neurotrophins (NTs) in experimental models and clinical settings of asthma research.Recent FindingsWe highlight studies of early phases of asthma that collectively reveal a profound impact of elevated NT levels following initial detrimental insults on long-t...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis in Rhinosinusitis: a Critical Review of the Reviews
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere has been an explosion in the number of published systematic reviews on chronic rhinosinusitis in the last decade.Recent FindingsWhile the aim of these reviews in facilitating evidence-based practice is laudable, poor quality reviews may contain significant bias that can mislead a non-discerning reader.SummaryAttention therefore must be given to review methodology before implanting findings. Organisations such as the Cochrane Collaboration promote high-quality reviews, but are limited in chronic sinus disease by heterogeneous outcomes and a paucity of randomised trials. (Source: Current Allerg...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Addressing Molecular Diagnosis of Occupational Allergies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNumerous clinically relevant allergenic molecules enhance the performance of specific (s) IgE tests and improve the specificity of allergy diagnosis. This review aimed to summarize our current knowledge of the high-molecular-weight allergens involved in the development of occupational asthma and rhinitis and to critically analyze the contribution of component-resolved diagnosis in the management of these conditions.Recent FindingsThere is a lack of standardization and validation for most available extracts of occupational agents, and assessment of sIgE reactivity to occupational allergen components...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nasoseptal Perforation: from Etiology to Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNasal septum perforation (NSP) is a communication between the two nasal cavities. This review contributes to the better knowledge of NSP causes, diagnosis, and treatment.Recent FindingsNSP prevalence is about 1%. Clinical presentation may range from absence of symptoms to the presence of bothersome sinonasal symptoms. NSP is more frequently caused by trauma or post-surgery, inflammatory diseases, and abuse substances. Conservative management (nasal irrigation, topical use of antibiotic or lubricant ointments, or placement of prosthesis) is considered the first-line treatment. Symptomatic NSP not im...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Impedance Oscillometry: Emerging Role in the Management of Chronic Respiratory Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic respiratory diseases affecting adults and children are widely prevalent, so lung function testing is imperative for diagnosis and management. Spirometry is the traditional standard measure of lung function; however, certain groups of patients are unable to provide accurate and reproducible exhalation maneuvers. Consequently, the impedance oscillometry system (IOS) has been developed as an effort, independent technique to assess airway function in children and the elderly. To better understand this emerging modality, the following review will compare IOS with spirometry, examine the function...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Post-transplantation Development of Food Allergies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe development of food allergies is increasingly being recognized as a post-solid organ transplant complication. In this article, we review the spectrum of post-transplant food allergy development and the proposed mechanisms for de novo food allergies and the clinical significance they pose.Recent FindingsThe development of new food allergies is disproportionately associated with pediatric liver transplants, where it occurs in up to 38% of select populations. The mechanism of food allergy development is not completely understood; however, it is likely promoted by unbalanced immune suppression.Summ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Genetics of Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFood allergy likely arises from a complex interplay between environmental triggers and genetic susceptibility. Here, we review recent studies that have investigated the genetic pathways and mechanisms that may contribute to the pathogenesis of food allergy.Recent FindingsA heritability component of food allergy has been observed in multiple studies. A number of monogenic diseases characterized by food allergy have elucidated pathways that may be important in pathogenesis. Several population-based genetic variants associated with food allergy have also been identified.SummaryThe genetic mechanisms t...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Progestogen Hypersensitivity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProgestogen hypersensitivity (PH) is a rare disorder which usually occurs in women of childbearing age with symptoms ranging from urticaria with or without angioedema, multiple organ involvement consistent with allergic anaphylaxis, to a spectrum of other non-evanescent skin eruptions. In this review, we present a clinical vignette of PH and discuss the clinical presentation and proposed pathomechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of PH.Recent FindingsThe hypersensitivity symptoms are associated with exogenous progestin exposure (e.g., contraceptive medicines, in vitro fertilization therapy) or endog...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Risk Factors in Preschool Children for Predicting Asthma During the Preschool Age and the Early School Age: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Non-IgE-mediated Adverse Food Reactions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to update what is currently known about the major non-IgE-mediated food allergies: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE). These conditions are similar in that symptoms are regulated to the gastrointestinal tract; therefore understanding their specific features is important for diagnosis and management.Recent FindingsThe most progress has been made in understanding FPIES with several recent large cohorts being described. The first international consensus guidel...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 14, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pathomechanisms of Contact Sensitization
AbstractContact sensitization is the initial process involved in the development of an allergic reaction to xenobiotic environmental substances. Here, we briefly describe the differences between irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Then, we highlight the essential steps involved in the development of an ACD reaction, i.e., the protein binding of haptens, genetic factors influencing the penetration of sensitizers into the skin, the different mechanisms driving the initial development of an inflammatory cytokine micromilieu enabling the full maturation of dendritic cells, the role of pre- and pro-haptens, antigen presen...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 11, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Allergic Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we will integrate recent knowledge on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and allergy, thereby highlighting the therapeutic potential of ER stress in the context of precision medicine for allergic diseases.Recent FindingsEmerging evidence suggests that allergic diseases are very heterogeneous having numerous endotypes. This leads to the new era of modern medicine, which assumes that a particular endotype-driven therapy, called precision medicine, would be more efficacious in a specific group of patients rather than in all patients. Currently, a dichotomy involving type 2/non-type 2 im...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Staphylococcal Biofilms in Atopic Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disorder that is a major public health burden worldwide. AD lesions are often colonized byStaphylococcus aureus andStaphylococcus epidermidis. An important aspect ofStaphylococcus spp. is their propensity to form biofilms, adhesive surface-attached colonies that become highly resistant to antibiotics and immune responses, and recent studies have found that clinical isolates colonizing AD skin are often biofilm-positive. Biofilm formation results in complex bacterial communities that have unique effects on keratinocytes and host immuni...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mastocytosis in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we examine the current understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnostic tools, and treatment options of pediatric mastocytosis as well as the natural history of the disease.Recent FindingsWe discuss the emerging concept of mast cell activation syndrome.SummaryMastocytosis in children presents most commonly as isolated cutaneous lesions and is a relatively rare occurrence with excellent prognosis and spontaneous regression often occurring by adolescence. Systemic mastocytosis with organ system involvement is a more serious condition and is likely to persist into ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 7, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Electronic Cigarettes: Their Constituents and Potential Links to Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewVaping is gaining popularity in the USA, particularly among teens and young adults. While e-cigs are commonly represented as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, little is known regarding the health effects of their short- or long-term use, especially in individuals with pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Flavored e-cig liquids (e-liquids) and e-cig aerosols contain airway irritants and toxicants that have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of lung diseases. In this review, we will summarize existing data on potential health effects of components present in e-cig ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 5, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dysregulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Common Variable Immunodeficiency
AbstractCommon variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic primary immune deficiency. With widespread use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy, non-infectious complications, such as autoimmunity, chronic intestinal inflammation, and lung disease, have replaced infections as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this immune deficiency. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the development of these complications in CVID are not known; however, there have been numerous associated laboratory findings. Among the most intriguing of these associations is elevation of interferon signature genes in...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 5, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research