Effect of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on Outcomes in Chronic Rhinosinusitis ​
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has a significant negative impact on quality of life (QoL). Surgical treatment of CRS is indicated when medical therapy fails to achieve adequate symptom control. This review summarizes the latest information on the outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) with relation to QoL, revision rates, olfaction, absenteeism, asthma control, use of systemic medications, quality of sleep and complications. We also provide an update regarding the factors that can impact outcomes.Recent FindingsCRS has classically been divided into two phenotypes depending on the presence or a...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Childhood Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere has been an explosion of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of severe uncontrolled adult asthma. Studies have now been published in severe pediatric asthma. There are numerous questions that need to be answered in determining whether these modalities are appropriate and safe in children.Recent FindingsThis is a narrative review examining the latest pediatric literature on monoclonal antibodies, both approved and in the pipeline, for uncontrolled asthma. Presently, all of the biologics are positioned to treat patients with underlying type 2 high disease. Two monoclonal antibodies are appro...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phenotypes in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogenous disease process affecting a significant proportion of the population and impacting quality of life and productivity. Historically, CRS has been classified broadly into CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Increased understanding regarding unique presentations of CRS subsets and their underlying inflammatory profiles has led to a new system for classifying CRS phenotypes.Recent FindingsConsideration of CRS phenotypes has traditionally been a key factor in determining treatment paradigms. Under a new phenotype classificat...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Allergy: Increased Allergen Sensitization Versus Real Allergic Rhinitis Multimorbidity: a Systematic Review
The objective of this article is to provide a recent update of the association between allergic inflammation and chronic rhinosinusitis. The systematic approach of this review article critically evaluates the literature published over the past few years and summarizes the specific pathophysiologic pathway of chronic sinonasal inflammation that has been postulated.Recent FindingsFrom a systematic search of the Ovid Medline and Embase, 11 studies were included in a qualitative analysis of the association between systemic allergy and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Of the 11 studies, four showed an association, three were incon...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Local Allergic Rhinitis Revisited
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLocal allergic rhinitis (LAR) represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Even though it affects a considerable number of chronic rhinitis patients and a significant number of articles regarding prevalence, evolution, diagnosis, and treatment have been published, the condition remains still largely unrecognized and therefore misdiagnosed and mistreated.Recent FindingsLAR is a unique form of chronic rhinitis; it is neither classical allergic rhinitis (AR) nor non-allergic rhinitis (NAR). The symptoms, duration, severity, and complications of LAR are similar to those of AR and c...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergen Immunotherapy for Local Respiratory Allergy
AbstractPurpose of RevieswLocal respiratory allergy (LRA) is an eosinophilic phenotype of chronic airway disease. Three entities have been described within the LRA spectrum: local allergic rhinitis (LAR) and local allergic asthma (LAA) in non-atopic patients, and dual allergic rhinitis (DAR) in atopic patients (coexistence of LAR and allergic rhinitis). In this article, we aim to review the current evidence on the therapeutic options for LRA.Recent FindingsNo controlled study has assessed the effect of standard therapy (oral antihistamines, intranasal or inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators) in LRA subjects. Three rand...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ligand Binding of PR-10 Proteins with a Particular Focus on the Bet v 1 Allergen Family
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) proteins are highly conserved plant proteins, which are induced in response to abiotic and biotic stress factors. To date, no unique biological function could be assigned to them. Rather a more general role of PR-10 in plant development and defense mechanisms has been proposed. In addition, some PR-10 proteins act as allergens by triggering allergic symptoms in sensitized individuals. Regardless of the diversity of reported activities, all PR-10 proteins share a common fold characterized by a solvent-accessible hydrophobic cavity, which serves as a binding site...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Association Between Mouth Breathing and Asthma: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the association between asthma and mouth breathing. We performed a systematic search in the PubMed, SCOPUS, Lilacs, Web of Science, Google Scholar and OpenThesis databases.Recent FindingsAsthma is defined as a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest oppression and/or cough, and limitation of expiratory airflow. Although several studies have examined the association between asthma and mouth breathing, there are no systematic reviews or meta-analyses that synthesize the available bodies of evid...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Extranasal Manifestations of Allergy in the Head and Neck
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAllergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are well-described disease entities with broad exposure in clinical and research allergy forums. Associations between allergic inflammation and upper airway diseases of chronic laryngitis, otitis media, obstructive sleep apnea, and oral allergy syndrome are less well understood and described in the literature.Recent FindingsThis review discusses the relationship between atopy and diseases of the upper airway, oral cavity, larynx, and ear. The similar respiratory mucosal lining the upper aerodigestive tract, with sensitized mast cells and inflammatory mediators ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Does Air Filtration Work for Cat Allergen Exposure?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to compress all important information and results of the research in reducing cat allergen exposure using air filtration. Fel d 1 is the major allergen responsible for IgE responses in 90 to 95% of patients with cat allergy.Recent FindingsReduction of cat allergen in indoor air with different air filtration systems and portable devices has been demonstrated in the majority of the studies. Recently, early and late asthmatic responses were significantly reduced using portable HEPA air cleaners in an environmental exposure chamber.SummaryThis review provides a comprehensive ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cardiac Biomarkers in the Setting of Asthma Exacerbations: a Review of Clinical Implications and Practical Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present paper aims to highlight clinical implications of elevated cardiac biomarkers and associated myocardial dysfunction in a variety of cardiac and non-cardiac scenarios in patients with an asthma exacerbation, and to propose a basic algorithm for cardiovascular evaluation and triage (and hence, for further management) of these patients primarily based on evaluation of cardiac biomarkers along with basic diagnostic modalities and specific cardiac symptoms in the hospital setting.Recent FindingsElevation of cardiac biomarkers in the setting of an asthma exacerbation mostly signifies a new-ons...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pediatric Patients with Previous Anaphylactic Reactions to General Anesthesia: a Review of Literature, Case Report, and Anesthetic Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIt is rare to see pediatric patients with previous perioperative anaphylaxis receiving future anesthesia, but it is critical to understand how to choose assessments, interpret the results, and develop a future anesthetic plan.Recent FindingsAnalysis of the results revealed that patients, at any age, regardless of sex and  nationality, and the number of surgeries, have the risk of perioperative anaphylaxis while the risk of allergy increases as patients present multiple surgical events or have a previous history of atopy. 94.7% of pediatric patients with allergy testing after perioperative anap...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Critical Look at the Efficacy and Costs of Biologic Therapy for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a highly prevalent disease that results in significant healthcare-related costs as well as costs to society with lost productivity and time. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of patients who suffer with this disease will not find relief from current standard of care medications and surgery. With ongoing efforts to understand the pathophysiology of CRSwNP has come the introduction of monoclonal antibodies, or “biologics,” targeting specific elements of the inflammatory pathway in CRSwNP. Despite efficacy, these come at significan...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Peanut Oral Immunotherapy: a Current Perspective
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewPeanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) is one of the most studied experimental therapies for food allergy. With the recently FDA-approved peanut product, Palforzia, the goal of this article is to review the most recent data from clinical trials, discuss recent trends, and anticipate future developments.Recent FindingsThe latest research suggests that peanut OIT could be a promising option for peanut-allergic patients, with the majority of participants in research studies achieving the primary efficacy endpoint of desensitization, as well as sustained unresponsiveness in select populations. Some studie...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis as a Mimic of Pulmonary Vasculitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIdiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is one of the rarest and least understood causes of pulmonary hemorrhage in children. Illustrated by a complex case presentation, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, pathology, proposed etiologies, and treatment of this rare disease. We also compare IPH with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody syndrome (anti-GBM disease), another rare causes of pediatric pulmonary hemorrhage.Recent FindingsRecent retrospective studies regarding IPH along with advanced immunotherapy have led to an improved understanding of how to best treat this conditio...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: Progress and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review provides an update on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE).Recent FindingsDiagnostic challenges exist in better defining CLE as an independent disease distinct from systemic lupus erythematosus with cutaneous features and further classifying CLE based on clinical, histological, and laboratory features. Recent mechanistic studies revealed more genetic variations, environmental triggers, and immunologic dysfunctions that are associated with CLE. Drug induction specifically has emerged as one of the most important triggers for CLE. Treatment opti...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Th17/IL-17 Axis Regulated by Airway Microbes Get Involved in the Development of Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBronchial asthma is a common respiratory disease induced by immune imbalance, characterized by chronic non-specific airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Many factors induce asthma, among which respiratory infection is the important cause. In this review, we discuss how respiratory microbes participate in the occurrence and progression of asthma via Th17/IL-17 axis.Recent FindingsPathogenesis of asthma has been considered as closely related to the imbalance in number and function of Th1/Th2 in the CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets. Recent studies have shown that Th17 cell and its secret...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NSAID-ERD Syndrome: the New Hope from Prevention, Early Diagnosis, and New Therapeutic Targets
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the latest information on the appropriate identification, evaluation, and treatment of patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-exacerbated respiratory disease (NSAID-ERD), also known as aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Within the framework of our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of NSAID-ERD, we also provide an update regarding new surgical techniques and newly available or upcoming medical therapies that may benefit these patients.Recent FindingsThere have been considerable developments regarding recommendations for both the ex...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

House Dust Mite-Shrimp Allergen Interrelationships
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFocusing on the strict relationship between house dust mites and crustaceans from the allergenic point of view.Recent FindingsThe well-known tropomyosin was considered for years as the cross-reacting allergen between shrimp and house dust mites. In the last few years, several allergens not only in shrimps but also in house dust mite have been identified and other molecules other than tropomyosin have been shown to cross-react between crustaceans and mites.SummaryThe present review investigates the very complex allergen sources in shrimp and mites, giving a satisfactorily complete picture of the int...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prevention of Allergic Asthma with Allergen Avoidance Measures and the Role of Exposome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIt is well known that combination of sensitization and exposure to inhaled environmental allergens is related to both the development and elicitation of symptoms of asthma and that avoidance of allergens would exert beneficial effects in the prevention and control of the disease. Other important factors include the relevance of other allergens, exposure to sensitizing agents also outside patient ’s home, exposure to irritants (like chemical air pollutants), and the involvement of the patient with a correct education. It is also likely that clinical phase of allergic airway disease and the deg...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Evolving Rhinology: Understanding the Burden of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Today, Tomorrow, and Beyond
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo improve our appreciation of the burden of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and to understand better how to ease that burden.Recent FindingsThe burden of CRS is high. At an individual level, this burden is due to rhinologic symptoms as well as more systemic symptoms. At a societal level, the indirect costs of CRS, mostly due to reduced productivity, are higher than the direct costs. Surgical treatment has been found to be effective in addressing both the individual and societal burdens. Endotyping is just beginning to usher in the potential for personalized, precision treatments in CRS.SummaryWe unde...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Burden of Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn recent decades, food allergy has become an increasing concern for families, clinicians, and policymakers. This review aims to summarize what is currently known about the epidemiology and population-level burden of IgE-mediated food allergy, including its effects on quality of life.Recent FindingsPrevalence surveys, healthcare utilization data, and findings from longitudinal cohort studies across the globe indicate that food allergy imposes a growing societal burden. Worryingly, recent data indicate that food allergies may be more prevalent among adult populations than previously acknowledged, wi...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Structural and Social Determinants of Health in Asthma in Developed Economies: a Scoping Review of Literature Published Between 2014 and 2019
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUsing the WHO Conceptual Framework for Action on the Social Determinants of Health, this review provides a discussion of recent epidemiologic, mechanistic, and intervention studies of structural and social determinants of health and asthma outcomes covering the period from 2014 to 2019.Recent FindingsA majority of studies and interventions to date focus on the intermediary determinants of health (e.g., housing), which as the name suggests, exist between the patient and the upstream structural determinants of health (e.g., housing policy). Race/ethnicity remains a profound social driver of asthma di...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Progestogen Sensitization: a Unique Female Presentation of Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProgestogen hypersensitivity (PH) is a condition which typically occurs in women in childbearing years with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from urticaria with or without angioedema, dermatitis to systemic anaphylaxis. Herein, a clinical case of PH is presented followed by a discussion on the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of PH.Recent FindingsProgestogen hypersensitivity (a.k.a. “autoimmune progesterone dermatitis”) symptoms are associated with exogenous progestin exposure (e.g., contraceptive medicines, in vitro fertilization therapy) or endogenous progesterone from progesterone...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

New Developments in Non-allergen-specific Therapy for the Treatment of Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe prevalence of food allergy is increasing. At the current time, there are no approved treatments for food allergy. Major limitations of immunotherapy are long treatment periods (months or years), frequent clinic visits, high costs, increased risk of adverse events during treatment, and lack of durability of desensitization. Additionally, it is allergen-specific, and in those allergic to multiple allergens, the length and cost of treatment are further increased. In this review, we summarize recent developments in novel non-allergen-specific treatments for food allergy.Recent FindingsA number of m...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Circadian Rhythms in Immunity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review is focused on the existing evidence for circadian control of innate and adaptive immune responses to provide a framework for evaluating the contributions of diurnal rhythms to control of infections and pathogenesis of disease.Recent FindingsCircadian rhythms driven by cell-autonomous biological clocks are central to innate and adaptive immune responses against microbial pathogens. Research during the past few years has uncovered circadian circuits governing leukocyte migration between tissues, the magnitude of mucosal inflammation, the types of cytokines produced, and the severity of im...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Eosinophils in Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide a brief discussion on the differential diagnosis for peripheral eosinophilia. We will then focus on targeted immunotherapies for atopic disease, their effects on absolute peripheral eosinophil counts, and use of peripheral eosinophils as a predictor of treatment response.Recent FindingsIn atopic disease, lower absolute peripheral eosinophil counts are typically associated with improved outcomes. Much of the current evidence on eosinophils as a biomarker comes from post hoc analyses in therapeutic immunotherapy. While changes in eosinophilia were not the prim...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Biomarkers in Food Allergy Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInvestigational allergen immunotherapies (AITs) including oral immunotherapy (OIT), sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), and epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) have proven to increase allergen thresholds required to elicit an allergic reaction in a majority of subjects. However, these studies lack consistent biomarkers to predict therapy outcomes. Here, we will review biomarkers that are currently being investigated for AIT.Recent FindingsThe mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefit of AIT involve various cell types, including mast cells, basophils, T cells, and B cells. Skin prick and basophil act...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - December 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prevention of Non-peanut Food Allergies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review article is to discuss the recent literature around methods of prevention of food allergies other than peanut allergy.Recent FindingsWhile the most robust data to date exists for peanut, there are emerging studies suggesting a beneficial effect to early introduction of cooked egg, and cow ’s milk as well. While the literature is sparse for other allergens such as tree nuts, finned fish, and shellfish, the mechanism of sensitization is thought to be the same and no study to date has demonstrated a harm with allergenic introduction in the 4–6 months of age window...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Impact of Ambient Environmental Exposures to Microbial Products on Asthma Outcomes from Birth to Childhood
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAsthma is a chronic respiratory condition with increasing domestic and worldwide prevalence that burdens individuals and the healthcare system with high costs associated with long-term treatments and acute emergency room (ER) visits. It can be triggered by ambient microbes, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In this review, we examine the outcomes of asthma patients in relation to environmental exposures to ambient microbe products, focusing on whether exposure leads to asthma development from birth to childhood and if particular microbes are associated with worsened asthma exacerbations.Recen...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mast cell activation in the context of elevated basal serum tryptase: genetics and presentations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe inherited and acquired genetic variants and clinical entities associated with increased basal serum tryptase (BST), distinguish these levels from those which acutely rise due to mast cell activation, and finally to characterize the association between chronically elevated basal serum tryptase and episodic mast cell activation.Recent FindingsHereditary alpha-tryptasemia is a commonly inherited genetic cause for basally elevated serum tryptase and explains elevated BST in many individuals who do not have evidence of clonal myeloid or mast cell disease. When clonal myeloid disease is prese...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergen Immunotherapy and Atopic Dermatitis: the Good, the Bad, and the Unknown
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn light of the recent advancements in atopic dermatitis treatment, this review aims to summarize the utility and efficacy of allergy immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis patients. We examine its mechanism, pathophysiology, cost-efficacy, and current guidelines for clinical practice.Recent FindingsThe literature supports the use of allergy immunotherapy in atopic conditions such as allergic rhinitis and asthma but insufficient evidence exists to suggest its efficacy in atopic dermatitis. The use of allergy immunotherapy has been shown to provide long-term cost savings in both the USA and the European...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Epigenetics in Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAsthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases linked with increased morbidity and healthcare utilization. The underlying pathophysiological processes and causal relationships of asthma with epigenetic mechanisms are partially understood. Here we review human studies of epigenetic mechanisms in asthma, with a special focus on DNA methylation.Recent FindingsEpigenetic studies of childhood asthma have identified specific methylation signatures associated with allergic inflammation in the airway and immune cells, demonstrating a regulatory role for methylation in asthma pathogenesis. De...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Occupational Rhinitis: Classification, Diagnosis, and Therapeutics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOccupational rhinitis (OR), an inflammatory disease of the nose, refers to any nasal symptoms reported to be work-related. The purpose of this review is to provide a current overview of the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of OR.Recent FindingsOccupational rhinitis (OR) can further be  classified into allergic or non-allergic depending on the causative agent(s) and pathogenesis. Presenting symptoms are similar to non-OR including nasal congestion, anterior and posterior rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching. Despite its high prevalence in a spectrum of workplaces, OR is under reporte...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Basophil Activation Test: Old and New Applications in Allergy
Under the headingBAT in the Follow-up of Patients Submitted to Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy and Other Immunomodulatory Treatments, the second sentence in the paragraph should read as follows: (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Could This Be IT? Epicutaneous, Sublingual, and Subcutaneous Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Food Allergies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOver the last decade, there has been a spark in innovation in the development of therapies for food allergy. Herein, we describe the background and recent advances for food-specific immunotherapies including epicutaneous (EPIT), sublingual (SLIT), and subcutaneous (SCIT).Recent FindingsStudies have progressed most quickly for the treatment of peanut allergy. Data from the phase 3 EPIT trial add to the accumulating evidence that this will be a viable therapy for peanut allergy. Studies for SLIT and SCIT remain in earlier phases with promising results.SummaryThis is an exciting era for the treatment ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Conditioning Regimens for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Primary Immunodeficiency
This article reviews the latest developments in conditioning regimens for primary immunodeficiency (PID). It focuses on data regarding transplant outcomes according to newer reduced toxicity conditioning regimens used in HCT for PID.Recent FindingsConventional myeloablative conditioning regimens are associated with significant acute toxicities, transplant-related mortality, and late effects such as infertility. Reduced toxicity conditioning regimens have had significant positive impacts on HCT outcome, and there are now well-established strategies in children with PID. Treosulfan has emerged as a promising preparative agen...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Update on Early Introduction of Peanut to Prevent Allergy Development: Challenges with Implementation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the evidence leading towards the development of new guidelines that recommend early introduction of peanut to prevent the development of peanut allergy. It also reviews the current understanding of challenges faced with implementation of these recommendations on a widespread basis.Recent FindingsPrior recommendations to avoid feeding allergenic foods to infants have been updated and reversed. This paradigm shift in advice has created an opportunity on a population level to try and halt the recent increase in prevalence of peanut allergy. However, challenges with implementatio...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comparative Review of Asthma in Farmers and Horses
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFarmers are routinely exposed to organic dusts and aeroallergens that can have adverse respiratory health effects including asthma. Horses are farm-reared large animals with similar exposures and can develop equine asthma syndrome (EAS). This review aims to compare the etiology, pathophysiology, and immunology of asthma in horses compared to farmers and highlights the horse as a potential translational animal model for organic dust-induced asthma in humans.Recent FindingsSevere EAS shares many clinical and pathological features with various phenotypes of human asthma including allergic, non-allergi...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Obesity in Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRising costs and increasing morbidity makes the identification and treatment of high-risk asthma phenotypes important. In this review, we outline the complex relationship between obesity and asthma.Recent FindingsStudies have confirmed a bi-directional relationship between obesity and asthma. Pathophysiological factors implicated include genetic risk, the effect of diet and microbiome, and obesity-related cytokines. There have been robust, albeit derived, efforts to phenotype this group with distinct clinical presentations based on age of onset of asthma. Unfortunately, the poor performance of biom...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Proposed Usage of Intranasal Steroids and Antihistamines for Otitis Media with Effusion
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo examine the role of allergy medications in the treatment of otitis media with effusion (OME), focusing on use of intranasal steroids and antihistamines.Recent FindingsThere has been ongoing controversy regarding the role of allergy in the development of OME. Treatment of OME with medications commonly used for allergic symptomatology has been studied. Proposed treatment options include decongestants, mucolytics, oral steroids, topical steroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics. We begin by evaluating the proposed association between allergy and OME, and then evaluate intranasal steroids and oral a...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bitter Taste Receptors: an Answer to Comprehensive Asthma Control?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAsthma is marked by peculiar pathological features involving airway contraction, an impinging inflammation in the lungs, and an inexorably progressive remodeling of pulmonary architecture. Current medications for management of asthma exacerbations fail to optimally mitigate these pathologies, which is partly due to the intrinsic heterogeneity in the development and progression of asthma within different populations. In recent years, the discovery of the ectopic expression of TAS2Rs in extraoral tissues and different cell types, combined with significant strides in gaining mechanistic understanding ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Novel Insights on Sex-Related Differences in Asthma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAsthma, a common respiratory disease that affects about 10% of the US population, represents a significant public health issue. In the last decade, cumulative evidence has demonstrated sex disparities in asthma, including significant differences in epidemiology, clinical presentation, response to therapies, and health outcomes. Understanding sex-related differences in asthma enables clinicians to provide personalized asthma care and improve asthma outcome.Recent FindingsRecent studies on sex-related differences in asthma inform us on mechanism underlying asthma pathogenesis across all age groups. S...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hot Topic: Precision Medicine for Asthma —Has the Time Come?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAsthma is a common inflammatory airway disease, which affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Although conventional drugs are effective for most of the patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, they are less effective for patients with difficult-to-treat or severe asthma. Identification of asthma endotypes and biomarkers will lead to more precise approaches to treat asthma.Recent FindingsAsthma subphenotypes and endotypes have been described based on clinical variables and sputum granulocytes. A recent asthma endotype study has been summarized based on the combination of T2 (FeNO) and non-T2 (...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps in Older Adults: Clinical Presentation, Pathophysiology, and Comorbidity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a common condition that significantly affects patients ’ life. This work aims to provide an up-to-date overview of CRSwNP in older adults, focusing on its aging-related clinical presentations, pathophysiology, and comorbidity associations including asthma.Recent FindingsRecent large population-based studies using nasal endoscopy have shown that CRSwNP is a mostly late-onset disease. Age-related changes in physiologic functions, including nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction, may underlie the incidence and different clinical presentations of ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Environmental Exposures and Asthma in Active Duty Service Members
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReports of respiratory symptoms, including asthma and hyper-reactive airway disease, have been more numerous in the media and medical literature since active duty service members (SM) began to support campaigns in South West Asia (SWA). Numerous environmental exposures have been reported and this review assesses the available evidence surrounding exposures, confounding conditions, and attempts to develop screening mechanisms.Recent FindingsWhile particulate matter exposures and particularly exposure to burn pits have garnered much attention, a 2010 Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center report and...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Occupational Dermatosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide an update on occupational contact dermatitis including gaps in knowledge and practice. Occupational contact dermatitis is the most common occupational skin disease.Recent FindingsNew sources of exposure for known allergens and new allergens are continually being reported. Through clinical databases and surveillance systems, effects of prevention efforts or introduction of new allergens or new uses of known allergens can be monitored. Though the diagnostic process is clear, there are delays in workers seeking care. As early detection and intervention improves...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Update on the Genetics of Autoinflammatory Disorders
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review aims at presenting the most significant data obtained in the field of the genetics of autoinflammatory disorders (AID) over the last past 5  years.Recent FindingsMore than 15 genes have been implicated in AID since 2014, unveiling new pathogenic pathways. Recent data have revealed atypical modes of transmission in several inherited AID, such as somatic mosaicism and digenism. First pieces of evidence showing an involvement of epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of AID have also been brought to light. Novel genetic data have been obtained on the molecular bases of genet...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Genetic and Environmental Contributors for Celiac Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by gluten. The purpose of this review is to examine the major genetic and environmental factors that contribute to CD pathogenesis.Recent FindingsWe reviewed the current state of knowledge on the genetic and environmental components that play a role in CD onset. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis has highlighted several genes other than HLA involved in CD. Recent studies have shown that HLA haplotype influences the microbiome composition in infants and that dysbiosis in the intestinal microflora, in turn, contributes to loss of...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Drug Safety Evaluation in China
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aimed to introduce the regulations management and current situations of drug safety evaluation in China.Recent FindingsThe nationwide implementation of good laboratory practice and good clinical practice guarantees the quality of pre-marketing drug safety evaluation. In recent years, post-marketing drug safety monitoring is changing from passive mode to the combination of active and passive monitoring. A national adverse drug reaction monitoring sentinel alliance has been created to actively identify, report, and evaluate adverse reactions, with more than 1.4 million cases reported in 2...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research