Update on the Genetics of Autoinflammatory Disorders
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review aims at presenting the most significant data obtained in the field of the genetics of autoinflammatory disorders (AID) over the last past 5  years.Recent FindingsMore than 15 genes have been implicated in AID since 2014, unveiling new pathogenic pathways. Recent data have revealed atypical modes of transmission in several inherited AID, such as somatic mosaicism and digenism. First pieces of evidence showing an involvement of epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of AID have also been brought to light. Novel genetic data have been obtained on the molecular bases of genet...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Genetic and Environmental Contributors for Celiac Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by gluten. The purpose of this review is to examine the major genetic and environmental factors that contribute to CD pathogenesis.Recent FindingsWe reviewed the current state of knowledge on the genetic and environmental components that play a role in CD onset. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis has highlighted several genes other than HLA involved in CD. Recent studies have shown that HLA haplotype influences the microbiome composition in infants and that dysbiosis in the intestinal microflora, in turn, contributes to loss of...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Drug Safety Evaluation in China
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aimed to introduce the regulations management and current situations of drug safety evaluation in China.Recent FindingsThe nationwide implementation of good laboratory practice and good clinical practice guarantees the quality of pre-marketing drug safety evaluation. In recent years, post-marketing drug safety monitoring is changing from passive mode to the combination of active and passive monitoring. A national adverse drug reaction monitoring sentinel alliance has been created to actively identify, report, and evaluate adverse reactions, with more than 1.4 million cases reported in 2...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Charcot-Leyden Crystals in Eosinophilic Inflammation: Active Cytolysis Leads to Crystal Formation
The original version of this article incorrectly listed the third author ’s name. It should be Yohei Yamamoto, not Yamamoto Yohei. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Laser Light Therapy in Inflammatory, Musculoskeletal, and Autoimmune Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to summarize the field to date and to discuss strengths and limitations of low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) for the future investigation as a treatment of inflammatory disease.Recent FindingsLLLT is a promising therapeutic, particularly for those diseases of skin and joints because they are most accessible to treatment. Indeed, the known mechanisms of LLLT support its use for anti-inflammatory purposes, as well as stimulation of tissue growth and repair. Although the standard of care for the majority of inflammatory diseases is immunosuppressive agents such as corti...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Eosinophils: Nemeses of Pulmonary Pathogens?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEosinophils are short-lived granulocytes that contain a variety of proteins and lipids traditionally associated with host defense against parasites. The primary goal of this review is to examine more recent evidence that challenged this rather outdated role of eosinophils in the context of pulmonary infections with helminths, viruses, and bacteria.Recent FindingsWhile eosinophil mechanisms that counter parasites, viruses, and bacteria are similar, the kinetics and impact may differ by pathogen type. Major antiparasitic responses include direct killing and immunoregulation, as well as some mechanism...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Charcot-Leyden Crystals in Eosinophilic Inflammation: Active Cytolysis Leads to Crystal Formation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCharcot-Leyden crystals (CLCs), slender bipyramidal hexagonal crystals, were first described by Jean-Martin Charcot in 1853, predating Paul Ehrlich ’s “discovery” of eosinophils by 26 years. To date, CLCs are known as a classical hallmark of eosinophilic inflammation. CLC protein expresses palmitate cleaving lysophospholipase activity and is a member of the family of S-type lectins, galectin-10. We summarize current knowledge regarding t he pathological observations of CLCs and their mechanism of generation focusing on eosinophil cell death.Recent FindingsThe presence of CLCs...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Obesity in Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is a major public health problem associated with various diseases. Improving obesity control and achieving greater patient satisfaction are critical unmet needs. Various otorhinolaryngologic diseases can have negative effects on quality of life or actual health status depending on their type. Over the past decade, the relationship between obesity and otorhinolaryngologic conditions has been investigated. The purpose of this review was to discuss the relationship between obesity and otorhinolaryngological diseases.Recent FindingsThis is a narrative review on the current state of incidence, e...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Vitamin D and Otitis Media
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo examine the relationship between vitamin D and otitis media.Recent FindingsVitamin D deficiency has been associated with several respiratory diseases, including otitis media. Vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of otitis media. This relationship may be explained by vitamin D supporting the immune system by upregulating antimicrobial peptides which are effective against otopathogens and biofilm formation, supporting a less inflammatory immune response, or promoting beneficial commensal bacteria.SummaryThis review will explore risk factors of both otitis media and vitamin D deficiency, t...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Idiopathic, Refractory Sweet ’s Syndrome Associated with Common Variable Immunodeficiency: a Case Report and Literature Review
We present a case of treatment-refractory, systemic SS as the initial manifestation in a young child with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). We also review current literature about SS and concurrent immunodeficiencies and autoimmunity in CVID patients.Recent FindingsFew case reports exist regarding the co-occurrence of Sweet ’s syndrome and primary immunodeficiencies. SS is characterized by a pro-inflammatory state with a neutrophil predominance resulting in a spectrum of clinical manifestations. CVID is a multifactorial antibody deficiency that can be associated with autoimmunity, which some studies have propo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - May 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of KIT Mutations in Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGain of function KIT mutations are detected in clonal mast cell diseases, namely mastocytosis and monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome. Timely diagnosis and treatment of these disorders are crucial because of their association with severe and life-threatening anaphylaxis. KIT mutations also have implications for targeted therapies of mast cell disorders. This review article strives to serve as an overview of the role of clonal mast cell disorders in anaphylaxis while elucidating current and future therapies.Recent FindingsClonal mast cell disease has been increasingly diagnosed in patients with...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

GRADE-ing the Benefit/Risk Equation in Food Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe reviewed the existing evidence base to desensitisation for food allergy, applying the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to discuss whether desensitisation is likely to become part of routine treatment for patients with food allergy.Recent FindingsDesensitisation for food allergy to peanut, egg and cow ’s milk is efficacious, but whether such interventions are cost-effective is less clear, due to the issues over a sustained desensitisation effect and the increase in allergic reactions occurring in patients on treatment. Few studies have assessed the...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - April 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Th9 Cells in Allergic Disease
AbstractPurposes of ReviewTh9 cells are recognized as a novel subset of effector T helper cells that preferentially produce IL-9. Here, we provide a current update on the reports related to the function of Th9 cells in allergic inflammatory diseases.Recent FindingsThe effector Th9 cells differentiating from na ïve T helper cells have recently been identified. Because of accumulating findings of Th9 cells in many inflammatory diseases, including allergic diseases, diverse functions of Th9 cells in regulating immune responses have been suggested. Related reports indicate multiple sources of IL-9 besides Th 9 cells and t...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Microbial Adjuncts for Food Allergen Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFood allergen immunotherapy may benefit from adjunct therapies to enhance safety and efficacy. We review preclinical studies investigating the effects of probiotics and other microbial-based interventions on oral tolerance, describe the human clinical trial evidence thus far for microbial adjuncts, and discuss steps for translating research findings in this area to clinical therapy.Recent FindingsMurine studies support that microbial-based interventions confer protection against sensitization and may augment treatment efficacy for food allergy. Microbial adjunct therapies can promote regulatory T c...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exosomes in Allergic Airway Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will cover what is known regarding exosomes and allergy, and furthermore discuss novel mechanism of exosome-mediated immune modulation and metabolic regulation via the transfer of mitochondria.Recent FindingsExosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from the endosome that play a direct role in governing physiological and pathological conditions by transferring bioactive cargo such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids (miRNA, mRNA, DNA), and metabolites. Recent evidence suggest that exosomes may signal in autocrine but, most importantly, in paracrine and endocrine manne...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contributions of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and their role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).Recent FindingsThe immune system consists of the innate and adaptive response. Until the recognition of ILCs, chronic inflammatory diseases were characterized by cytokines linked only to T helper cells. However, these immune responses are now described more broadly to include contributions from both the innate and adaptive immunity. In CRS, focus had been on ILC2s in CRS with nasal polyps. These studies also highlight the importance of epithelial cell –derived cytokines in coordinating these responses. In ad...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Evaluating Penicillin Allergies Without Skin Testing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAn unconfirmed penicillin allergy is known to confer significant risk to patients. Only a small minority of patients labeled with penicillin allergy will be confirmed to be hypersensitive with the current reference standard test, an oral amoxicillin therapeutic dose challenge. Skin testing has been recommended prior to oral challenges to reduce the risk of severe acute challenge reactions. The rate of severe acute anaphylactic reactions with oral amoxicillin is currently extremely low. Unfortunately, penicillin skin testing, as commonly performed, has a high rate of false positive results.Recent Fi...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chlorhexidine Allergy: On the Rise and Often Overlooked
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn recent years, the risk of allergy to chlorhexidine is increasingly recognised. In this review, we discuss why the allergy is so easily overlooked and point out several preventative initiatives that can minimise the risk of both chlorhexidine sensitisation and allergy development and accidental re-exposure in patients with chlorhexidine allergy. Testing for chlorhexidine allergy is also discussed.Recent FindingsNumerous reports have been published from many different specialties. Symptoms range from mild skin symptoms to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Testing for chlorhexidine allergy is based on ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Osteitis in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOsteitis is recognized as a common factor in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). There is evidence for the association of osteitis with revision surgeries and CRS severity, in terms of higher Lund-Mackay scores. This is a narrative review on the osteitis in CRS patients.Recent FindingsEvidence to date is inconclusive with regard to the etiology and pathogenesis of this bony thickening. Histopathology of osteitis in primary CRS is likely a process of neo-osteogenesis and bone remodeling. For better understanding, various associating factors have been studied including an inflammatory pattern ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Birth Mode, Breastfeeding, Pet Exposure, and Antibiotic Use: Associations With the Gut Microbiome and Sensitization in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe infant gut microbiota has become a focus of multiple epidemiologic and cohort studies. This microbiome is derived from the mother (via the vaginal canal, maternal skin contact, breastfeeding, and possibly in utero microbial transfer) and is likely influenced by multiple external factors. It is now believed by some experts that colonization and formation of the newborn and alterations of gut microbiota in children are dependent on earlier alterations of the microbiota of mothers during or perhaps even before pregnancy. This review will focus on specific factors (pet keeping, breastfeeding, antib...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

BAT in the Diagnosis of Drug Allergy: a Novel Tool in Clinical Daily Practice?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this study is to critically review the relevant literature published on basophil activation test, presenting the current knowledge and future perspectives.Recent FindingsBasophil activation test (BAT) results varied accordingly to the class of the drug studied, and have promising results in immediate hypersensitivity reactions to pyrazolone (selective reactors), neuromuscular blockers, beta-lactams, and platinum compounds, all examples of classical IgE-mediated hypersensitivity drug reactions.SummaryCurrently, BAT is applied in research settings, but based in the results of our review, t...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Staphylococcus aureus in Patients with Chronic Sinusitis and Nasal Polyposis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is correlated with the development of persistent severe inflammatory disease of the upper airway including chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). The presence ofS. aureus is associated with atopic disease including allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis and is associated with poor outcomes.Recent FindingsSeveral different strains ofS. aureus generate different toxins and gene products that can account for organism pathogenicity.S. aureus bacteria and its antigens shape the bacterial and fungal microbiome and the mucosal niche which generates host respo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Impact of Immunodeficiency on NK Cell Maturation and Function
The section heading that readsPI3K100 δ Deficiency should be corrected to readPI3K110 δ Deficiency. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - March 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Emerging Therapeutics for Ocular Surface Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this article is to review treatment advances in ocular allergy that include the treatment of the various signs and symptoms of the allergic inflammatory response of the ocular surface.Recent FindingsRecent studies have demonstrated improved pharmacological effect of topical agents with artificial tears and cold compresses; brimonidine, a new ophthalmic decongestant which has demonstrated decreased rebound conjunctivitis; and potential use of contact lens and other novel delivery instruments to increase medication retention time.SummaryCurrently, there have been limited advances in no...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Structural Analysis of Recent Allergen-Antibody Complexes and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAllergen-antibody complexes are extremely valuable in describing the detailed molecular features of epitopes. This review summarizes insights gained from recently published co-structures and what obstacles impede the acquisition of further data.Recent FindingsStructural epitope data helped define the epitopes of two anti-Fel d 1 antibodies undergoing phase I clinical trials, providing a greater level of detail than was possible through hydrogen-deuterium exchange protection studies. Separately, a human camelid-like antibody structure with lysozyme described several unique features in a long variabl...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

New and Potential Treatments for Atopic Dermatitis: Biologicals and Small Molecules
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAn update on new therapies currently approved or potentially useful in the future for the management of patients suffering moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis.Recent FindingsNew pathogenic mechanisms involved in atopic dermatitis have permitted to propose novel therapeutic approaches devised to control the inflammatory process observed in involved cutaneous tissues by neutralizing mediators, cytokines, and their receptors.SummaryRecent research findings have disclosed important and previously unrecognized pathogenic mechanisms that have resulted in innovative targeted therapies, such as dupilumab,...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hypoallergenic Proteins for the Treatment of Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFood allergy is a growing health problem worldwide that impacts millions of individuals. Current treatment options are limited and strict dietary avoidance remains the standard of care. Immunotherapy using whole, native allergens is under active clinical investigation but harbors the risk of severe side effects including anaphylaxis. Newer food-specific therapies with hypoallergenic proteins may potentially offer safer treatment alternatives, and this review seeks to investigate the evidence supporting the use of these modalities.Recent FindingsThe utilization of different methods to alter allergen...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Multimorbidities of Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMost children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis (AR) present extra-nasal multimorbid conditions, including conjunctivitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinosinusitis, or seromucous otitis. Additionally, they may present nasal obstructive disorders, such as septal deformity, turbinate enlargement, and adenoidal hyperplasia, which worsen nasal symptoms, especially nasal obstruction. This is a narrative review on the current state of the concomitant presence of AR and one or more multimorbidities.Recent FindingsThe presence of AR and one or more accompanying multimorbidities is associated to a hig...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pediatric Drug Hypersensitivity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPediatric drug hypersensitivity is a rapidly evolving field. The purpose of this paper is to review the current state of pediatric drug hypersensitivity and highlight new developments in diagnosis and management.Recent FindingsThis paper will discuss the safety and use of risk stratification to proceed directly to oral challenge without prior skin testing for β-lactam reactions. We review unique aspects of pediatric drug challenges and desensitizations.SummaryIt is important to accurately diagnose pediatric drug hypersensitivity reactions through a detailed history, physical examination, and a...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Precision Medicine in Rhinosinusitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOur scope is the presentation of research and clinical progresses in relation to precision medicine that are expected to alter our clinical practice in relation to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Current knowledge on phenotypes and endotypes, biomarkers, and clinical markers for diagnosis, medical and surgical therapy, and prognosis is presented as well as the role of precision medicine in United Airway Disease and SCUAD (severe-uncontrolled chronic upper airway inflammation).Recent FindingsCurrent technological progresses, mostly in relation to molecular biology and information technology, have perm...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Guidelines on Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPediatric chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent problem that can elude diagnosis. In addition, given the burgeoning interest in pediatric sinonasal disease, treatment modalities are constantly evolving.Recent FindingsThe diagnosis of pediatric CRS is primarily based on clinical history and signs supported by objective findings (i.e., nasal endoscopy and/or computed tomography (CT) imaging). Cultures are indicated in patients who have not responded to medical therapy or have significant comorbidities. Nasal saline irrigation, nasal saline spray, and oral antibiotics are currently recommended f...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Microarray Immunodiagnostics for Aeroallergens
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe impact of new technologies, especially multiplexed molecular allergy diagnostics based on allergen arrays, on the management of complex patients with respiratory allergies has been important.Recent FindingsCurrently, the detailed characteristics of the IgE profile of the patient, such as sensitization to genuine or cross-reacting components or the sensitization to potentially harmful allergens, allow an allergist to tailor treatment in the context of precision medicine rules.SummaryA number of relevant articles have been published in recent years on this topic, and, in this review, the new adde...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sampling Devices for Indoor Allergen Exposure: Pros and Cons
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review current indoor allergen sampling devices, including devices to measure allergen in reservoir and airborne dust, and personal sampling devices, with attention to sampling rationale and major indoor allergen size and characteristics.Recent FindingsWhile reservoir dust vacuuming samples and airborne dust volumetric air sampling remain popular techniques, recent literature describes sampling using furnace filters and ion-charging devices, both which help to eliminate the need for trained staff; however, variable correlation with reservoir dust and volumetric air sampling has been described. P...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Asthma and Allergy Mobile Apps in 2018
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper offers a comprehensive review of interactive mobile allergy and asthma smartphone applications available within the USA in 2018, with an emphasis on interactive asthma apps.Recent FindingsPrimary care and specialty clinicians interested in introducing digital health apps into their practices will soon have more choices, for Apple ® and major electronic medical record software companies are investing heavily in the mobile medical marketplace, guaranteeing personal health information and access to care will always be immediately available in one’sdigital hand.SummaryInteractive m...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Optimization of the Surgical Field in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: an Evidence-Based Approach
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe advent of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has enabled the development of minimally invasive surgical procedures in Rhinology. However, proficiency with ESS techniques can still be hampered by poorly controlled bleeding limiting visibility of the surgical field (VSF). This can lead to increased operating time and, more importantly, increased risk of major and minor complications. To optimize the VSF and mitigate the risk of complications, many strategies have been explored.Recent FindingsThis is a narrative review of the relative risks and benefits of pre- and intra-operative interventions aimed ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Primary Prevention of Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to present an updated summary of the various approaches to prevent childhood food allergies and report recent advances in potential prevention trials for food allergy.Recent FindingsSeveral approaches related to maternal dietary supplementation as well as infant GI-based supplementation have been tried and are the subject of ongoing clinical investigation.SummaryThe prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing but several, varied approaches to prevention are being actively pursued such that an effective strategy may not be too far in the future. (Source: Current Al...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - February 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Next-Generation Approaches for the Treatment of Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIgE-mediated food allergies are an increasing health concern, and current management includes food avoidance and use of emergency medications. Effective treatment of food allergy is highly desirable. Next generation approaches for the treatment of food allergy aim to improve both safety and efficacy, potentially including long-term tolerance.Recent FindingsOral immunotherapy (OIT) and epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) will likely be integrated into clinical practice as part of food allergy management in the near future. Newer approaches, such as sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), modified proteins, l...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Influence of the Maillard Reaction on the Allergenicity of Food Proteins and the Development of Allergic Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe Maillard reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and compounds with free amino groups such as proteins and takes place during thermal processing and storage of foods. This review aims to discuss potential effects of dietary MR products on the pathological mechanisms of allergic diseases.Recent FindingsSince the MR leads to modification of proteins with various types of glycation structures, the impact of the MR on the immunogenicity and potential allergenicity of food proteins in many allergenic foods has been assessed. In addition, recent studies have suggested that t...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role and Mechanism of Galactose-Alpha-1,3-Galactose in the Elicitation of Delayed Anaphylactic Reactions to Red Meat
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe alpha-Gal ( α-Gal) syndrome is characterized by the presence of IgE antibodies directed at the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (α-Gal). In this article, we review the presence of α-Gal in food and non-food sources; we discuss the evolutionary context of the antibody response to α-Gal and highligh t immune responses to α-Gal and other carbohydrates.Recent findingsIgE antibodies have been associated with delayed allergy to red meat. In addition to food, drugs, and other products of animal origin are increasingly perceived as a risk for patients sensitized ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Direct to Consumer Telemedicine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTelemedicine uses technology to connect patients and data with providers at a distance. Direct to consumer telemedicine is a rapidly growing segment of the industry.Recent FindingsThe telehealth market has skyrocketed in recent years, making it a multi-billion dollar industry. Direct to consumer telehealth, dominated by the for-profit private sector, is the most popular form.SummaryDirect to consumer telemedicine is a subset of telehealth that shows promise in increasing access to and engagement in medical care. Quality assurance, reimbursement, and regulatory oversight are important factors in ass...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Impact of Immunodeficiency on NK Cell Maturation and Function
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNatural killer cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that play critical roles in human host defense and are especially useful in combating viral pathogens and malignancy.Recent FindingsThe NK cell deficiency (NKD) is particularly underscored in patients with a congenital immunodeficiency in which NK cell development or function is affected. The classical NK cell deficiency (cNKD) is a result of absent or a profound decrease in the number of circulating NK cells. In contrast, functional NKD (fNKD) is characterized by abnormal NK cell function but with normal number of NK cells. The combined immune ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - January 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Basophil Activation Test: Old and New Applications in Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe basophil activation test (BAT) using flow cytometry has supplanted traditional methods of measuring basophil degranulation using histamine and other mediator release, and can be used for clinical applications as well as to explore the immune mechanisms of effector cell response to allergen. This review discusses the advancements made in clinical, diagnostic and laboratory research of allergy utilizing an ever-evolving BAT.Recent FindingsBeing an in vitro surrogate of the allergic reaction that happens in vivo in the sick patient, the BAT can be used to support the diagnosis of various allergic ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Social Media and Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSocial media services dominate online consumption of information and play an ever expanding role in our lives. They are not only used to connect with friends and family but also to educate and recruit colleagues and patients, and to stay up-to-date with the new developments in the field of allergy and immunology.Recent FindingsThere are known risks to social media user by health care professionals mostly related to breaches of patient confidentiality, professionalism, and privacy. Malpractice and liability risks have been linked to irresponsible use of social media.SummaryThis review provides a com...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Innovation in Food Challenge Tests for Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review incorporates findings from studies of oral food challenges (OFC) over the last decade and highlights the latest innovations and understanding of the procedure.Recent FindingsPRACTALL guidelines are widely used in OFC research, but there is still no international consensus on the OFC protocol in clinical practice. Guidelines for performing OFC in clinical practice have been updated to include oral food challenges for infants. There have been advances in predictive models for outcomes and severity of reaction during OFC that take into account multiple clinical data as well as newer labora...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immune and Genetic Features of the Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion (DiGeorge Syndrome)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an update on the progress in identifying the range of immunological dysfunction seen in DiGeorge syndrome and on more recent diagnostic and treatment approaches.Recent FindingsClinically, the associated thymic hypoplasia/aplasia is well known and can have profound effects on T cell function. Further, the humoral arm of the immune system can be affected, with hypogammaglobulinemia and poor vaccine-specific antibody response. Additionally, genetic testing utilizing chromosomal microarray demonstrates a small but significant number of 22q11 deletions that are not detectable by sta...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Defining Pollen Seasons: Background and Recommendations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe definition of a pollen season determines the start and the end of the time period with a certain amount of pollen in the ambient air. Different pollen season definitions were used for a long time including the use of different terms for data and methods used to define a pollen season. Recently suggested pollen season definitions for clinical trials were tested and applied for the first time to more aeroallergens.Recent FindingsThis is a review on pollen season definitions and the latest recommendations. Recently, proposed terminology in aerobiology is promoted here in order to support reproduci...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: Literature Review and Recent Updates
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper will review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of exercise-induced anaphylaxis and food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis with an emphasis on novel studies published in the past several years.Recent FindingsExercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is a clinical syndrome characterized by anaphylaxis during or shortly after physical exertion. The syndrome is broadly grouped into two categories: exercise-induced anaphylaxis and food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIAn). Recent literature indicates that FDEIAn is a primary IgE-mediated food allergy which is augmented ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

How the Smartphone Is Changing Allergy Diagnostics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvidence-based clinical diagnosis of allergic disorders is increasingly challenging. Clinical decision support systems implemented in mobile applications (apps) are being developed to assist clinicians in diagnostic decisions at the point of care. We reviewed apps for allergic diseases general diagnosis, diagnostic refinement and diagnostic personalisation. Apps designed for specific medical devices are not addressed.Recent FindingsApps with potential usefulness in the initial diagnosis and diagnostic refinement of respiratory, food, skin and drug allergies are described. Apps to support diagnostic...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Virus-Like Particles as Carrier Systems to Enhance Immunomodulation in Allergen Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUtilization of virus-like particles (VLPs) is considered to improve allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). AIT aims at the efficient uptake of the target allergen by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) subsequently inducing adaptive allergen-specific immune responses to induce tolerance. The purpose of this review is to describe the immune-modulating properties of VLPs per se and to summarize the application of VLPs as antigen carriers, preferably for Th2 cytokines or allergens, with and without simultaneous administration of adjuvants in order to modulate allergic immune responses.Recent FindingsCurre...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Letter to the Authors Concerning the Published Manuscript by Rial and Sastre: Food Allergies Caused by Allergenic Lipid Transfer Proteins: What Is Behind the Geographic Restriction?
(Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research