Social Media and Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSocial media services dominate online consumption of information and play an ever expanding role in our lives. They are not only used to connect with friends and family but also to educate and recruit colleagues and patients, and to stay up-to-date with the new developments in the field of allergy and immunology.Recent FindingsThere are known risks to social media user by health care professionals mostly related to breaches of patient confidentiality, professionalism, and privacy. Malpractice and liability risks have been linked to irresponsible use of social media.SummaryThis review provides a com...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Innovation in Food Challenge Tests for Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review incorporates findings from studies of oral food challenges (OFC) over the last decade and highlights the latest innovations and understanding of the procedure.Recent FindingsPRACTALL guidelines are widely used in OFC research, but there is still no international consensus on the OFC protocol in clinical practice. Guidelines for performing OFC in clinical practice have been updated to include oral food challenges for infants. There have been advances in predictive models for outcomes and severity of reaction during OFC that take into account multiple clinical data as well as newer labora...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immune and Genetic Features of the Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion (DiGeorge Syndrome)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an update on the progress in identifying the range of immunological dysfunction seen in DiGeorge syndrome and on more recent diagnostic and treatment approaches.Recent FindingsClinically, the associated thymic hypoplasia/aplasia is well known and can have profound effects on T cell function. Further, the humoral arm of the immune system can be affected, with hypogammaglobulinemia and poor vaccine-specific antibody response. Additionally, genetic testing utilizing chromosomal microarray demonstrates a small but significant number of 22q11 deletions that are not detectable by sta...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Defining Pollen Seasons: Background and Recommendations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe definition of a pollen season determines the start and the end of the time period with a certain amount of pollen in the ambient air. Different pollen season definitions were used for a long time including the use of different terms for data and methods used to define a pollen season. Recently suggested pollen season definitions for clinical trials were tested and applied for the first time to more aeroallergens.Recent FindingsThis is a review on pollen season definitions and the latest recommendations. Recently, proposed terminology in aerobiology is promoted here in order to support reproduci...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: Literature Review and Recent Updates
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper will review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of exercise-induced anaphylaxis and food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis with an emphasis on novel studies published in the past several years.Recent FindingsExercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is a clinical syndrome characterized by anaphylaxis during or shortly after physical exertion. The syndrome is broadly grouped into two categories: exercise-induced anaphylaxis and food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIAn). Recent literature indicates that FDEIAn is a primary IgE-mediated food allergy which is augmented ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

How the Smartphone Is Changing Allergy Diagnostics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvidence-based clinical diagnosis of allergic disorders is increasingly challenging. Clinical decision support systems implemented in mobile applications (apps) are being developed to assist clinicians in diagnostic decisions at the point of care. We reviewed apps for allergic diseases general diagnosis, diagnostic refinement and diagnostic personalisation. Apps designed for specific medical devices are not addressed.Recent FindingsApps with potential usefulness in the initial diagnosis and diagnostic refinement of respiratory, food, skin and drug allergies are described. Apps to support diagnostic...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Virus-Like Particles as Carrier Systems to Enhance Immunomodulation in Allergen Immunotherapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUtilization of virus-like particles (VLPs) is considered to improve allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). AIT aims at the efficient uptake of the target allergen by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) subsequently inducing adaptive allergen-specific immune responses to induce tolerance. The purpose of this review is to describe the immune-modulating properties of VLPs per se and to summarize the application of VLPs as antigen carriers, preferably for Th2 cytokines or allergens, with and without simultaneous administration of adjuvants in order to modulate allergic immune responses.Recent FindingsCurre...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Letter to the Authors Concerning the Published Manuscript by Rial and Sastre: Food Allergies Caused by Allergenic Lipid Transfer Proteins: What Is Behind the Geographic Restriction?
(Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Influence of Age on the Relationship Between Allergic Rhinitis and Otitis Media
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo examine the relationship between otitis media, allergic rhinitis, and age.Recent FindingsOtitis media and allergic rhinitis are prevalent conditions with a controversial relationship. Some data suggest that these entities are significantly associated, either through allergic rhinitis inducing Eustachian tube dysfunction or through allergic pathophysiology simultaneously occurring intranasally and in the ear. Other studies, however, have refuted this relationship. For example, treatment with antihistamines does not reliably improve OME, making causation and association challenging to establish. A...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IgE Test in Secretions of Patients with Respiratory Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIgE is a key player in multiple inflammatory airway diseases. Ample literature demonstrates its presence in mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), local allergic rhinitis (LAR), asthma, or chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP).Recent FindingsCurrent evidence shows that high-affinity IgE in blood stream of allergic individuals derives mainly from the mucosae. Also, mucosal synthesis of IgE can occur in the absence of systemic atopy, and may be relevant in atopic and non-atopic phenotypes of rhinitis as demonstrated in LAR. Specific IgE (sIgE) detection varies depending on tec...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Multifaceted B Cell Response in Allergen Immunotherapy
AbstractWhile allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated diseases holds curative potential, the considerable heterogeneity in clinical outcomes may relate to the complex mechanisms of tolerance. The regulation of humoral immunity by AIT contributes to the suppression of allergic responses. Recent findings have revealed novel roles for IgA and IgG antibodies in the induction of tolerance. These mechanisms synergize with their ability to block allergen-IgE binding and mediate inhibitory signaling of effector cells of the allergic response. In addition, the regulatory activity of B cells in AIT extends beyond IL-10 secreti...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Agriculture Occupational Exposures and Factors Affecting Health Effects
Discussions include the impact of farming modernization, education, and personal protective equipment usage among workers, timing and duration in mediating lung health outcomes, and population studies investigating the association between exposure and risk for numerous lung diseases. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Biomarkers in Food Allergy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo familiarize the reader with the concept of precision medicine in food allergy by dealing with the current biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of the disease.Recent FindingsMany efforts have been devoted in order to characterize reliable biomarkers able to identify specific phenotypes and endotypes in food allergy. Specific IgE (sIgE), sIgE/total IgE ratios, and T cell assays are just a few candidates that have been investigated over time. With the advent of omics sciences, a new era is commencing. A better understanding of pathogenesis of food allergy and mechanisms of action...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 3, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs): the Derivatives and Triggers of Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAllergen is an umbrella term for irritants of diverse origin. Along with other offenders such as pathogens, mutagens, xenobiotics, and pollutants, allergens can be grouped as inflammatory agents. Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are altered metabolism products of necrotic or stressed cells, which are deemed as alarm signals by the innate immune system. Like inflammation, DAMPs play a role in correcting the altered physiological state, but in excess, they can be lethal due to their signal transduction roles. In a vicious loop, inflammatory agents are DAMP generators and DAMPs create a pr...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Emerging Insights into the Occupational Mycobiome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe evolution of molecular-based methods over the last two decades has provided new approaches to identify and characterize fungal communities or “mycobiomes” at resolutions previously not possible using traditional hazard identification methods. The recent focus on fungal community assemblages within indoor environments has provided renewed insight into overlooked sources of fungal exposure. In occupational studies, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing has recently been utilized in a variety of environments ranging from indoor office buildings to agricultural commodity a...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Telemedicine Technology: a Review of Services, Equipment, and Other Aspects
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTelemedicine uses technology to connect patients with providers at a distance. While the clinical aspects of this have been reviewed extensively, the technical aspects are not as well understood by allergists when they consider adding telemedicine to their practice. This review focuses on the technical aspects of setting up a telemedicine program.Recent FindingsWith the advent of new technologies including high-speed Internet, video conferencing solutions, and digital examination equipment, facilitated virtual visits as replacements for in-person visits are now possible. The technical requirements ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TLR Activation and Allergic Disease: Early Life Microbiome and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAllergy and asthma are growing problems in the developed world. The accelerated increase of these diseases may be related to microbiome modification that leads to aberrant activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Current research supports the concept that changes in microbial communities in early life impact TLR activation, resulting in an altered risk for the development of asthma and allergies.Recent FindingsPrenatal and early childhood events that generate microbiome modification are closely related with TLR activation. Early childhood exposure to a rich array of TLR agonists, particularly lipo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Telemedicine Technology: a Review of Services, Equipment, and Other Aspects
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTelemedicine uses technology to connect patients with providers at a distance. While the clinical aspects of this have been reviewed extensively, the technical aspects are not as well understood by allergists when they consider adding telemedicine to their practice. This review focuses on the technical aspects of setting up a telemedicine program.Recent FindingsWith the advent of new technologies including high-speed Internet, video conferencing solutions, and digital examination equipment, facilitated virtual visits as replacements for in-person visits are now possible. The technical requirements ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TLR Activation and Allergic Disease: Early Life Microbiome and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAllergy and asthma are growing problems in the developed world. The accelerated increase of these diseases may be related to microbiome modification that leads to aberrant activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Current research supports the concept that changes in microbial communities in early life impact TLR activation, resulting in an altered risk for the development of asthma and allergies.Recent FindingsPrenatal and early childhood events that generate microbiome modification are closely related with TLR activation. Early childhood exposure to a rich array of TLR agonists, particularly lipo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Impact of Climate Change on Pollen and Respiratory Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA warming world will impact everyone and everything. The practice of allergic and respiratory disease will not be excepted. All the impacts will be impossible to anticipate. This review is intended to discuss significant factors related to individuals with allergic and respiratory disease.Recent FindingsRecent findings include the increased growth of allergenic plants in response to higher carbon dioxide levels and warmer temperatures. This also contributes to the increased production of pollen as well as the appearance of allergenic species in new climactic areas. Stinging insects will extend thei...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prenatal Diet and the Development of Childhood Allergic Diseases: Food for Thought
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe development of allergic disease is shaped by genetics and the environment, including diet. Many studies suggest a role for maternal diet during pregnancy. In this article, we discuss potential mechanisms by which specific nutrients, particular foods, and dietary patterns may influence allergic disease development and review studies examining the relationship between prenatal diet and the risk of childhood allergy.Recent FindingsThe combination ofin utero exposures and genetic predisposition may contribute to the development of allergic disease by altering immune and organ development. Inflammat...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Administering a Telemedicine Program
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to describe the process of administering a telemedicine program including reviewing telemedicine guidelines; discussing licensing, credentialing, and privileging of providers; outlining scheduling and recruitment of patients; and measuring outcomes of a telemedicine program.Recent FindingsRecent literature findings suggest that telemedicine in specialty clinics continues to grow at a rapid pace. Medical specialty programs should prepare to adopt a practice that includes telemedicine to better serve their patients and families who have expressed significant satisfaction...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food Allergies Caused by Allergenic Lipid Transfer Proteins: What Is behind the Geographic Restriction?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo critically examine evidence suggesting that food allergy induced by lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) follows a geographic pattern.Recent FindingsLTP syndrome remains most common in the Mediterranean basin, with a clear gradient seen in prevalence of LTP sensitization between northern and southern Europe. We hypothesize that high levels of birch pollen seem to protect against LTP allergy, as these higher levels correlate with a lower prevalence of LTP hypersensitivity. Nevertheless, LTP food allergy cases still appear in areas having a high environmental level of birch pollen.SummaryFood allergy ca...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - September 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Biologics and Small Molecule Agents in Allergic and Immunologic Skin Diseases
This article reviews recent literature on small molecules and biologics for the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. (Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports)
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Review of Portable Electronic Spirometers: Implications for Asthma Self-Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough portable electronic spirometers allow for at-home lung function monitoring, a comprehensive review of these devices has not yet been conducted. We conducted a systematic search and review of commercially available portable electronic spirometers designed for asthma patient use.Recent FindingsAll devices (N = 16) allowed for monitoring of basic lung function parameters, but only 31% provided in-app videos on how to perform breathing maneuvers. Most devices (63%) provided graphical representations of lung function results, but only 44% gave immediate feedback on the quality of ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Telemedicine: a Primer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDue to rapid advancements in quality of real-time, interactive, audio-visual, and digital technologies as well as impressive gains in internet speed and capacity, medicine delivered over distance is happening faster than many healthcare providers and leaders can grasp.Recent FindingsDepending on which market report you ascribe to, industry projections for the global compounded annual growth rate of telemedicine are between 13 and 27%, with valuation growing to over 20 billion US dollars in the next several years. The Mayo Clinic has reworked its entire telemedicine interest to a model with centrali...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Review of Portable Electronic Spirometers: Implications for Asthma Self-Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough portable electronic spirometers allow for at-home lung function monitoring, a comprehensive review of these devices has not yet been conducted. We conducted a systematic search and review of commercially available portable electronic spirometers designed for asthma patient use.Recent FindingsAll devices (N = 16) allowed for monitoring of basic lung function parameters, but only 31% provided in-app videos on how to perform breathing maneuvers. Most devices (63%) provided graphical representations of lung function results, but only 44% gave immediate feedback on the quality of ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Telemedicine: a Primer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDue to rapid advancements in quality of real-time, interactive, audio-visual, and digital technologies as well as impressive gains in internet speed and capacity, medicine delivered over distance is happening faster than many healthcare providers and leaders can grasp.Recent FindingsDepending on which market report you ascribe to, industry projections for the global compounded annual growth rate of telemedicine are between 13 and 27%, with valuation growing to over 20 billion US dollars in the next several years. The Mayo Clinic has reworked its entire telemedicine interest to a model with centrali...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bedroom Allergen Exposure Beyond House Dust Mites
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review provides insight into recent findings on bedroom allergen exposures, primarily focusing on pet, pest, and fungal exposures.Recent FindingsLarge-scale studies and improved exposure assessment technologies, including measurement of airborne allergens and of multiple allergens simultaneously, have extended our understanding of indoor allergen exposures and their impact on allergic disease. Practical, streamlined methods for exposure reduction have shown promise in some settings, and potential protective effects of early-life exposures have been further elucidated through the investigation o...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tips for Seeing Patients via Telemedicine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTelemedicine is a technology that permits patients to be seen at a distance. This review describes different types of telemedicine, why they might be useful for a practice, what equipment is needed, and how to select and schedule patients.Recent FindingsThe use of synchronous telemedicine is increasing rapidly and has surpassed 50% of ambulatory encounters in some instances. Management of patients is particularly germane for an allergy practice since it is an outpatient specialty with patients who live in widely distributed locations with limited access to allergists. With utilization of digital ex...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Manifestation of Hyper IgE Syndrome Including Otitis Media
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe hyper IgE syndromes (HIES) comprise a group of rare primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDDs), which are characterized by extremely high serum IgE levels, eczema, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections. Both autosomal dominant (AD) HIES due to STAT3 mutations and autosomal recessive (AR) HIES due to PGM3, SPINK5, DOCK8 and TKY2 mutations have been reported. Here, we aim to summarize and compare the major clinical manifestations of different subtypes of HIES. We will also discuss otitis media, which usually do not get enough attention in HIES. Update and familiarity with these clinical feature...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tips for Seeing Patients via Telemedicine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTelemedicine is a technology that permits patients to be seen at a distance. This review describes different types of telemedicine, why they might be useful for a practice, what equipment is needed, and how to select and schedule patients.Recent FindingsThe use of synchronous telemedicine is increasing rapidly and has surpassed 50% of ambulatory encounters in some instances. Management of patients is particularly germane for an allergy practice since it is an outpatient specialty with patients who live in widely distributed locations with limited access to allergists. With utilization of digital ex...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Manifestation of Hyper IgE Syndrome Including Otitis Media
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe hyper IgE syndromes (HIES) comprise a group of rare primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDDs), which are characterized by extremely high serum IgE levels, eczema, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections. Both autosomal dominant (AD) HIES due to STAT3 mutations and autosomal recessive (AR) HIES due to PGM3, SPINK5, DOCK8 and TKY2 mutations have been reported. Here, we aim to summarize and compare the major clinical manifestations of different subtypes of HIES. We will also discuss otitis media, which usually do not get enough attention in HIES. Update and familiarity with these clinical feature...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergic Contact Dermatitis Evaluation: Strategies for the Preschooler
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe environment for the developing children is complex as they are exposed to a variety of activities and settings where potential environmental allergens may be encountered. Recent evidence supports the clinical benefit of patch testing young children suffering from recalcitrant dermatitis. While patch testing has been recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration in children ages 6 –18 years old, patch testing strategies for young children of preschool age (between 2 and 6 years old) have yet to be defined.Recent FindingsAllergic contact dermatitis is underdiagnosed among ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Motile Ciliary Disorders in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Diseases: Critical Target for Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImpaired mucociliary clearance has been implicated in chronic upper and lower airway inflammatory diseases (i.e., allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps and asthma). How motile ciliary disorders (impaired ciliogenesis, ciliary beating and ultrastructural defects) are implicated in chronic airway inflammatory diseases is not fully understood. Elaboration of the role of motile ciliary disorders may serve as therapeutic targets for improving mucociliary clearance, thereby complementing contemporary disease management.Recent FindingsWe have summarized th...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Is Allergen Immunotherapy in Children Disease Modifying? A Review of the Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough evidence supports a beneficial effect of allergen immunotherapy on the symptoms of allergic respiratory disease and food allergy, it is not clear whether immunotherapy modifies the natural history of these conditions.Recent FindingsIn aeroallergen immunotherapy, studies suggest that prevention of asthma can be attained. Less evident is the ability of immunotherapy to prevent new allergen sensitizations and more studies are needed to test whether immunotherapy can continue suppressing airway symptoms after treatment discontinuation. In food allergen immunotherapy, there is evidence that unr...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Endotypes of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Across Ancestry and Geographic Regions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPreliminary studies have suggested differences in endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) across ancestry/ethnic groups. Eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) is the predominant subtype for Western/European ancestry CRS patients and non-eosinophilic CRS (nECRS) for Asian patients. This review aims to re-analyze CRS endotypes across ancestry populations using one consistent criteria to existing data.Recent FindingsAlthough tissue eosinophilia is the most commonly used criterion for ECRS, various cut-off points are suggested. Surrogate markers have been extensively studied. Sixty-six cohorts with study criteria ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Is Allergen Immunotherapy in Children Disease Modifying? A Review of the Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough evidence supports a beneficial effect of allergen immunotherapy on the symptoms of allergic respiratory disease and food allergy, it is not clear whether immunotherapy modifies the natural history of these conditions.Recent FindingsIn aeroallergen immunotherapy, studies suggest that prevention of asthma can be attained. Less evident is the ability of immunotherapy to prevent new allergen sensitizations and more studies are needed to test whether immunotherapy can continue suppressing airway symptoms after treatment discontinuation. In food allergen immunotherapy, there is evidence that unr...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Endotypes of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Across Ancestry and Geographic Regions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPreliminary studies have suggested differences in endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) across ancestry/ethnic groups. Eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) is the predominant subtype for Western/European ancestry CRS patients and non-eosinophilic CRS (nECRS) for Asian patients. This review aims to re-analyze CRS endotypes across ancestry populations using one consistent criteria to existing data.Recent FindingsAlthough tissue eosinophilia is the most commonly used criterion for ECRS, various cut-off points are suggested. Surrogate markers have been extensively studied. Sixty-six cohorts with study criteria ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research