Emerging Concepts and Technologies in Vaccine Development
Despite the success of vaccination to greatly mitigate or eliminate threat of diseases caused by pathogens, there are still known diseases and emerging pathogens for which the development of successful vaccines against them is inherently difficult. In addition, vaccine development for people with compromised immunity and other pre-existing medical conditions has remained a major challenge. Besides the traditional inactivated or live attenuated, virus-vectored and subunit vaccines, emerging non-viral vaccine technologies, such as viral-like particle and nanoparticle vaccines, DNA/RNA vaccines, and rational vaccine design, o...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - September 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Is early outpatient satisfaction with substance use disorder care a predictor of early dropout? Results of the SUBUSQOL cohort
Premature discontinuation of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a leading factor associated with poor outcomes. The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with early dropout among individuals with SUD receiving outpatient care. In a prospective cohort of substance-dependent outpatients, we collected sociodemographic and clinical data, and participants completed questionnaires assessing health-related quality of life, states of anxiety and depression, and coping at baseline. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: St éphanie Bourion-Bédès, Alina Simirea, Paolo Di Patrizio, Ophélie Müller, Isabelle Clerc-Urmès, Abou Sy, Raymund Schwan, Sarah Viennet, Cédric Baumann Source Type: research

Tobacco cessation experiences and needs: perspectives from Arabic-speaking communities
. (Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse)
Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse - September 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Alison Jaworski Belinda Green Kate Kennett Abeny Mayol Rachel Rowe Source Type: research

The therapeutic effects of methylphenidate and matrix-methylphenidate on addiction severity, craving, relapse and mental health in the methamphetamine use disorder
Little evidence has examined the therapeutic effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and Matrix Model treatment on addiction severity, craving, relapse and mental health in people who use methamphetamine (PWUM). This... (Source: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy)
Source: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy - September 25, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Nazanin Aryan, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Vahid Farnia, Jalal Shakeri, Mostafa Alikhani, Habibollah Rahimi, Mojtaba Sehat, Peyman Mamsharifi, Amir Ghaderi and Abdollah Omidi Tags: Research Source Type: research

Systematic Review of School-Wide Trauma-Informed Approaches
This study aimed to investigate empirical evidence for school-wide trauma-informed approaches that met at least two of the three essential elements of trauma-informed systems defined by SAMSHA (2014).SAMHSA ’s concept of trauma and guidance for a trauma-informed approach. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4884. Rockville: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.https://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA14-4884.pdf) and consider commonalities in approaches, drivers of change, challenges and learnings related to implementation, sustainability and outcomes for students. A systematic review searching foremost...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 25, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Access to Substance Use Disorder Treatment During COVID-19: Implications from Reduced Local Jail Populations
Many states have responded to the spread of COVID-19 by implementing policies which have led to a dramatic reduction in jail populations. We consider the benefits associated with providing the population of individuals who would, but for these policies, be incarcerated with substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We discuss problems that may prevent this population from receiving SUD treatment as well as policies which may mitigate these problems. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 25, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Erkmen G. Aslim, Murat C. Mungan Source Type: research

Suicidal behaviour and non-suicidal self-injury in children and adolescents seen at an Italian paediatric emergency department.
The objective of the study is to describe non-fatal self-harm - including suicidal behaviour (SB), suicidal ideation (SI) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) - observed at an Italian paediatric emergency department (ED). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the clinical records of patients admitted to ED from 2011 to 2016, who underwent child psychiatry consultation (CPc). We analyzed: rates of CPc for SB, SI and NSSI; risk factors for SB and SI in patients admitted to the hospital's Child Psychiatry Unit after a CPc; and, correlations between NSSI and SB/SI. RESULTS: The rate of CPc for SB, SI and NSSI switched from...
Source: Annali dell Istituto Superiore di Sanita - September 24, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: Ann Ist Super Sanita Source Type: research

Mobile van delivery of extended-release buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone for youth with OUD: An adaptation to the COVID-19 emergency
The Youth Opioid Recovery Support (YORS) intervention is a novel treatment for young adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) that uses developmentally informed strategies to reduce barriers to treatment engagement. YORS strategies, such as home delivery of extended-release buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone for OUD, are designed to increase engagement in treatment, but with the COVID-19 pandemic these strategies increase risk of virus exposure and spread to patients and staff entering homes. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Kevin Wenzel, Marc Fishman Source Type: research

Substance use disorder treatment, parenting, and COVID-19
Prior to COVID-19, options for parenting support while receiving substance use disorder (SUD) treatment were limited. The transition to using mobile technology for SUD treatment due to physical distancing during the pandemic may make parenting resources for people with SUDs even more limited. The rapid integration of parenting supports into telehealth and web-based treatment delivery is essential for improving long-term outcomes for families affected by substance use. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Camille C. Cioffi, Leslie D. Leve Source Type: research

Identifying #addiction concerns on twitter during the COVID-19 pandemic: A text mining analysis
. (Source: Substance Abuse)
Source: Substance Abuse - September 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Elizabeth M. Glowacki Gary B. Wilcox Joseph B. Glowacki Source Type: research

Implementing peer recovery coaching and improving outcomes for substance use disorders in underserved communities
. (Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse)
Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse - September 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Michael A. Hansen Sanjukta Modak Samuel McMaster Roger Zoorob Sandra Gonzalez Source Type: research

The Public Health Response to a Large Poisoning Outbreak Involving an Illicit Substance: Synthetic Cannabinoids Contaminated With a Long-Acting Anticoagulant Rodenticide, Illinois, March-July, 2018
During March-July 2018, the Illinois Department of Public Health responded to an acute outbreak of severe coagulopathy among patients with recent synthetic cannabinoid use. Toxicological testing indicated that cases were exposed to brodifacoum, a long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide. A total of 174 confirmed and probable cases, including 5 deaths, were linked to this outbreak. On the basis of the experience of responding to this complex outbreak, we recommend several steps for consideration to improve health department preparation for acute outbreaks involving illicit substances including strengthening communication betwe...
Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice - September 23, 2020 Category: Health Management Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

The potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child growth and development: a systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Information about the impact of epidemics on parents and children is relevant to policy makers to aid them in developing strategies to help families cope with epidemic/pandemic-driven adversity and ensure their children's healthy development. PMID: 32980318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Jornal de Pediatria)
Source: Jornal de Pediatria - September 23, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Araújo LA, Veloso CF, Souza MC, Azevedo JMC, Tarro G Tags: J Pediatr (Rio J) Source Type: research

Problem Solving Reduces Sexual Risk Associated with Sensation Seeking, Substance Use, and Depressive Symptoms Among African-American Adolescents.
Authors: Dunne EM, Norris AL, Romer D, DiClemente RJ, Vanable PA, Valois RF, Brown LK, Carey MP Abstract Objective: African-American adolescents experience higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to same-age Caucasian peers. Substance use, sensation seeking, and depression have all been linked to risky sexual practices. Theory suggests that problem-solving skills may help to buffer against these risk factors. Method: To test this hypothesis, we used data from African-American adolescents (N = 1018; M age = 16.7, SD = 1.1; 58% female) who participated in a prevention trial. Results: N...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse - September 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse Source Type: research

TOC (update)
(Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

C2: editorial board
(Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Correlates and predictors of suicidal ideation and substance use among adults seeking substance use treatment with varying levels of suicidality
(Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Lourah M. Kelly, Carla J. Rash, Sheila M. Alessi, Kristyn Zajac Source Type: research

A Comparison of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Seeking Safety for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans
AbstractTo compare the outcomes of Seeking Safety (SS) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT) in veterans with PTSD in a specialty clinic of an urban VA medical center. Retrospective chart review of electronic medical records was conducted for 420 veterans with PTSD who received treatment with either CPT (n = 227) or SS (n = 193) in group setting. 1) treatment completion rate, 2) self-reported PTSD symptom severity measured by PTSD checklist (PCL), and 3) additional mental health services received within 12 months after treatment. Data were analyzed for the 160 who had both a pre and post P...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Impact of comorbid mental disorders on outcomes of brief outpatient treatment for DSM-5 alcohol use disorder in older adults
Relatively little is known about the prognostic value of comorbid mental disorders in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment for older adults (OA). (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Silke Behrendt, Alexis Kuerbis, Randi Bilberg, Barbara Braun-Michl, Anna Mejldal, Gerhard B ühringer, Michael Bogenschutz, Kjeld Andersen, Anette Søgaard Nielsen Source Type: research

Substance use among patients in specialized mental health services in Norway: prevalence and patient characteristics based on a national census.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further knowledge about patients at risk for co-morbid substance abuse and poor treatment outcomes. Clinicians may consider targeting patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses, young males and those who are socially deprived in efforts to prevent emerging substance abuse and improve outcomes. PMID: 32945698 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry - September 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Nord J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health in the Young Athlete
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of mental health concerns in young athletes, with a focus on common disorders, as well as population-specific risk factors.Recent FindingsAthletes experience similar mental health concerns as non-athlete peers, such as anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation, ADHD, eating disorders, and substance abuse. However, they also experience unique stressors that put them at risk for the development or exacerbation of mental health disorders. Student athletes have to balance academics with rigorous training regimens while focusing on opt...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - September 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Juvenile Probation Officers ’ Perceptions on Youth Substance Use Varies from Task-Shifting to Family-Based Contingency Management
The majority of justice-involved youth have problems with substance use, but juvenile justice agencies face numerous barriers to providing evidence-based treatments for these youth. Task-shifting is one strategy for increasing access to such treatments. That is, training juvenile probation officers (JPOs) to deliver substance use treatments, such as contingency management (CM) could improve youths ’ motivation and behavioral outcomes. However, probation traditionally emphasizes sanctions over incentives, so JPOs must alter their perspectives to accept protocols such as CM for substance use. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Danielle S. Rudes, Jill Viglione, Ashli J. Sheidow, Michael R. McCart, Jason E. Chapman, Faye S. Taxman Source Type: research

Participation in the Fathering through Change intervention reduces substance use among divorced and separated fathers
Recent evaluations of parent training programs have demonstrated beneficial crossover effects in reducing parental substance use. Because divorce is associated with substance use risk and substance use interferes with effective parenting, parent training programs are critically important for divorced fathers but there are few evidence-based programs tailored to fathers. We tested whether an evidence-based parenting program would exhibit beneficial impact on fathers ’ substance use and whether these changes were mediated by changes in parenting efficacy. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Camille C. Cioffi, David S. DeGarmo, Jeremy A. Jones Source Type: research

National Outpatient Medication Utilization for Opioid and Alcohol Use Disorders from 2014 to 2016
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of U.S. outpatient visits in which patients had a documented OUD or AUD and in what proportion of these visits the patient was receiving medication for OUD (MOUD) or AUD (MAUD), alone or in combination with behavioral therapy. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Kirk E. Evoy, Laura Roccograndi, Samantha Le, Charles E. Leonard, Jordan R. Covvey, Leslie Ochs, Alyssa M. Peckham, Samantha E. Soprano, Kelly R. Reveles Source Type: research

Same-day vs. delayed buprenorphine prescribing and patient retention in an office-based buprenorphine treatment program
Buprenorphine is a safe and effective treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD), yet a small fraction of people with OUD receive it, and rates of retention in treatment are suboptimal. Dropout most commonly occurs within 30 days of treatment initiation. Therefore, research needs to investigate modifiable factors contributing to early dropout. Requiring multiple visits for evaluation prior to providing an initial buprenorphine prescription (delayed prescription) may lead to more early dropout when compared with prescribing at the first medical visit (same-day prescription). (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Andrea Jakubowski, Tiffany Lu, Frank DiRenno, Benjamin Jadow, Angela Giovanniello, Shadi Nahvi, Chinazo Cunningham, Aaron Fox Source Type: research

COVID-19: Revising our attitudes toward agonist medications and their diversion
The COVID-19 pandemic led government regulators to relax prescribing rules for buprenorphine and methadone, the agonist medications that effectively treat opioid use disorder, allowing for take home supplies of up to 28 days. These changes prioritized the availability of these medications over concerns about their misuse and diversion, and they provided a means for overdose prophylaxis during the highly uncertain conditions of the pandemic. In considering how to capitalize on this shift, research should determine the extent to which increased diversion has occurred as a result, and what the consequences may have been. (Sou...
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Brandon del Pozo, Josiah D. Rich Source Type: research

A systematic review of patients ’ and providers’ perspectives of medications for treatment of opioid use disorder
The opioid epidemic is a public health crisis. Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) include: 1) buprenorphine, 2) methadone, and 3) extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX). Research should investigate patients ’ and providers’ perspectives of MOUD since they can influence prescription, retention, and recovery. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Katharine Cioe, Breanne E. Biondi, Rebecca Easly, Amanda Simard, Xiao Zheng, Sandra A. Springer Source Type: research

Effects of childhood adversity trajectories on mental health outcomes in late adolescence: The buffering role of parenting practices in Taiwan.
This study examined the trajectories of multiple CAs and their associations with mental health outcomes in adolescence and investigated the buffering effect of parenting practices. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: We used population-representative data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (2005 and 2007, n = 10,416). METHODS: This study was based on retrospectively self-reporting of six CAs, namely physical abuse, family economic hardship, parental problematic drinking, parental catastrophic health problems, parental divorce, and parental death, at three developmental periods: early childhood, middle childhood, and ea...
Source: Child Abuse and Neglect - September 19, 2020 Category: Child Development Authors: Lee MC, Huang N, Chen CY Tags: Child Abuse Negl Source Type: research

Adaptation of evidence-based suicide prevention strategies during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract Suicide is preventable. Nevertheless, each year 800,000 people die of suicide in the world. While there is evidence indicating that suicide rates de-crease during times of crises, they are expected to increase once the immediate crisis has passed. The COVID-19 pandemic affects risk and pro-tective factors for suicide at each level of the socio-ecological model. Economic downturn, augmented barriers to accessing health care, increased access to suicidal means, inappropriate media reporting at the societal level; deprioritization of mental health and preventive activities at the community level; interp...
Source: World Psychiatry - September 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wasserman D, Iosue M, Wuestefeld A, Carli V Tags: World Psychiatry Source Type: research

Kids grow up so fast: national patterns of positive drug/alcohol screens among pediatric trauma patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These national data support the need for further efforts to increase screening rates and provide structured interventions to mitigate the consequences of substance abuse. IMPACT: These data provide the first national evidence of underutilization of drug and alcohol screening in pediatric and adolescent trauma patients, with substantial rates of positive screens among those tested.Cannabinoids were the most commonly detected substance, followed by alcohol and then opioids.These data should guide physicians' and policymakers' efforts to improve screening in this high-risk population, which will amplify the ...
Source: Pediatric Research - September 18, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Maxwell BG, Lin S, Greene NH, Jafri MA Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research

Treatment Experience for Opioid Use Disorder During COVID-19 in India: Learning from Patients
The COVID-19 pandemic and its containment strategies have presented unique challenges to India ’s healthcare infrastructure. While a national lockdown initially resulted in the closure of all licensed liquor shops, it also made healthcare facilities dedicated to the treatment of substance use disorders challenging to access. Addiction treatment services have been functioning at limited capa city with a lack of consensus on operating procedures. In this article, we present actual case scenarios where lockdown affected substance use and the treatment process, and discuss the policy implications and considerations for b...
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 17, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Prabhat Mani Pandit, Gayatri Bhatia, Siddharth Sarkar Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 25, Pages 4257: Biased Opioid Ligands
umdar Achieving effective pain management is one of the major challenges associated with modern day medicine. Opioids, such as morphine, have been the reference treatment for moderate to severe acute pain not excluding chronic pain modalities. Opioids act through the opioid receptors, the family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate pain relief through both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Four types of opioid receptors have been described, including the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), κ-opioid receptor (KOR), δ-opioid receptor (DOR), and the nociceptin opioid pe...
Source: Molecules - September 16, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Abdelfattah Faouzi Balazs R. Varga Susruta Majumdar Tags: Review Source Type: research

Response to coronavirus 2019 in Veterans Health Administration facilities participating in an implementation initiative to enhance access to medication for opioid use disorder
. (Source: Substance Abuse)
Source: Substance Abuse - September 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Allison M. Gustavson Adam J. Gordon Marie E. Kenny Haley McHenry Julie Gronek Princess E. Ackland Hildi J. Hagedorn Source Type: research

Sexually transmitted infections in male prison inmates. Prevalence, level of knowledge and risky behaviours.
This study aimed to assess prevalence of STIs, risky behaviours and STIs level of knowledge in male inmates of the Casa Circondariale-Genova Marassi, the main penitentiary in Genoa, Italy. Between January and June 2019, 662 inmate medical records were retrospectively examined to obtain clinical and laboratory data about STIs. To investigate the inmate level of knowledge of STIs and their risky behaviours, 111consenting participants answered, anonymously, a written questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-two patients had at least one infectious disease when entered the prison: HIV (1.8%), HBV (2.7%), HCV (12.5%) and syphilis ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - September 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research

Psychometric validation of an adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to assess aggregated drug craving
Clinicians need a broad spectrum measurement of psychoactive substance craving (i.e., alcohol and/or drug) to assess collective treatment effects, especially in the context of polysubstance use. In three separate studies, we investigated the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), designed to measure broad range substance craving. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - September 15, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Mary Jean Costello, Chris Viel, Yao Li, Assaf Oshri, James MacKillop Source Type: research

“Setting people up for success and then failure” – health care and service providers’ experiences of using prize-based contingency management
Over the last 50 years, there has been a growing interest in and use of contingency management (CM) for people who use substances. Yet, despite showing some level of efficacy (albeit only short-term) and being... (Source: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy)
Source: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy - September 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Marilou Gagnon, Adrian Guta and Alayna Payne Tags: Short Report Source Type: research

Factors associated with different forms of alcohol use behaviors among college students in Bhutan: a cross-sectional study
Alcohol use has impacts on several dimensions of health, including physical health and mental health, particularly in college-age populations. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence and to dete... (Source: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy)
Source: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy - September 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Tandin Dorji, Peeradone Srichan, Tawatchai Apidechkul, Rachanee Sunsern and Wipob Suttana Tags: Research Source Type: research

A mixed-method comparison of physician-reported beliefs about and barriers to treatment with medications for opioid use disorder
Evidence demonstrates that medications for treating opioid use disorder (MOUD) —namely buprenorphine, methadone, and extended-release naltrexone—are effective at treating opioid use disorder (OUD) and reducing... (Source: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy)
Source: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy - September 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Rebecca L. Haffajee, Barbara Andraka-Christou, Jeremy Attermann, Anna Cupito, Jessica Buche and Angela J. Beck Tags: Research Source Type: research

Classic Psychedelics as a Psychotherapeutic Aid in the Treatment of Stimulant Use Disorder: a Case Report
AbstractDespite nascent research supporting the efficacy of classic psychedelics as a psychotherapeutic aid for the treatment of substance abuse, to date, there is limited published research exploring their use in the treatment of stimulant use disorder and dual diagnosis. A 22-year-old male with a history of mood disorder and polysubstance use presented to a private Australian mental health clinic. While undergoing psychological treatment for mood and stimulant use disorder, this patient reported significant benefit from his use of classic psychedelics. Following consumption of 3.5 grams of psilocybin-containing mushrooms...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - September 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Aspiration in lethal drug abuse —a consequence of opioid intoxication
ConclusionsThere are lower opioid concentrations in deceased with signs of aspiration, a fact which strongly points to aspiration as alternative cause of death in opioid-related fatalities. Furthermore, this study highlights the common abuse of slow-release oral morphine in Vienna and discusses alternative medications in substitution programs (buprenorphine/naloxone or tamper-resistant slow-release oral morphine preparations), as they might reduce intravenous abuse and opioid-related deaths. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Implementation of AUDIT in the treatment planning process for alcohol use disorder in Greenland.
DISCUSSION: The AUDIT screening was found useful in individual and national treatment planning. Data suggested that particular focus should be given to women in treatment, and the service offered to the East Greenlandic population. PMID: 32907442 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry - September 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Nord J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clozapine for Treatment-Refractory Aggressive Behavior
AbstractEmergency psychiatry has the main role of resolving suicidal behavior and aggression. These severe psychiatric symptoms can be found in many psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, personality disorders, cognitive disorders, intellectual disability and substance abuse. Although indications for the use of antipsychotics are limited to a specific group of diseases, they are frequently used as rescue medication in high-risk or nonresponsive cases. Clozapine, the gold standard for TRS (treatment resistant schizophrenia) is effective in controlling aggression. The aim of the rese...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Smoking status and racial/ethnic disparities in youth exposure to tobacco advertising
. (Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse)
Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse - September 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Nicole E. Nicksic Rose S. Bono Alyssa K. Rudy Caroline O. Cobb Andrew J. Barnes Source Type: research

Imagery-enhanced v. verbally-based group cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized clinical trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment. PMID: 32912351 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: McEvoy PM, Hyett MP, Bank SR, Erceg-Hurn DM, Johnson AR, Kyron MJ, Saulsman LM, Moulds ML, Grisham JR, Holmes EA, Moscovitch DA, Lipp OV, Campbell BNC, Rapee RM Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

The synergetic effect of alcohol consumption and cigarettes per day on smoking outcomes expectancies among Latinx adult smokers
. (Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse)
Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse - September 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Ruben Rodriguez-Cano Lorra Garey Jafar Bakhshaie Justin M. Shepherd Michael J. Zvolensky Source Type: research

Psychometric evaluation of drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire-shortened revised adolescent in Laos
. (Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse)
Source: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse - September 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Younhee Kang Yujin Hur Source Type: research

Predicting Discharge Disposition in Trauma Patients: Development, Validation, and Generalization of a Model Using the National Trauma Data Bank.
This study develops and validates a model to predict, at admission, trauma patients' discharge disposition using NTDB, transforms the model into an easy-to-use score, and subsequently evaluates its generalizability on institutional data. METHODS: NTDB data were used to build and validate a binary logistic regression model using derivation-validation (ie, train-test) approach to predict patient disposition location (home vs non-home) upon admission. The model was then converted into a trauma disposition score (TDS) using an optimization-based approach. The generalizability of TDS was evaluated on institutional data fro...
Source: The American Surgeon - September 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Graham M, Parikh P, Hirpara S, McCarthy MC, Haut ER, Parikh PP Tags: Am Surg Source Type: research

Effects of Nicotine Gum Administration on Vision (ENIGMA-Vis): Study Protocol of a Double-Blind, Randomized, and Controlled Clinical Trial
This study addresses an important gap in the effects of nicotine on vision. One of the main takeaways of this study is to understand the effects of nicotine on contrast sensitivity and chromatic contrast discrimination. This information will provide a further understanding of how nicotine interacts with early visual processes and help determine how the different components present during smoking can affect vision.Clinical Trial Registration Number: RBR-46tjy3. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Attending an Alcoholics Anonymous Meeting: A Pilot Study of an Experiential Learning Activity on the Family Medicine Clerkship.
CONCLUSIONS: Attendance at a single AA meeting increased students' awareness of community resources, including AA, for patients who abuse or misuse alcohol. Because students also reported increased perceived self-confidence regarding explaining AA to patients and assessing patients for alcohol addiction, attendance at an AA meeting has the potential to affect future patient care. PMID: 32885264 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)
Source: Southern Medical Journal - September 6, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: South Med J Source Type: research

Barriers to the Treatment of Hepatitis C among Predominantly African American Patients Seeking Care in an Urban Teaching Hospital in Washington, D.C.
Authors: Liu L, Daftary MN, Alzahrani MS, Ohanele C, Maneno MK Abstract BACKGROUND: In the United States, it is estimated that 2.4 million people are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In order to address HCV infection management in the U.S., several government entities collaborated to develop and release a multistep plan for the prevention, care, and treatment of viral hepatitis. Optimal health outcomes from the plan are contingent upon addressing each of the several steps in the HCV care cascade. Among the critical challenging steps is linkage to care and access to treatment. Of the nearly three...
Source: Journal of the National Medical Association - September 3, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Natl Med Assoc Source Type: research