Ocular Pain Response to Treatment in Dry Eye Patients.
Abstract PURPOSE: Pain is a frequently reported symptom in dry eye disease (DED). We examine the factors associated with ocular pain severity and patient-reported improvement in ocular pain to commonly used dry eye and pain treatments. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients presenting for dry eye management. Demographics, ocular and medical history, OSDI, numeric pain scale, pain descriptors, and subjective response to tried eye drop, systemic, and non-pharmacologic treatments were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to identify differential treatment response in patients with various pain level...
Source: The Ocular Surface - January 10, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Siedlecki AN, Smith SD, Siedlecki AR, Hayek SM, Sayegh RR Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Comments on: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to pathological changes of ocular graft-vs.-host disease (oGVHD) dry eye: Implications for novel biomarkers and therapeutic strategies.
PMID: 31863861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - December 18, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Genschmer KR, Russel DW, Blalock JE Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

A new patient-centered approach to ocular surface discomfort.
PMID: 31830530 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - December 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Modjtahedi BS, Jacobs DS, Fong DS Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Cytomorphological assessment of the lid margin in relation to symptoms, contact lens wear and lid wiper epitheliopathy.
This study set out to explore the relationship between the lid margin cytomorphology, LWE, contact lens wear, and lens-related symptoms. Habitual, symptomatic (n = 20) and asymptomatic (n = 20) soft, rigid gas permeable (n = 18) and non-contact lens wearers (n = 19) were enrolled. LWE was graded using lissamine green and the Korb scale; subjective symptoms were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index and the Contact Lens Dryness Evaluation Questionnaire. Impression cytology samples were obtained from the central upper and lower lid margins of both eyes, stained histologically to highlight keratiniza...
Source: The Ocular Surface - December 7, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Muntz A, Subbaraman LN, Craig JP, Jones L Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Highlights from the 2nd Biennial Stevens Johnson syndrome symposium 2019: SJS/TEN from Science to Translation.
PMID: 31785388 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 27, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Saeed HN, Bouchard C, Shieh C, Phillips E, Chodosh J Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Highlights from the 22nd international ocular surface society meeting.
PMID: 31785389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 27, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: de Paiva CS Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Prior inhibition of AKT phosphorylation by BX795 can define a safer strategy to prevent herpes simplex virus-1 infection of the eye.
CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic treatment with BX795 protects corneal cells from HSV-1 infection. The antiviral is well-tolerated on murine corneas without any detectable toxicity. PMID: 31770600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Yadavalli T, Suryawanshi R, Ali M, Iqbal A, Koganti R, Ames J, Aakalu VK, Shukla D Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Corneal nerve fiber loss in diabetes with chronic kidney disease.
This study examines the changes that occur in corneal nerve morphology as a result of peripheral neuropathy due to renal dysfunction in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Sixty-two participants (mean age, 62 ± 12 years) with type 2 diabetes and 25 age-matched healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment of neuropathy using the total neuropathy score (TNS). The corneal sub-basal nerve plexus was imaged using corneal confocal microscopy. Corneal nerve fiber length, fiber density, branch density, total branch density, nerve fractal dimension, inferior whorl length and inferior whorl nerve fractal d...
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tummanapalli SS, Issar T, Yan A, Kwai N, Poynten AM, Krishnan AV, Willcox MDP, Markoulli M Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Neurotrophic keratitis: Frequency, etiologies, clinical management and outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: NK was more frequent than previously reported in the literature. Delayed diagnoses indicated we must increase ophthalmologists' awareness of this disease for patients with decreased corneal sensitivity and abnormal epithelium. To improve prognosis and final CDVA, NK-specific treatment should be initiated as soon as the diagnosis is suspected. Patient-centered combinations of different therapeutic components and close monitoring achieved promising results. PMID: 31759182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 20, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Saad S, Abdelmassih Y, Saad R, Guindolet D, Khoury SE, Doan S, Cochereau I, Gabison EE Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Randomized masked trial of the clinical efficacy of MGO Manuka Honey microemulsion eye cream for the treatment of blepharitis.
Abstract PURPOSE: To assess the clinical efficacy of a novel MGO Manuka Honey microemulsion (MHME) eye cream for the management of blepharitis. METHODS: Fifty-three participants (32 females, 21 males; mean ± SD age, 60 ± 12 years) with clinical signs of blepharitis were enrolled in a prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, paired-eye trial. The MHME eye cream (Manuka Health New Zealand) was applied to the closed eyelids of one eye (randomized) overnight for 3 months. Visual acuity, ocular surface characteristics, symptoms and tear film parameters were assessed at baseline, day 30, ...
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 20, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Craig JP, Cruzat A, Cheung IMY, Watters G, Wang MTM Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Distinct ocular surface soluble factor profile in human corneal dystrophies.
CONCLUSION: Distinct set of the tear soluble factors were dysregulated in various types of CD. Increase in tear inflammatory factors was observed in majority of the CD subjects depending on their sub-types. This suggests a plausible role of aberrant inflammation in CD pathobiology. Hence, modulating inflammation could be a potential strategy in improving the prognosis of CD. PMID: 31756391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 19, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shetty R, Naidu JR, Nair AP, Vaidya TA, D'Souza S, Matalia H, Deshpande V, Sethu S, Ghosh A, Chakrabarty K Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Dose-dependent benzalkonium chloride toxicity imparts ocular surface epithelial changes with features of dry eye disease.
CONCLUSIONS: This study describes how exposing C57BL/6 mice to BAC induce some clinicopathological features of DED seen in humans, and therefore provides the foundations to explore the consequences on the ocular surface, particularly on limbal epithelia and its' stem cells. PMID: 31740391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 15, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Zhang R, Park M, Richardson A, Tedla N, Pandzic E, de Paiva CS, Watson S, Wakefield D, Di Girolamo N Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Early phenotypic features of aniridia-associated keratopathy and association with PAX6 coding mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: PAX6 coding mutations influence AAK phenotype and progression from the earliest stages of life. A minimal keratopathy present in 100% of congenital aniridia cases is independent of the specific mutation and consists of increased corneal thickness, reduced touch sensitivity, and increased immune activity. PMID: 31734509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lagali N, Wowra B, Fries FN, Latta L, Moslemani K, Utheim TP, Wylegala E, Seitz B, Käsmann-Kellner B Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

An artificial tear containing flaxseed oil for treating dry eye disease: A randomized controlled trial.
Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nano-emulsion artificial tear (OM3) containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and glycerin, flaxseed oil and castor oil, and three osmoprotectants (levocarnitine, erythritol, and trehalose) compared with an artificial tear (Refresh Optive Advanced [ROA]) containing the same ingredients with the exception of trehalose and flaxseed oil. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-masked, randomized, two-arm, parallel-group, 6-visit study (screening, baseline, and days 7, 30, 60, and 90), subjects with dry eye disease underwent an open-label, 7-day run-in with CM...
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Downie LE, Hom MM, Berdy GJ, El-Harazi S, Verachtert A, Tan J, Liu H, Carlisle-Wilcox C, Simmons P, Vehige J Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Conjunctival goblet cells: Ocular surface functions, disorders that affect them, and the potential for their regeneration.
Abstract Conjunctival goblet cells (CGCs) are specialized cells that produce and secrete soluble mucins to the tear film that bathes the ocular surface. CGC numbers and functions are affected in various ocular surface diseases including dry eye disease with diverse etiologies. In this review we will (i) summarize the important functions of CGCs in ocular surface health, (ii) describe the ocular surface diseases that affect CGC numbers and function, (iii) provide an update on recent research outcomes that elucidate CGC differentiation, gene expression and functions, and (iv) present evidence in support of the predi...
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Swamynathan SK, Wells A Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Schirmer test results: are they associated with topical or systemic medication?
r N Abstract PURPOSE: To test whether Schirmer test (ST) results are associated with topical or systemic medication and to evaluate the distribution of tear fluid quantity in a 3-min and 5-min ST. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, prospective, observational cohort study in Germany. ST was assessed in a sub-cohort of 1,999 participants. ST was performed under topical anesthesia for 5 min (ST-5) or of 3 min (ST-3). Anthropometric factors, systemic diseases, use of systemic and eye medications were recorded. We used multivariable quantile regression analysis to assess the influence o...
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hampel U, Schuster AK, Nickels S, Schulz A, Lackner KJ, Münzel T, Wild PS, Beutel M, Schmidtmann I, Pfeiffer N Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Keeping up with current science - How much is enough?
PMID: 31726110 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 11, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Novack GARYD Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Validation of a clinical assessment tool for cicatrising conjunctivitis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has developed the first validated assessment tool applicable to causes of CC. The tool is concise and discriminates patients with varying disease severity. It measures both disease activity and severity and is suitable for clinical and research applications. PMID: 31693934 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - November 3, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ong HS, Minassian D, Rauz S, Mehta JS, Dart JK Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Clinical metagenomics for infectious corneal ulcers: Rags to riches?
Abstract The emergence of clinical metagenomics as an unbiased, hypothesis-free approach to diagnostic testing is set to fundamentally alter the way infectious diseases are detected. Long envisioned as the solution to the limitations of culture-based conventional microbiology, next generation sequencing methods will soon mature, and our attention will inevitably turn to how they can be applied to areas of medicine which need it most urgently. In ophthalmology, the demand for this technology is particularly pressing for the care of infectious corneal ulcers, where current diagnostic tests may fail to identify a cau...
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ung L, Bispo PJM, Doan T, Van Gelder RN, Gilmore MS, Lietman T, Margolis TP, Zegans ME, Lee CS, Chodosh J Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Dry eye signs and symptoms in aromatase inhibitor treatment and the relationship with pain.
Abstract PURPOSE: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) limit the synthesis of oestrogen in peripheral tissues thus lowering levels of oestrogen. The primary aim was to evaluate whether women treated with AIs have altered dry eye symptoms and signs. A sub-aim was to investigate whether symptoms of dry eye in postmenopausal women were associated with symptoms of non-eye pain, ocular pain and self-rated pain perception. METHODS: This cross-sectional, observational, single visit study recruited 56 postmenopausal women (mean age 64.1 + 7.9 years) and 52 undergoing AI treatment (mean age 66.6 + 9.0). Ocul...
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 24, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gibson E, Stapleton F, Dear R, Wolffsohn JS, Golebiowski B Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Investigation of factors associated with ABCB5-positive limbal stem cell isolation yields from human donors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies cardiac disease-related death as a donor variable significantly associated with lower ABCB5-positive LSC isolation yields. PMID: 31655212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sasamoto Y, Sasamoto N, Tran J, Mishra A, Ksander BR, Frank MH, Frank NY Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

The gut-eye-lacrimal gland-microbiome axis in Sj ögren Syndrome.
The gut-eye-lacrimal gland-microbiome axis in Sjögren Syndrome. Ocul Surf. 2019 Oct 20;: Authors: Trujillo-Vargas CM, Schaefer L, Alam J, Pflugfelder SC, Britton RA, de Paiva CS Abstract The bacterial communities that collectively inhabit our body are called the microbiome. Virtually all body surface harbors bacteria. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing that have provided insight into the diversity, composition of bacterial communities, and their interaction are discussed in this review, as well as the current knowledge of how the microbiome promotes ocular health. The ocular surface is...
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 20, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Trujillo-Vargas CM, Schaefer L, Alam J, Pflugfelder SC, Britton RA, de Paiva CS Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Ocular surface involvement in pemphigus vulgaris: An interdisciplinary review.
CONCLUSIONS: Ocular pemphigus can occasionally present prior to mucocutaneous findings. Recalcitrant conjunctivitis with conjunctival blisters should warrant a workup for systemic PV. PMID: 31614200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 12, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Memar O, Jabbehdari S, Caughlin B, Djalilian AR Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Pathological consequences of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in tear fluid and therapeutic potential of pooled human immune globulin-eye drops in dry eye disease.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report demonstrating ACPAs in OSW of DED patients and their contribution to ocular surface disease. The first-in-human clinical trial suggests that pooled immune globulin-eye drops are a potential new class of biologic therapies for Dry Eye patients. PMID: 31606460 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 10, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kwon J, Surenkhuu B, Raju I, Atassi N, Mun J, Chen YF, Sarwar MA, Rosenblatt M, Pradeep A, An S, Dhall N, Mun C, Jain S Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Corneal higher-order aberrations in eyes with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease.
Abstract PURPOSE: Chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a long-term complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and leads to irreversible visual morbidity due to severe ocular surface impairments including visual disfunction. However, knowledge about the optical function in chronic ocular GVHD is limited because it is difficult to assess quantitative optical function objectively. The development of anterior segment optical coherence tomography has allowed objective quantification of optical function by evaluating corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs). Therefore, we applied this...
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shimizu E, Aketa N, Yazu H, Uchino M, Kamoi M, Sato Y, Tsubota K, Ogawa Y Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Floppy eyelid syndrome: A comprehensive review.
Abstract Floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) is defined as eyelid hyperlaxity with reactive palpebral conjunctivitis. It is a common condition that can be associated with significant ocular irritation. FES presents with easily everted eyelids and chronic papillary conjunctivitis in the upper eyelids. It is frequently associated with ocular and systemic diseases, notably keratoconus and obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. This comprehensive review describes the epidemiology, pathological changes, proposed pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and a variety of treatment options for this condition. Conservative treatmen...
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Salinas R, Puig M, Fry CL, Johnson DA, Kheirkhah A Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Evaluation of use of essential fatty acids in topical ophthalmic preparations for dry eye.
CONCLUSIONS: EFAs or OA in topical ophthalmic preparations can affect spread and stability of the tear film lipid layer. Rheology of mixed films should be tested using Langmuir trough technology to determine suitable type and amount of a lipid additive for therapeutic eye drops. In topical applications, the omega-6 LA (not omega-3 FA) at low concentrations (20 mol%) can be beneficial for enhancing tear stability in dry eye patients. PMID: 31589924 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 4, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mudgil P Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Impact of the 2011 International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction on clinical trial attributes for meibomian gland dysfunction.
CONCLUSIONS: The nature of the inclusion criteria, and the clinical attributes used to define MGD during the pre-Workshop period were similar to those of the post-Workshop period, suggesting that the MGD Workshop has had a minimal impact on the design of interventional trials for MGD. PMID: 31589925 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - October 4, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ngo W, Gann D, Nichols J Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Repetitive magnetic stimulation protects corneal epithelium in a rabbit model of short-term exposure keratopathy.
CONCLUSIONS: RMS treatment decreases epithelial corneal erosions in a rabbit model of exposure keratopathy, with no indication of pathological changes. RMS may present a novel treatment for protection of corneal epithelium from desiccation. PMID: 31574316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - September 28, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sher I, Tzameret A, Goldberg Z, Bubis E, Avni-Zauberman N, Kalter-Leibovici O, Marcovich AL, Ben Simon G, Rotenstreich Y Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Physical inactivity, prolonged sedentary behaviors, and use of visual display terminals as potential risk factors for dry eye disease: JPHC-NEXT study.
Abstract PURPOSE: This population-based, cross-sectional study was performed to assess the influence of life-style modalities, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and visual display terminal (VDT) use, on the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: The study included a total of 102,582 participants aged 40-74 years, from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation, a large nationwide prospective ongoing Japanese cohort study. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship of total and leisure-time physical activity, duration of sed...
Source: The Ocular Surface - September 26, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hanyuda A, Sawada N, Uchino M, Kawashima M, Yuki K, Tsubota K, Yamagishi K, Iso H, Yasuda N, Saito I, Kato T, Abe Y, Arima K, Tanno K, Sakata K, Shimazu T, Yamaji T, Goto A, Inoue M, Iwasaki M, Tsugane S, JPHC-NEXT Study Group Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Symptom improvement in dry eye subjects following intranasal tear neurostimulation: Results of two studies utilizing a controlled adverse environment.
Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the intranasal tear neurostimulator (ITN) in improving dry eye symptoms assessed in a controlled adverse environment (CAE®). METHODS: Study 1: Multicenter, subject-masked, randomized-sequence, crossover design. Single intranasal (active) and extranasal (control) ITN administration during CAE exposure. Study 2: Single-arm, open-label design. Intranasal ITN administration ≥2 times/day for 45 days, CAE assessment at days 0 and 45. In both studies, upon CAE entry, and every 5 min thereafter, subjects assessed eye dryness score (visual analog s...
Source: The Ocular Surface - September 19, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Pattar GR, Jerkins G, Evans DG, Torkildsen GL, Ousle GW, Hollander DA, Holdbrook M, Senchyna M Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

A gut connection in mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP): Insights into the role of the microbiome.
PMID: 31541701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - September 18, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Elhusseiny AM, Fakhari H, Kang K, Djalilian AR, Bishahsari F Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Neurotrophic keratopathy: Pros and cons of current treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Several new treatment options are available for patients with neurotrophic keratitis with adequate safety. PMID: 31526824 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - September 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Di Zazzo A, Coassin M, Varacalli G, Galvagno E, De Vincentis A, Bonini S Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Collaboration or competition: Take your pick.
PMID: 31505265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - September 7, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Novack GD Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of conjunctival limbal autograft in patients with unilateral total limbal stem cell deficiency.
Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term clinical outcomes of conjunctival limbal autograft (CLAU) in patients with unilateral total limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). METHODS: In this retrospective interventional case series, the medical charts of patients with unilateral total LSCD were reviewed. Patients who underwent CLAU and no other allograft ocular stem cell transplantation with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included. Main outcome measures were ocular surface stability, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and postoperative complications. RESULTS: 27 eyes fulfilled the inclusion criter...
Source: The Ocular Surface - September 6, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Eslani M, Cheung AY, Kurji K, Pierson K, Sarnicola E, Holland EJ Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Noninvasive evaluation of anterior segment and tear film parameters and morphology of meibomian glands in a pediatric population with hypogonadism.
CONCLUSIONS: MG loss is a physiological process that is prominent in the condition of sex steroid deficiency, but does not cause tear film alterations in children. Future studies investigating sex and gender effect on the ocular surface system in an age-based fashion are required to clearly communicate influences in the arenas of ocular surface research. PMID: 31499236 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - September 6, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Can GD, Kara Ö Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Chronic Electrical Stimulation for Tear Secretion: Lacrimal vs. anterior ethmoid nerve.
Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the effect of lacrimal nerve stimulation (LNS) and anterior ethmoid nerve stimulation (AENS) on aqueous tear secretion, and tissue condition following chronic implantation. METHODS: A neurostimulator was implanted in rabbits adjacent to the (1) lacrimal nerve, and (2) anterior ethmoid nerve. Tear volume was measured with Schirmer test strips after stimulation (2.3-2.8 mA pulses at 30 Hz for 3-5 min), and scores were compared to sham stimulation. Lacrimal gland and nasal septal tissue were evaluated histologically after chronic stimulation (2 weeks-7 months). ...
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kossler AL, Brinton M, Patel ZM, Dalal R, Ta CN, Palanker D Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Allergic eye disease in children and adolescents seeking eye care in India: Electronic medical records driven big data analytics report II.
Abstract PURPOSE: To describe the demographics, clinical presentation and risk-factors of allergic eye disease (AED) in children and adolescents presenting to a multi-tier ophthalmology hospital network in India. METHODS: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 259,969 new patients (≤21 years of age) presenting between 2010 and 2018. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of AED were considered as cases. Data were collected using an electronic medical record system. Multiple logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) was performed to identify the high risk-factors of AED. RESULTS: Overall, 26,30...
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Das AV, Donthineni PR, Prashanti S, Basu S Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Tear film substance P: A potential biomarker for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes that occur in the concentrations of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in tears as a result of corneal denervation and its association with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). METHODS: Sixty-three individuals with type 1 diabetes/type 2 diabetes (T1D/T2D) and 34 age-matched healthy controls underwent a detailed assessment of neuropathy using the Total Neuropathy Score (TNS). The concentration of SP and CGRP in tears was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The corneal sub-basal nerve plexus was imaged using corneal confocal micros...
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tummanapalli SS, Willcox MDP, Issar T, Yan A, Pisarcikova J, Kwai N, Poynten AM, Krishnan AV, Markoulli M Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Authors' response to: The Perils and Pitfalls of Big Data analysis in medicine.
ied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 22, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Authors' response to: The Perils and Pitfalls of Big Data analysis in medicine. Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

The development and evaluation of the new Ocular Surface Disease Index-6.
Abstract AIM: To evaluate if the OSDI can be shortened and the score calculation simplified without significantly impacting the outcome of the questionnaire. METHODOLOGY: Study#1: 264 participants completed the OSDI questionnaire (174 females; mean age: 34.4 ± 12.3yrs) and the results were analyzed to detect those questions of each subscale that are the most discriminative by multiple regression and RASCH analyses, resulting in the OSDI-6. Study#2: OSDI-6 was compared to the OSDI and the 5-item Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ-5) in 120 patients (73 females; mean age: 51 ± 20.2yrs) to evaluate...
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 20, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Pult H, Wolffsohn JS Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

The Dry Eye Assessment and Management (DREAM) extension study - A randomized clinical trial of withdrawal of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid in patients with dry eye disease.
CONCLUSION: Among patients who received ω3 supplements for 12 months in the primary trial, those discontinuing use of ω3 for an additional 12 months did not have significantly worse outcomes compared to those who continued use of ω3. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02128763. PMID: 31425752 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 16, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hussain M, Shtein RM, Pistilli M, Maguire MG, Oydanich M, Asbell PA, DREAM Research Group Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Infectious interface keratitis (IIK) following lamellar keratoplasty: A literature review.
CONCLUSIONS: Infectious interface keratitis (IIK) is an uncommon complication of lamellar keratoplasty, but it can result in a substantial loss of vision or permanent blindness. Although graft infection can occur at any time following surgery, it most commonly (87%) occurred during the first 3 months postoperatively (54/62 cases). The most commonly reported causative organism of IIK following lamellar keratoplasty was C. albicans. Positive rim culture results can provide more rapid and appropriate treatment directed to the identified organism. Therapeutic keratoplasty (TKP) was the most common surgical procedure for the ma...
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 12, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gao Y, Li C, Bu P, Zhang L, Bouchard CS Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Why DREAM should make you think twice about recommending Omega-3 supplements.
PMID: 31415816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 12, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Asbell PA, Maguire MG, DREAM Study Research Group Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Trehalose augments autophagy to mitigate stress induced inflammation in human corneal cells.
CONCLUSION: Trehalose reduces stress induced inflammation through p38MAPK inhibition and autophagy activation. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of trehalose was independent to NFκB pathway. Further, topical administration of trehalose ameliorated dry eye associated symptoms and associated tear cytokines levels. PMID: 31412290 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 11, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Panigrahi T, Shivakumar S, Shetty R, D'souza S, Jacob E, Sethu S, Jeyabalan N, Ghosh A Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Photoactivated chromophore for infectious keratitis - Corneal cross-linking (PACK-CXL): A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that adjuvant PACK-CXL expedites the healing of IK when compared to SAT alone (low-quality evidence). Further adequately powered, high-quality RCTs are required to fully ascertain the therapeutic effect of PACK-CXL. PMID: 31401338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 8, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ting DSJ, Henein C, Said DG, Dua HS Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report. Ocul Surf (2017)15(3): 438-510.
PMID: 31401339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 8, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bron AJ, de Paiva CS, Chauhan SK, Bonini S, Gabison EE, Jain S, Knop E, Markoulli M, Ogawa Y, Perez V, Uchino Y, Yokoi N, Zoukhri D, Sullivan DA Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Safety and tolerability of a one-time, in-office administration of 5% povidone-iodine in the treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis: The Reducing Adenoviral Patient Infected Days (RAPID) study.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest ophthalmic 5% PVP-I used as a one-time treatment is safe and well tolerated by patients with Ad-Cs. PMID: 31401340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - August 8, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shorter E, Whiteside M, Harthan J, Margolis M, Hartwick AT, Johnson S, Migneco M, Morettin C, Olson CK, Huecker J, Than T, Gordon MO Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Geographic distribution of corneal staining in symptomatic dry eye.
Abstract PURPOSE: To describe the geographic distribution of corneal fluorescein staining across the five corneal zones, among non contact lens wearers who report symptoms of dry eye. METHODS: Prior studies conducted at the Centre for Ocular Research & Education, Canada, were reviewed for inclusion in the analysis. Each study assessed dry eye symptoms using OSDI and also assessed corneal fluorescein staining at study entry in five zones. For each subject, the corneal zones were ranked 1-5 according to their relative staining grade, Rank-1 representing the highest grade. RESULTS: Data from 13 studies ...
Source: The Ocular Surface - July 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Woods J, Hutchings N, Srinivasan S, Jones L Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research

Hydrogen-producing milk to prevent reduction in tear stability in persons using visual display terminals.
CONCLUSIONS: H2-producing milk appeared to retard the decline in tear stability and may prevent short fTBUT-type dry eye by decreasing oxidative stress in the lacrimal functional unit. PMID: 31352083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ocular Surface)
Source: The Ocular Surface - July 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kawashima M, Tsuno S, Matsumoto M, Tsubota K Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research