Zika virus pathogenesis and current therapeutic advances.
Authors: Mwaliko C, Nyaruaba R, Zhao L, Atoni E, Karungu S, Mwau M, Lavillette D, Xia H, Yuan Z Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus that, upon infection, results in teratogenic effects and neurological disorders. ZIKV infections pose serious global public health concerns, prompting scientists to increase research on antivirals and vaccines against the virus. These efforts are still ongoing as the pathogenesis and immune evasion mechanisms of ZIKV have not yet been fully elaborated. Currently, no specific vaccines or drugs have been approved for ZIKV; however, some are undergoing cli...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Evolving virulence? Decreasing COVID-19 complications among Massachusetts healthcare workers: a cohort study.
Authors: Lan FY, Filler R, Mathew S, Iliaki E, Osgood R, Bruno-Murtha LA, Kales SN PMID: 33191880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Immunodominant regions prediction of nucleocapsid protein for SARS-CoV-2 early diagnosis: a bioinformatics and immunoinformatics study.
Authors: Dai Y, Chen H, Zhuang S, Feng X, Fang Y, Tang H, Dai R, Tang L, Liu J, Ma T, Zhong G Abstract COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is sweeping the world and posing serious health problems. Rapid and accurate detection along with timely isolation is the key to control the epidemic. Nucleic acid test and antibody-detection have been applied in the diagnosis of COVID-19, while both have their limitations. Comparatively, direct detection of viral antigens in clinical specimens is highly valuable for the early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is one of the predominantly expressed proteins with hig...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

A review of mechanistic models of viral dynamics in bat reservoirs for zoonotic disease.
Authors: Gentles AD, Guth S, Rozins C, Brook CE Abstract The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus with suspected bat origins, highlights a critical need for heightened understanding of the mechanisms by which bats maintain potentially zoonotic viruses at the population level and transmit these pathogens across species. We review mechanistic models, which test hypotheses of the transmission dynamics that underpin viral maintenance in bat systems. A search of the literature identified only twenty-five mechanistic models of bat-virus systems published to date, derived from twenty-three original studies. Most models ...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 17, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Later onset, fewer deaths from COVID.
Authors: Aparicio Fenoll A, Grossbard S Abstract We test whether European countries or US states who experienced their first death from COVID-19 at a later date have fewer deaths from COVID  60 and 100 days after the start of the pandemic in their borders. Our sample consists of 29 European countries associated with the European Union and 50 U.S. states and we control for a number of demographic, economic and health-policy related factors that are likely to influence mortality. We find that late starting countries or states registered fewer deaths from COVID-19. Countries/statesâ€...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 17, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Public perceptions of threats from mosquitoes in the U.S. using online media analytics.
Authors: Widmar NJO, Bir C, Long E, Ruple A Abstract Mosquito-borne illnesses present a public health threat. This analysis quantifies general online mosquito media, and the Zika virus [ZIKV) specifically, from 7-20-2016 to 10-20-2018 in five U.S. geographies. The ZIKV sub-search comprised a shrinking share of online media about mosquitoes over time. Net sentiment, numerical scoring of search result positivity/negativity bounded between -100 and +100, was assessed. Mean net sentiment for the general mosquitoes search was -51; -55 for ZIKV. The ZIKV search revealed more variation i...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Design a multi-epitope subunit vaccine for immune-protection against Leishmania parasite.
In this study, we aimed to design a peptide-based vaccine against L. donovani using immuno-bioinformatic tools. We identified 6 HTL, 18 CTL, and 25 B-cell epitopes from three hypothetical membrane proteins of L. donovani. All these epitopes were used to make a vaccine construct along with linkers. An adjuvant was also added at the N-terminal to enhance its immunogenicity. After that, we checked the quality of this vaccine construct and found that it is nontoxic, nonallergic, and thermally stable. A 3D structure of the vaccine construct was also generated by homology modeling to evaluate its interaction with innate immune r...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and public fomites: a review.
Authors: Jaradat ZW, Ababneh QO, Sha'aban ST, Alkofahi AA, Assaleh D, Al Shara A Abstract Staphylococcus genus is a Gram-positive coccus normally associated with skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. It is part of the commensal human microflora, or found in animals, or contaminating surfaces in the community and hospital settings. Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic species belonging to this genus, as it possesses a collection of virulence factors that are expressed solely to evade the immune system. The increase in the misuse of antimicrobial agents predisposed S. aureus to develop antibiotic...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - October 31, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Cellular mechanisms regulating synthetic sex ratio distortion in the Anopheles gambiae germline.
In this study, we investigated the fate of X and Y chromosomes in these SD males and found that ratios of mature X:Y-bearing sperm were comparable to wild-type insects, indicating absence of selection mechanisms during sperm maturation. We therefore tested the effect of meiotic cleavage of both X and Y chromosomes in a lab-generated SD strain carrying rDNA on both sex chromosomes, showing fertility comparable to wild-type and a reduced male-bias compared to SD males in which only the X is targeted. Exposure of Y-linked rDNA to I-PpoI cleavage for consecutive generations rapidly restored the male-bias to typical high freque...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - October 13, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Mortality from COVID-19: are we getting closer to the true value?
Authors: Fonzo M, Bertoncello C, Baldo V PMID: 33012277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - October 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility experiences from the University Hospital 'Luigi Vanvitelli' of Naples.
This study characterized the epidemiological status, antibiotic resistance patterns, and current prevalent phenotypes of healthcare-associated MRSA. This knowledge can aid clinicians in improving the antimicrobial stewardship program by adapting appropriate guidelines for the proper use of MRSA antibacterial agents. PMID: 33012280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - October 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Late incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a highly-endemic remote rural village. A prospective population-based cohort study.
Authors: Del Brutto OH, Costa AF, Mera RM, Recalde BY, Bustos JA, García HH Abstract Data on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in rural communities is scarce or non-existent. A previous cross-sectional study in middle-aged and older adults enrolled in the Atahualpa Project Cohort demonstrated that 45% of participants had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 77% of whom were symptomatic. Here, we assessed the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the above-mentioned rural population. One month after baseline testing, 362 of 370 initially seronegative individuals were re-tested to assess incidence of seroconversion and associated risk...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 30, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Concerns and public health challenges for arboviral and other respiratory infections amidst SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
Authors: Agarwal A, Chaurasia D, Dash PK PMID: 32975487 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Epidemiology, resistance characteristics, virulence determinants, and treatment outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bone and joint infections: a one-year prospective study at a tertiary care hospital in India.
CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted that the differences exist between the OAI and NIRI, specifically in terms of clinical features, distribution of luk genes, treatment approach, and outcome. Risk factors for both types of infection remained the same. PMID: 32960738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Detailed epidemiological analysis as a strategy for evaluating the actual behavior of tuberculosis in an apparently low-incidence region.
Authors: Guillén-Nepita AL, Vázquez-Marrufo G, Cruz-Hernández A, García-Oliva F, Zepeda-Gurrola RC, Vázquez-Garcidueñas MS Abstract Tuberculosis control in developing regions with apparent low incidence, like the low-income Mexican state of Michoacán, with mean annual incidence rates below 10/100,000 inhabitants, requires knowledge of the actual behavior of the disease. This can be determined using an epidemiological profile at sub-regional level, allowing disclosure of the clinical and social factors that may be hampering efforts to control tuberculosis. In this wor...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 16, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Critical appraisal of a mHealth-assisted community-based cardiovascular disease risk screening program in rural Kenya: an operational research study.
In this study, A CHW screened a convenience sample of adults ≥ 40 years old in rural Kenya for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using the two-way AFYACHAT mHealth instrument. AFYACHAT analyzes a patient's age, sex, smoking, diabetes and systolic blood pressure and provides a four-tiered 10-year CVD risk score. User acceptability was assessed by an end-of-study interview with the CWH. Automated error logs were analyzed. Patient satisfaction was measured with a six-question satisfaction questionnaire. Screened participants with high CVD risk were followed-up via telephone to explore any actions taken following scree...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Epidemiology of tungiasis in sub-saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Obebe OO, Aluko OO Abstract Tungiasis is a public health disease in many rural and urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), primarily affecting children and the elderly. Yet, this disease has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence of tungiasis and associated risk factors in SSA. We searched AJOL, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed for population-based studies that reported the prevalence of tungiasis and risk factors in SSA between January 1980 and July 2020. The study employed a random-ef...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Viricidal treatments for prevention of coronavirus infection.
Authors: Khokhar M, Roy D, Purohit P, Goyal M, Setia P Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and lung failure, is caused by the novel coronavirus, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to high transmission rates from individual to individual, it has progressed to a pandemic. However, indirect transmission from inanimate objects or surfaces that have come in contact with a patient poses an even more significant threat as it is difficult to trace the source of infection in these cases. Therefore, these surfaces and object...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

COVID-19 challenge: proactive management of a Tertiary University Hospital in Veneto Region, Italy.
DISCUSSION: AOUP strategy demonstrated effective management of the epidemic thanks to the timely implementation of emergency procedures, a well-coordinated effort shared by all hospital Departments, and their continuous adjustment to the ongoing epidemic. Timely screening of all hospital workers proved to be particularly important to defend the hospital, avoiding epidemic clusters due to unknown positive cases. PMID: 32862823 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - August 31, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Reduction of West Nile virus infections in Italy during 2020 early summer: a secondary 'COVID-19' effect?
Authors: Zuin M, Rigatelli G, Roncon L PMID: 32845819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - August 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Research inequities: avoiding the next pandemic.
Authors: Gomes C, Ruiz J PMID: 32744158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - August 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Kidney biomarkers in tropical infections: an update.
Authors: Duarte DB, Lacerda MCSR, Ribeiro YJP, Ribeiro MZD, Frederico MA, Oliveira MJC Abstract Neglected tropical diseases affect over 1 billion people, and cause 170,000 deaths each year. They result in disability, stigma and disfigurement, and also push families into poverty. Tropical infections can involve the kidney, presenting as a wide variety of ways, varying from transient urinary abnormalities to severe acute kidney injury (AKI). It is important to assess renal function in patients with tropical infections for earlier detection of AKI, appropriate treatment and prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) o...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 31, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Doses of primaquine administered to children with Plasmodium vivax according to an age-based dose regimen.
Authors: Vieira MVDF, Matos Lopes TR, Mello AGNC, de Sena LWP, Commons RJ, Vieira JLF Abstract Primaquine is still the first-line drug to eliminate hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax. The therapeutic efficacy is related to the total dose administered. In several endemic areas, the drug is administered for children in an age-based regimen, which can lead to inadequate exposure, increasing the rates of recurrence of the infection. The present study aims to describe the mg/kg total dose of primaquine administered to children for treatment for vivax malaria when an age-based regimen is used and to measure the plasma conce...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

A novel Ehrlichia strain (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) detected in Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae), a tick species of public health importance in the Southern Cone of America.
Authors: Cicuttin GL, De Salvo MN, Pérez PD, Silva D, Félix ML, Venzal JM, Nava S Abstract The aim of this work was to report the detection of a putative novel Ehrlichia strain associated with the tick Amblyomma triste. Free-living adult ticks determined as A. triste were collected by drag-sampling in Argentina and Uruguay. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia agents was performed targeting three different loci: 16S rRNA gene, dsb gene and a fragment of groESL heat shock operon. In total, 164 adults of A. triste (38 from INTA E.E.A Delta del Paraná in Argentina and 126 from Toledo Chico in Uruguay)...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Overlapping of locust swarms with COVID-19 pandemic: a cascading disaster for Africa.
Authors: Rahaman MM, Saha O, Rakhi NN, Chowdhury MMK, Sammonds P, Kamal AM PMID: 32662750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Human immune response to Phlebotomus sergenti salivary gland antigens in a leishmaniasis-endemic focus in Iran.
This study aimed to investigate the level, duration, and dynamics of the human immune response against the SGL of Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 (Diptera: Psychodidae), and to assess the immunoreactivity of human sera with SGL components in an endemic area of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Iran. The study was carried out in 2-phase; longitudinal and cross-sectional. Sand flies were collected monthly from indoors and outdoors. In the longitudinal study, sera from healthy volunteers were collected monthly, and in the cross-sectional study, sera from healthy volunteers and patients with ACL lesion/s, w...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Is time our ultimate ally in defying the pandemic?
Authors: Landoni G, Losi D, Fresilli S, Lazzari S, Nardelli P, Puglisi R, Zangrillo A PMID: 32594897 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 1, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

The impact of climate change on mosquito-borne diseases in Africa.
This study aimed at assessing the relationship between CC and MBD in Africa. Methods For this purpose, a systematic peer review was carried out, considering all articles indexed in PubMed, Scopus, Embase and CENTRAL. Search terms referring to MBD, CC and environmental factors were screened in title, abstract and keywords.Results A total of twenty-nine studies were included, most of them on malaria (61%), being Anopheles spp. (61%) the most commonly analyzed vector, mainly in Eastern Africa (48%). Seventy-nine percent of these studies were based on predictive models. Seventy-two percent of the reviewed studies considered th...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Decreased in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
Authors: Ciceri F, Ruggeri A, Lembo R, Puglisi R, Landoni G, Zangrillo A, COVID-BioB Study Group PMID: 32584660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Understanding the role that 'COVID toe' has in recognizing the potential extent of COVID-19 infections: a case study.
This article will be discussing two case studies to demonstrate the lack of public knowledge and of public health guidance associated with this symptom. We will further explore the use of COVID toe in the epidemiology of COVID-19 and its utility as a sign for total cases and contact tracing. PMID: 32576095 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Genotyping and molecular characterization of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a single hospital in Southwestern Iran.
Authors: Farajzadeh Sheikh A, Savari M, Abbasi Montazeri E, Khoshnood S Abstract ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII: (A. baumannii) is a pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections among the hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to investigate genotyping and molecular characterization and to examine the biofilm formation ability of A. baumannii isolates. In total, 70 A. baumannii isolates were collected from patients admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz, Southwestern Iran. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) test was performed using Vitek 2 system. The presence of genes encoding metallo-β-lactama...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Dealing with a pandemic: the Kerala Model of containment strategy for COVID-19.
Authors: Pandi-Perumal SR, Gulia KK, Gupta D, Kumar VM PMID: 32559132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Antigenic membrane proteins of virulent variant of Entamoeba histolytica HM-1:IMSS.
This study was aimed at profiling antigenic membrane proteins of a virulent variant of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. The membrane proteins were extracted using ProteoExtract® kit (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) or conventional method, separated using OFFGEL 3100 fractionator (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California), followed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Selected antigenic membrane proteins were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Subsequently, the proteins were classified according to their biological processes and predictions were made on membrane and membrane-associated proteins. When the proteins were probed wit...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Can lactoferrin boost human immunity against COVID-19?
Authors: AlKhazindar M, Elnagdy SM PMID: 32529963 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Sleeping space matters: LLINs usage in Ghana.
The objective of this study was to explore the effect of sleeping space and other socio-demographic factors of households' heads on LLINs usage among households. A cross-sectional household-based study was conducted using a quantitative approach. Data was collected exclusively from households that received LLINs at no direct financial cost to them in a mass malaria campaign conducted in the study area using a structured questionnaire. A total of 383 households sampled for the study received 1,181 LLINs with a range of 1 to 15 LLINs per household. Less than 16% of households that received more than 2 LLINs installed all the...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Impact of COVID-19 public health interventions on influenza incidence in Thailand.
Authors: Suntronwong N, Thongpan I, Chuchaona W, Budi Lestari F, Vichaiwattana P, Yorsaeng R, Pasittungkul S, Kitphati R, Vongpunsawad S, Poovorawan Y PMID: 32521210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

A call to research: the relationship between SARS-2-CoV, ACE 2 and antihypertensives.
Authors: Cassone A, Gucciardo D, Cauda R PMID: 32450774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Forecasting tuberculosis using diabetes-related google trends data.
Authors: Frauenfeld L, Nann D, Sulyok Z, Feng YS, Sulyok M Abstract Online activity-based data can be used to aid infectious disease forecasting. Our aim was to exploit the converging nature of the tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes epidemics to forecast TB case numbers. Thus, we extended TB prediction models based on traditional data with diabetes-related Google searches. We obtained data on the weekly case numbers of TB in Germany from June 8th, 2014, to May 5th, 2019. Internet search data were obtained from a Google Trends (GTD) search for 'diabetes' to the corresponding interval. A seasonal autoregressive moving av...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

COVID-19 and civil war in Libya: the current situation.
Authors: Elhadi M, Msherghi A PMID: 32432976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Validation of dried blood spots in monitoring toxoplasmosis.
This study included 101 study subjects were occupationally at-risk to Toxoplasma gondii infection and 33 as controls. Serum was collected from both groups for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies by ELISA as a reference gold standard test. For the occupational at-risk group, capillary finger stick derived blood was blotted onto five sets of Whatman protein saver cards. Discs were stored as four sets; three sets at 4°C and eluted 1, 2 and 3 months of storage and one set at -20°C for 3 months then eluted. Additionally, one set was eluted immediately. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were evaluated by EL...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Recommendation of fecal specimen for routine molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 and for COVID-19 discharge criteria.
Authors: Ahamed Mim M, Naznin Rakhi N, Saha O, Rahaman MM PMID: 32407189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 16, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Expression levels of candidate circulating microRNAs in pediatric tuberculosis.
Authors: M K, S S, S M Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is a preventable and curable disease, but increased mortality and morbidity associated with TB is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs known to regulate the host immune response against TB. We investigated the expression profile of candidate circulating miRNAs, which could be used as a blood biomarker for the effective diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted, including 30 children with active-TB and 30 healthy controls (HC) in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Centralized air-conditioning and transmission of novel coronavirus.
Authors: Siddiqui R, Ahmed Khan N PMID: 32401188 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Hospital epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a one-year retrospective study at a tertiary care center in Thailand.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) isolates among Thai patients with S. aureus infection and to identify risk factors and appropriate antibiotics for these resistant strains. METHODS: Data of culture-proven S. aureus isolates from clinical specimens during 2017 in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand, were retrospectively collected and classified as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus or MRSA by cefoxitin screening and oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration by the Vitek 2 system. Each isolate was also tested for susc...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Potential of the natural products against leishmaniasis in Old World - a review of in-vitro studies.
Authors: Cortes S, Bruno de Sousa C, Morais T, Lago J, Campino L Abstract Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease among the 10 most Neglected Tropical Diseases with diverse clinical manifestations caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. Around 80% of leishmaniasis cases are found in the Old World affecting populations mainly in low and middle-income countries. Its control relies mostly on chemotherapy which still presents many drawbacks. Natural products may offer an inexhaustible source of chemical diversity with therapeutic potential. Despite the lack of knowledge on traditional products with activ...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 29, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Ebola crisis in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: student-led community engagement.
We report a student-led educational campaign to increase community awareness and engagement in EVD control efforts, with evaluation of student and community satisfaction. The outreach was conducted in November 2018, involving 600 students and reaching 5-10,000 community members. Key messages included: 'Ebola exists in Butembo' and 'Bring infected family members to the Ebola Treatment Unit.' Medical students (n = 355) and community participants (n = 319) evaluated the campaign. Satisfaction was high: 320 (90%) students agreed that medical students could contribute to the EVD response effort, and 233 (73%...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Chikungunya fever in Africa: a systematic review.
Authors: Russo G, Subissi L, Rezza G Abstract Since the identification of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), sporadic cases and outbreaks were reported in several African countries, on the Indian subcontinent, and in south-east Asia. In the last 20 years, there is a growing number of reports of CHIKV infections from African countries, but the overall picture of its circulation at the continent level remains ill-characterized because of under-diagnosis and under-reporting. Moreover, the public health impact of the infection in Africa is generally poorly understood, especially during outbreak situations. Our work has th...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Curcuma longa ethanol extract and Curcumin inhibit the growth of Acanthamoeba triangularis trophozoites and cysts isolated from water reservoirs at Walailak University, Thailand.
Authors: Mitsuwan W, Bunsuwansakul C, Leonard TE, Laohaprapanon S, Hounkong K, Bunluepuech K, Chalermpol K, Mahboob T, Sumudi Raju C, Dhobi M, Pereira ML, Mohammad N, Wiart C, Siyadatpanah A, Norouzi R, Nissapatorn V Abstract Curcuma longa (C. longa) rhizome extract has been traditionally used to treat many infections. Curcumin, a pure compound isolated from the plant, has been documented to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Thai medicinal plant extracts including C. longa extract and Curcumin on Acanthamoeba triangularis, a causative agent of ...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Is glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency a factor in Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) infections and deaths?
Authors: Aydemir D, Ulusu NN PMID: 32286926 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Intensity of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Odisha State, India.
Authors: Sahu SS, Thankachy S, Dash S, Kasinathan G, Kumar A Abstract Anopheles culicifacies s.l. is the principal malaria vector in India and has recently developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids. For identifying the possible operational impact, quantitative measure of the intensity of this resistance is required. The purpose of this study was to measure the intensity of pyrethroid resistance in An. culicifacies s.l. The intensity bioassays with wild caught An. culicifacies s.l were carried out in 10 districts of east central India using 5x and 10x diagnostic concentrations of deltamethrin following WHO insec...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research