Evaluation of lymphatic filariasis in endemic area of Brazil where mass drug administration is not required.
This study aimed to investigate lymphatic filariasis and strategies developed for its control in an area where MDA is not required. Together with the 2018 morbidity evaluation, a survey was conducted using point-of-care immunochromatographic test-AD12 tests for diagnostic screening in an area where MDA is not required. The methodology also included desk research based on Health Department reports of the control activities for lymphatic filariasis during 2003-2016. Among the 934 cases investigated in 2018, there was a 0.64% prevalence of circulating filarial antigen positive, comprising five adults and one 2-year-old child....
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Leptospirosis in the elderly: the role of age as a predictor of poor outcomes in hospitalized patients.
Authors: Daher EF, Soares DS, Galdino GS, Macedo ÊS, Gomes PEAC, Pires Neto RDJ, Silva Junior GBD Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with poor outcomes among elderly hospitalized patients with leptospirosis. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study with leptospirosis patients admitted to three tertiary hospitals in Fortaleza, Brazil, from January 1985 to July 2017. Patients were divided into two groups: elderly (age ≥60 years) and young (age
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

An immunoproteomic approach to identifying immunoreactive proteins in Leishmania infantum amastigotes using sera of dogs infected with canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Authors: Rashidi S, Mojtahedi Z, Shahriari B, Kalantar K, Ghalamfarsa G, Mohebali M, Hatam G Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of leishmaniasis, is caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. The infected dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) are important reservoirs for VL in humans, so the diagnosis, treatment and vaccination of the infected dogs will ultimately decrease the rate of human VL. Proteomics and immunoproteomics techniques have facilitated the introduction of novel drug, vaccine and diagnostic targets. Our immunoproteomic study was conducted to identify new ...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Identification of Leptospira spp. from environmental sources in areas with high human leptospirosis incidence in the Philippines.
Authors: Mendoza MV, Rivera WL Abstract Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, which is considered an emerging major threat to public health due to its increasing frequency reported worldwide. In the Philippines, the prevalence of the disease continuously rises, particularly in urban areas. Because leptospirosis is commonly transmitted through contact with contaminated environment, water and soil samples were collected in regions in the Philippines where high incidence of human leptospirosis cases was reported recently. Of the 54 samples screened for the presence of Leptospira, 35% were found positive ...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Supplementation with micronutrients and schistosomiasis: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Morales-Suarez-Varela M, Peraita-Costa I, Llopis-Morales A, Llopis-Gonzalez A Abstract Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by helminths of the genus Schistosoma with two presentations; one intestinal and another urinary; which depend on the specie of Schistosoma. One of the species that can produce intestinal schistosomiasis is Schistosoma mansoni, and the specie that produces urinary schistosomiasis is Schistosoma haematobium. Infection can be aggravated by a deficient nutritional status, which negatively impacts the immune system and increases susceptibility to infection. The main objective of ...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Characterization of platelet count and platelet indices and their potential role to predict severity in malaria.
Authors: Gupta P, Guddattu V, Saravu K Abstract The association of hematological parameters especially platelet parameters with disease severity in malaria is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the platelet parameters across Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria stratified by severity and to elucidate the potential role of platelet parameters to predict disease severity. Individuals> 18 years, of either gender with microscopically proven symptomatic malaria were prospectively enrolled between October 2014 and August 2016 in a tertiary center in Manipal, India. Severity o...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Clostridium species in Iran: a meta-analysis.
Authors: Khademi F, Sahebkar A Abstract Clostridium species are ubiquitous and associated with various diseases in animals and humans. However, there is little knowledge about the prevalence of their resistance to antibiotics in Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Clostridium species in Iran through a meta-analysis of eligible studies published up until December 2018. Fourteen articles on the drug resistance of Clostridium species in Iran were included in the current study following a search in PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases using relevant keyw...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Emerging and threatening vector-borne zoonoses in the world and in Europe: a brief update.
Authors: Jánová E Abstract Climatic changes, landscape management, massive human, animal and commodity transportation represent important factors which are contributing to the spread of zoonotic diseases. The environmental and socioeconomic factors affecting the incidence of vector-borne zoonoses and possibilities for the reduction of disease impacts are discussed in the article. The most important zoonoses with expanding area of incidence and/or increasing occurrence are summarized, with special emphasis on the European region. While some diseases and their respective pathogens are indigenous to Euro...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - March 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Malaria epidemiology and comparative reliability of diagnostic tools in Bannu; an endemic malaria focus in south of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Authors: Jahan F, Khan NH, Wahid S, Ullah Z, Kausar A, Ali N Abstract The present study was aimed at elucidation of malaria epidemiology and comparing performance of several diagnostic procedures in Bannu, a highly endemic district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Dried blood spots were collected from patients suspected of malaria visiting a hospital and two private laboratories in district Bannu and processed for species-specific PCR (rRNA). Patients were also screened for malaria through microscopy and RDT. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect patient information to assess risk factors for malaria....
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - March 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Post-pandemic influenza-associated mortality in Mexico.
Authors: Salto-Quintana JN, Rivera-Alfaro G, Sánchez-Ramos EL, Gómez-Gómez A, Noyola DE Abstract Influenza is a leading cause of respiratory tract infections worldwide and there is limited information on the impact of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus on mortality after the 2009 pandemic. Using national mortality register data through 1998-2015 in Mexico, influenza-associated mortality was estimated for respiratory, cardiovascular, and all-cause events. The proportion of influenza-associated respiratory and cardiovascular deaths among different age groups were compared. There were 8,853,986 death ...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - March 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Epidemiology of soil transmitted helminth and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in remote rural villages of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.
This study describes the epidemiology of STH and S. stercoralis infections in twelve remote villages surrounding Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Ifanadiana, Madagascar. Questionnaires and stool samples were collected from 574 subjects from random households. The Kato-Katz method and spontaneous sedimentation technique were used to examine stool samples for evidence of infection. Infection prevalence rates were 71.4% for Ascaris lumbricoides (95% CI: 67.7-75.1), 74.7% for Trichuris trichiura (95% CI: 71.1-78.2), 33.1% for hookworm (95% CI: 29.2-36.9), and 3.3% for Strongyloides stercoralis (95% CI: 1.84-4.77). Participants ...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - March 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

A comprehensive analysis of malaria transmission in Brazil.
Authors: Carlos BC, Rona LDP, Christophides GK, Souza-Neto JA Abstract Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Brazil despite a significant drop in the number of cases in the past decade. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of malaria transmission in Brazil to highlight the epidemiologically most relevant components that could help tackle the disease. We consider factors impacting on the malaria burden and transmission dynamics including the geographical occurrence of both autochthonous and imported infections, the distribution and abundance of malaria vectors and records of natural mosquito infections w...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - March 6, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from North-Central Indian population.
CONCLUSION: The present study highlighted the predominance of EAI3_IND/SIT11 genotype in Sahariya tribe followed by CAS1_Delhi/SIT26 genotype. Combined approach of MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping was observed more favourable in discrimination of MTB genotypes. Further, longitudinal studies using whole genome sequencing can provide more insights into genetic diversity, drug resistance and transmission dynamics of these prevalent genotypes. PMID: 30821646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - March 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Malaria preventive behaviors among housewives in suburbs of Bandar-Abbas City, south of Iran: interventional design based on PRECEDE model.
In this study, after implementing the intervention using the PRECEDE educational program, asignificant difference was found between the intervention and control groups in the mean scores for predisposing factors (knowledge and attitude) (P
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Extensive drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg carrying blaNDM encoding plasmid p5558 (IncA/C) from India.
Authors: Veeraraghavan B, Jacob JJ, Prakash JAJ, Pragasam AK, Neeravi A, Narasimman V, Anandan S Abstract Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are foodborne pathogens that are responsible for self-limiting gastroenteritis in humans. The present study aims at the molecular characterisation and comparative genomics of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg strain P5558 isolated from the pus samples of a patient suffering from stump infection. The isolate was subjected to serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility test to understand the phenotypical characteristics. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out and compar...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - February 8, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Excess deaths associated with the 2014 chikungunya epidemic in Jamaica.
Authors: Freitas ARR, Gérardin P, Kassar L, Donalisio MR Abstract Although traditionally chikungunya virus is considered non-fatal, recent studies suggest that there may be in fact underreporting of deaths in some situations. A major chikungunya epidemic hit Jamaica in 2014 but no chikungunya-associated deaths were reported. We assessed the excess of all-cause deaths during this epidemic. Excess deaths were estimated by difference between observed and expected mortality based on the average age-specific mortality rate of 2012-2013, using the 99% confidence interval. There was an excess of 2,499 deaths during...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - February 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Influence of genetic variants of gamma interferon, interleukins 10 and 12 on Visceral Leishmaniasis in an endemic area, Iran.
Authors: Kalani M, Choopanizadeh M, Rasouli M Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life threatening disease in which a variety of cytokines regulating the immune responses can determine its outcome. As based on their region in the gene, some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) can influence the expression of their corresponding proteins, this study aimed to investigate the association between SNP in the IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ genes and susceptibility to VL. The study was carried out on 120 patients with VL, 67 patients' families (family group), and 102 healthy individuals with positive leishmanin skin tes...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - January 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Adevonin, a novel synthetic antimicrobial peptide designed from the Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor (ApTI) sequence.
Authors: Rodrigues MS, Oliveira CFR, Almeida LHO, Neto SM, Boleti APA, Santos ELD, Cardoso MH, Ribeiro SM, Franco OL, Rodrigues FS, Macedo AJ, Brust FR, Macedo MLR Abstract The biological activities and the structural arrangement of adevonin, a novel antimicrobial peptide, were investigated. The trypsin inhibitor ApTI, isolated from Adenanthera pavonina seeds, was used as a template for screening 18-amino acid peptides with predicted antimicrobial activity. Adevonin presented antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.86 to 7.35 µM against both Gram-positive and - n...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - December 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Patient and treatment pathways for toxoplasmosis in the United States: data analysis of the Vizient Health Systems Data from 2011 to 2017.
Authors: Belk K, Connolly MP, Schlesinger L, Ben-Harari RR Abstract Toxoplasmosis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States (US). Clinical manifestations to toxoplasmosis vary and there is limited information on incidence or treatment patterns in the US. Treatment pathways for pyrimethamine-based regimens and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for toxoplasmosis hospitalizations were investigated using the Vizient Health Systems inpatient and outpatient data. Between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2017, 10,273 hospital visits from 4,736 unique patients received a primary or secondary...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - December 13, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Beyond thrombocytopaenia, haemorrhage and shock: the expanded dengue syndrome.
Authors: Rajapakse S, Wattegama M, Weeratunga P, Sigera PC, Fernando SD Abstract Dengue infection classically presents with fever, thrombocytopaenia, and varying degrees of plasma leakage, giving rise to shock. However, a myriad of other manifestations, involving the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, the liver, the kidneys, the gut and the haematological system have been reported in dengue. This review summarizes these varied presentations. PMID: 30507366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - December 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Building the evidence base for dengue vector control: searching for certainty in an uncertain world.
Authors: Horstick O, Boyce R, Runge-Ranzinger S Abstract This review discusses biological and chemical methods for dengue vector control, using recently emerging summary evidence, meta-analyses and systematic reviews to conclude on practical public health recommendations for Aedes control, which is increasingly relevant in an era of widespread Chikungunya, yellow feer and Zika outbreaks. The analysis follows an a priori framework of systematic reviews by the authors on vector control methods, distinguishing vector control methods into biological, chemical and environmental methods. Findings of each published system...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - December 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Identification of previously untypable RD cell line isolates and detection of EV-A71 genotype C1 in a child with AFP in Nigeria.
Authors: Adewumi OM, Faleye TOC, Okeowo CO, Oladapo AM, Oyathelemhi J, Olaniyi OA, Isola OC, Adeniji JA Abstract We previously attempted to identify 96 nonpolio enteroviruses (EVs) recovered in RD cell culture from children
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and II seroprevalence among volunteer blood donors in Thailand.
This study concluded that HTLV-I/II prevalence is low among blood donors in Thailand. But periodic surveillance should be continually conducted to ensure high blood safety standards in the country. PMID: 30424716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Effects of dam and seqA genes on biofilm and pellicle formation in Salmonella.
In this study, the effects of dam and seqA genes on the formation of pellicle and biofilm was determined using five different Salmonella serovars S. Group C1 (DMC2 encoded), S. Typhimurium (DMC4 encoded), S. Virchow (DMC11 encoded), S. Enteritidis (DMC22 encoded), and S. Montevideo (DMC89 encoded). dam and seqA mutants in Salmonella serovars were performed by the single step lambda red recombination method. The mutants obtained were examined according to the properties of biofilm on the polystyrene surfaces and the pellicle formation on the liquid medium. As a result of these investigations, it was determined that the biof...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Multiple antibiotic resistances and virulence markers of uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Mexico.
In conclusion, our findings show the importance of surveillance, permanent monitoring, and particularly controlled prescription of antibiotics by physicians in the social security health system to reduce the spread of highly virulent UPEC strains that are resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. PMID: 30433859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Exploring insecticide resistance mechanisms in three major malaria vectors from Bangui in Central African Republic.
Authors: Basile K, Tchapga W, Ngoagouni C, Sangbakembi-Ngounou C, Wondji M, Riveron JM, Wondji CS Abstract Malaria remains the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the Central African Republic. However, the main malaria vectors remain poorly characterised, preventing the design of suitable control strategies. Here, we characterised the patterns and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in three important vectors from Bangui. Mosquitoes were collected indoors, using electrical aspirators in July 2016 in two neighborhoods at Bangui. WHO bioassays performed, using F2 An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), revealed a high l...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Elucidating the survival and response of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to imipenem at sub-lethal concentrations.
This study aims to elucidate gene expression and variations in metabolism of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to antibiotics. Phenotypic responses of three genotypically distinct carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) strains untreated and treated with sub-lethal concentrations of imipenem were investigated via phenotype microarrays (PM). The gene expression and metabolism of the strain harboring blaNDM-1 before and after exposure to sub-lethal concentration of imipenem were further investigated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) and 1H NMR spectroscopy respectively. Most genes related to cell d...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - November 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Utility of pf/pan RDT for diagnosis in the prevention of re-establishment of malaria in Sri Lanka.
Authors: Gunasekera WMKTAW, Premaratne RG, Weerasena OVDSJ, Premawansa WS, Handunnetti SM, Fernando SD Abstract The utility of CareStartTM Malaria Pf/PAN (HRP2/pLDH) Ag Combo Test, in detecting non-endemic clinical malaria cases was evaluated in Sri Lanka, a country in prevention of re-establishment of malaria following elimination. RDT, microscopy and nested PCR were performed for 350 suspected malaria patients recruited prospectively. There were 173 PCR confirmed malaria patients and 177 PCR negative subjects. Plasmodium falciparum amounted to 48% of infections with 44% P. vivax, 6% P. ovale and 2% P. malariae. P...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - October 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

A review on inactivation methods of Toxoplasma gondii in foods.
Authors: Mirza Alizadeh A, Jazaeri S, Shemshadi B, Hashempour-Baltork F, Sarlak Z, Pilevar Z, Hosseini H Abstract Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a widespread zoonotic protozoan which poses a great threat to human health and economic well-being worldwide. It is usually acquired by ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts from the feces of infected cats or by the ingestion of raw or undercooked foodstuff containing tissue cysts. The oocyst can contaminate irrigation water and fresh edible produce. It is estimated that approximately one-third of the human population worldwide harbor thi...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - October 24, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

The impact of water crises and climate changes on the transmission of protozoan parasites in Africa.
Authors: Ahmed SA, Guerrero Flórez M, Karanis P Abstract Waterborne protozoa (WBP) are important cause of several outbreaks all over the world. The report system of WBP in Africa is weak. More than one third of African countries (21/54) reported WBP with absent reports in the remaining countries (33/54). The top reported WBP were Cryptosporidium, Giardia, FLA and Entamoeba contaminating different African water resources. Other protozoa were less documented even though it is abundant and robust. More than one protozoa were detected in contaminated African water including drinking sources, a prediction index t...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - October 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Immune Stimulation of RAP domain binding protein (rTgRA15) from Toxoplasma gondii.
In conclusion, the rTgRA15 protein has the potential to generate specific antibody response and elicit cellular response, thus potentially serve as a vaccine candidate against T. gondii infection. PMID: 30332344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - October 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

The predictive and diagnostic accuracy of vascular endothelial growth factor and pentraxin-3 in severe dengue.
This study aimed to evaluate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pentraxin 3 (PTX-3) as predictive and diagnostic markers in differentiating severe dengue from non-severe dengue. The study was conducted in Ampang Health Clinic, Ampang Hospital and Serdang Hospital. The plasma levels of VEGF and PTX-3 were compared between severe dengue and non-severe dengue by ELISA from the day of presentation until discharged. Multiple logistic regression was used to develop predictive and diagnostic models by incorporating other clinical parameters. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to assess the a...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Application of on-dose identification and blockchain to prevent drug counterfeiting.
Authors: Vruddhula S PMID: 30213253 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Dengue: a growing threat requiring vaccine development for disease prevention.
Authors: Bos S, Gadea G, Despres P Abstract Dengue disease is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral infection in humans. At least one half of the global population is estimated at risk of infection and an estimated 390 million people are infected each year. Over the past few years, dengue burden continued to increase, mainly impacting developing countries. Alarming changes in dengue epidemiology were observed highlighting a spread from tropical to subtropical regions as well as urban to rural areas. An increase in the co-infections with the four serotypes has also been noticed, involving a shift in the targeted p...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - September 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Prevalence of meningococcal carriage among male university students living in dormitories in Kerman, southeast of Iran.
Authors: Sadeghi M, Ahmadrajabi R, Dehesh T, Saffari F Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is an important causative agent of bacterial meningitis. The nasopharynx is the only known reservoir of this organism. Although the relationship between carriage and invasive disease is not completely understood, asymptomatic meningococcal carriers are considered as the most important sources for causing strains of disease. Living in closed and overcrowded places such as university dormitories can increase the carriage rate and meningococcal disease. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of N. menin...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - August 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Are internet videos useful sources of information during global public health emergencies? A case study of YouTube videos during the 2015-16 Zika virus pandemic.
Authors: Bora K, Das D, Barman B, Borah P Abstract BACKGROUND: Internet-videos, though popular sources of public health information, are often unverified and anecdotal. We critically evaluated YouTube videos about Zika virus available during the recent Zika pandemic. METHODS: Hundred-and-one videos were retrieved from YouTube (search term: zika virus). Based upon content, they were classified as: informative, misleading or personal experience videos. Quality and reliability of these videos were evaluated using standardized tools. The viewer interaction metrics (e.g. no. of views, shares, etc.), video characteri...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - August 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Effectiveness of annual single doses of diethylcarbamazine citrate among bancroftian filariasis infected individuals in an endemic area under mass drug administration in Brazil.
This study provides evidence that MDA with DEC alone can be effective in the elimination of LF in Brazil. PMID: 30111259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - August 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Simplified MLST scheme for direct typing of Leptospira human clinical samples.
Authors: Caimi K, Varni V, Nagel A, Ruybal P, Chiani Y, Vanasco NB Abstract Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis. Epidemiological data are scarce and present major challenge because of the varied clinical presentations. Multilocus Sequence Typing has already proven to be a robust molecular typing method providing accurate results for strain characterization. We have adapted our MLST scheme by reducing the set of loci to facilitate Leptospira typing directly from human clinical samples. The application of this 3-locus scheme provides Leptospira species and allelic profiles of the samples retaining the po...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - August 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

History of schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) in humans: from Egyptian medical papyri to molecular biology on mummies.
Authors: Di Bella S, Riccardi N, Giacobbe DR, Luzzati R Abstract Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that has evolved together with the humankind. Evidence in ancient Egyptian medical papyri or Assyrian medical texts reported signs and symptoms that could resemble schistosomiasis; similarly, some biblical passages describe an epidemic (depicted as a 'curse') that has been hypothesized to be associated with schistosomiasis' spread in Mesopotamia. In the modern era, Theodor Maximilian Bilharz and Patrick Manson (the 'father of tropical medicine') gave an impetus to the knowledge about the parasite and its spread...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

West Nile virus and other mosquito-borne viruses present in Eastern Europe.
Authors: Napp S, Petrić D, Busquets N Abstract Eastern Europe (EE) has been severely affected by mosquito-borne viruses (moboviruses). In this review, we summarize the epidemiology of moboviruses, with particular attention to West Nile virus (WNV). The study of WNV human cases in EE between 2010 and 2016, revealed that the epidemiology of WNV in EE is complex with the combination of introduction of different WNV strains from lineages 1 and 2, and the establishment of endemic cycles. We found a positive correlation between the risk of WNV re-emergence in an area and the number of human cases reported in the previou...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Considerations for the governance of gene drive organisms.
Authors: Rudenko L, Palmer MJ, Oye K Abstract Governance is a broader and more flexible concept than statute-driven regulations as it incorporates components outside the latter's remit. Considerations of governance are critical in the development of emerging biotechnologies such as gene drive organisms. These have been proposed or are being developed to address public and environmental health issues not addressed easily by conventional means. Here, we consider how the concept of governance differs from statute-driven regulation with reference to the role each may play in the development of gene drive organisms. Fir...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Epidemiology and management of foodborne nematodiasis in the European Union, systematic review 2000-2016.
CONCLUSIONS: Foodborne nematodiasis remains a public health challenge for the European Union. Autochthonous cases of nematodiasis present the greatest health risk within the European Union. Foodborne nematodes due to lack of hygiene in food processing are diseases that can be avoided by increasing. PMID: 29957154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - July 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

The impact of shared sanitation facilities on diarrheal diseases with and without an environmental reservoir: a modeling study.
Authors: Just MR, Carden SW, Li S, Baker KK, Gambhir M, Fung IC Abstract Epidemiological studies have identified an increased risk of diarrheal diseases associated with using shared sanitation facilities. We hypothesized that this might be related to differences in transmission routes of pathogens. We proposed a mathematical model of two fictitious pathogens, one transmitted with an environmental reservoir and one without. We assumed that individuals susceptible to one pathogen are not susceptible to the other, and therefore, decoupled the two models. We initialized the model with 99% individuals being susceptible....
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Chikungunya fever: a threat to global public health.
Authors: Moizéis RNC, Fernandes TAAM, Guedes PMDM, Pereira HWB, Lanza DCF, Azevedo JWV, Galvão JMA, Fernandes JV Abstract Chikungunya fever is an emerging arbovirus infection, representing a serious public health problem. Its etiological agent is the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Transmission of this virus is mainly vector by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, although transmission by blood transfusions and vertical transmission has also been reported. The disease presents high morbidity caused mainly by the arthralgia and arthritis generated. Cardiovascular and neurological manifestations have also been rep...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - June 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

wsp-based analysis of Wolbachia strains associated with Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) main cutaneous leishmaniasis vectors, introduction of a new subgroup wSerg.
Authors: Karimian F, Vatandoost H, Rassi Y, Maleki-Ravasan N, Choubdar N, Koosha M, Arzamani K, Moradi-Asl E, Veysi A, Alipour H, Shirani M, Oshaghi MA Abstract Sand flies of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are the main vectors of cutaneous leishmanisis (CL) in the old world. We aimed to screen Iranian P. papatasi and P. sergenti for their natural infections with Wolbachia and to determine their phylogenetic association with other species. Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene was PCR amplified from DNA extracted from Phlebotomus species, sequenced, and were analysed in combination with wsp sequences related to...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Comparative genome analysis of Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus with Kyasanur forest disease and tick-borne encephalitis viruses by the in silico approach.
In this study, using the available genome information of AHFV, KFDV and TBEV, we have predicted and compared the following aspects of these viruses: evolution, nucleotide and protein compositions, recombination, codon frequency, substitution rate, N- and O-glycosylation sites, signal peptide and cleavage site, transmembrane region, secondary structure of 5' and 3' UTRs and RNA-RNA interactions. Additionally, we have modeled the 3D protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase structures for AHFV, KFDV and TBEV. Recombination analysis showed no evidence of recombination in the AHFV genome with that of either KFDV or TBEV, altho...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

The new European invader Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus: a potential vector of chikungunya virus.
Authors: Ciocchetta S, Prow NA, Darbro JM, Frentiu FD, Savino S, Montarsi F, Capelli G, Aaskov JG, Devine GJ Abstract Arthropod-borne disease outbreaks, facilitated by the introduction of exotic mosquitoes, pose a significant public health threat. Recent chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemics in Europe highlight the importance of understanding the vector potential of invading mosquitoes. In this paper we explore the potential of Aedes koreicus, a mosquito new to Europe, to transmit CHIKV. Mosquitoes were challenged with CHIKV and maintained at two temperatures: 23 °C and a fluctuating temperature. Total CHIKV...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated in 2012-2016 that differ by antibiotic resistance genes and virulence genes profiles.
This study is the first report about hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strain KPB2580-14 of ST23K1 harboring extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15 and carbapenemase OXA-48 genes located on pCTX-M-15-like and pOXA-48-like plasmids correspondingly. PMID: 29708041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - May 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 29701139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Assessment of Baseline Antibodies to Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1/2009 Virus in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Authors: Oladipo EK, Awoyelu EH, Oloke JK PMID: 29683397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research