Triclofos Sodium for Pediatric Sedation in Non-Painful Neurodiagnostic Studies.
CONCLUSION: TFS, when administered in a controlled and monitored environment, may be safe for use in children, including those with underlying neurocognitive disorders. PMID: 31292919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - July 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kaplan E, Daka A, Weissbach A, Kraus D, Kadmon G, Milkh R, Nahum E Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Botulinum Toxin in the Management of Children with Cerebral Palsy.
Abstract During the past 25 years, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has become the most widely used medical intervention in children with cerebral palsy. In this review we consider the gaps in our knowledge in the use of BoNT-A and reasons why muscle morphology and function in children with cerebral palsy are impaired. We review limitations in our knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying the development of contractures and the difficulty in preventing them. It is clear from this review that injection of BoNT-A in the large muscles of both the upper and lower limbs of children with cerebral palsy will resu...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - July 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Multani I, Manji J, Hastings-Ison T, Khot A, Graham K Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Safety and Tolerability of Adjunctive Brivaracetam in Pediatric Patients   <  16 Years with Epilepsy: An Open-Label Trial.
Safety and Tolerability of Adjunctive Brivaracetam in Pediatric Patients 
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Liu E, Dilley D, McDonough B, Stockis A, Daniels T Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Agents for the Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Patients with Congenital Hyperinsulinism.
Abstract Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycmia in neonatles and children. The inappropriate secretion of insulin by the pancreatic β-cells produces recurrent hypoglycemia, which can lead to severe and permanent brain damage. CHI results from mutations in different genes that play a role in the insulin secretion pathway, and each differs in their responsiveness to medical treatment. Currently, the only available approved treatment for hyperinsulinism is diazoxide. Patients unresponsive to diazoxide may benefit from specialized evaluation including genetic testing a...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 20, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: De Cosio AP, Thornton P Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Vancomycin Use in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital.
CONCLUSION: The current vancomycin dosing strategy is ineffective in achieving therapeutic trough levels in children admitted to the ICU. Sub-therapeutic vancomycin trough levels significantly increase the risk of mortality. PMID: 31218605 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 20, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sridharan K, Al-Daylami A, Ajjawi R, Ajooz HAA Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Purified Cannabidiol for Treatment of Refractory Epilepsies in Pediatric Patients with Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that CBD may have beneficial effects in patients with DEE and an acceptable safety profile. Placebo-controlled randomized trials should be conducted to formally assess the safety and efficacy of CBD in patients with DEE. PMID: 31179531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pietrafusa N, Ferretti A, Trivisano M, de Palma L, Calabrese C, Carfì Pavia G, Tondo I, Cappelletti S, Vigevano F, Specchio N Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Comparison of Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety, Suicide, Social Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Between Adolescents with Acne Receiving Isotretinoin and Antibiotics: A Prospective, Non-randomised, Open-Label Study.
CONCLUSION: We found that neither isotretinoin nor antibiotic treatment affected the levels of depression, anxiety, and suicide in acne patients. Moreover, both isotretinoin and antibiotic treatment were shown to improve the quality of life, social anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in acne patients. However, clinicians should be careful about psychiatric side effects in patients using isotretinoin. Further studies with a larger number of cases and with a longer follow-up period are needed to investigate the complex effects of isotretinoin on the central nervous system. PMID: 31175639 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Erdoğan Y, Erturan İ, Aktepe E, Akyıldız A Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Evaluation of Children with Psoriasis from the BiPe Cohort: Are Patients Using Biotherapies in Real Life Eligible for Phase III Clinical Studies?
rche de la Société Française de Dermatologie Pédiatrique, and the Groupe de Recherche sur le Psoriasis de la Société Française de Dermatologie Abstract BACKGROUND: Phase III clinical trials of biotherapies for childhood psoriasis are designed for a selected population, which can differ from real-life patients. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the proportion of children with psoriasis that received biotherapy in the biological treatments for pediatric psoriasis (BiPe) cohort that would be excluded from phase III clinical trials of these treatments. ME...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Phan C, Beauchet A, Burztejn AC, Severino-Freire M, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Barbarot S, Girard C, Lasek A, Reguiai Z, Abasq C, Sassolas B, Droitcourt C, Perrussel M, Hadj-Rabia S, Mallet S, Phan A, Lacour JP, Bourrat E, Aubin F, Mahé E, Groupe de Recherche Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

The Hemodynamic Effect of Intravenous Paracetamol in Children: A Retrospective Chart Review.
Abstract AIM: Studies in adults have reported frequent episodes of blood pressure drops following intravenous paracetamol administration. We aimed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol in critically ill children. METHODS: The charts of 100 pediatric intensive care patients (age range 0.1-18 years) who were treated with intravenous paracetamol between March and September 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. A hemodynamic event was defined as a drop of > 15% in systolic or mean arterial blood pressure within 120 min after drug administration. Hypotension was...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nahum E, Friedman M, Kaplan E, Weissbach A, Kadmon G Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Improving Outcomes in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Current and Emerging Treatments.
Abstract Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) comprises 2-5% of MS cases, and is known to be associated with high disease activity and the accumulation of disability at an earlier age than their adult-onset counterparts. Appropriate therapy leading to disease control has the potential to alter the known trajectory of adverse long-term physical, cognitive, and psychosocial outcomes in this population. Thus, optimizing treatment for children and adolescents with MS is of paramount importance. The last decade has seen a growing number of disease-modifying therapies approved for relapsing MS in adults, and availabl...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wilbur C, Yeh EA Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Safety and Tolerability of Antipsychotic Medication in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic-related AEs were common among patients with ASD. Further studies to investigate the implications of antipsychotic-related AEs on health and medication adherence are warranted. PROSPERO registration number: (CRD42018083632). PMID: 31134563 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alfageh BH, Wang Z, Mongkhon P, Besag FMC, Alhawassi TM, Brauer R, Wong ICK Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Correction to: Medical Options for the Adjuvant Treatment and Management of Pediatric Melanoma.
Abstract Study NCT01519323 (A study of vemurafenib in pediatric patients with stage IIIC or stage IV melanoma harbouring BRAFV600 mutations) was included in a table listing ongoing clinical trials of adjuvant therapies for pediatric melanoma (Table 1) in error. The study was in fact closed early due to low enrollment as correctly noted in section 4 of the article. PMID: 31127481 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Raef HS, Friedmann AM, Hawryluk EB Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Off-Label Use of Sirolimus and Everolimus in a Pediatric Center: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.
CONCLUSIONS: Although use of mTOR inhibitors has been considered to be complicated, our experience shows that, using low dosages, it is possible to obtain relevant clinical improvements, with a good profile of safety and tolerability. PMID: 31124053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bevacqua M, Baldo F, Pastore S, Valencic E, Tommasini A, Maestro A, Rabusin M, Arbo A, Barbi E Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Childhood-Onset Takayasu Arteritis (c-TA): Current and Future Drug Therapy.
Abstract Childhood-onset Takayasu arteritis (c-TA) is the third most common systemic vasculitic disorder in children. Vascular stenosis is the main complication, and aneurysms are reported in 19-65% of cases, often in combination with stenotic lesions. Management of patients with c-TA is largely based on studies involving predominantly patients with adult-onset TA (a-TA). More widely used criteria for patients with c-TA have been devised by the joint European League Against Rheumatism, Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization, and Pediatric Rheumatology European Society. Of the available imaging mo...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Goel R, Sathish Kumar T, Danda D Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Oral Paracetamol vs. Oral Ibuprofen in the Treatment of Symptomatic Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Infants.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that oral paracetamol was as effective as oral ibuprofen in the medical treatment of PDA. In addition, both drugs were considered well-tolerated in terms of effects on kidney, liver, and intestinal functions. Our results demonstrate that oral paracetamol can be used effectively and safely as the first-line treatment of PDA. PMID: 31025304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - April 26, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Karabulut B, Paytoncu S Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Therapeutic Options for the Management of Rare Skeletal Diseases.
Abstract Increasing knowledge in the field of rare diseases has led to new therapeutic approaches in the last decade. Treatment strategies have been developed after elucidation of the underlying genetic alterations and pathophysiology of certain diseases (e.g., in osteogenesis imperfecta, achondroplasia, hypophosphatemic rickets, hypophosphatasia and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva). Most of the drugs developed are specifically designed agents interacting with the disease-specific cascade of enzymes and proteins involved. While some are approved (asfotase alfa, burosumab), others are currently being investig...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - April 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Semler O, Rehberg M, Mehdiani N, Jackels M, Hoyer-Kuhn H Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Medical Options for the Adjuvant Treatment and Management of Pediatric Melanoma.
Abstract Although melanoma is a rare diagnosis in the pediatric population, advances in the management of adults with melanoma offer the prospect of promising therapeutic options for children. At this time, medical management is not considered curative but may reduce the risk of recurrence or prolong survival. Surgical management remains the mainstay of treatment. Medical therapy of pediatric melanoma is not thought to have a role for in situ, early-stage, or localized disease, but adjuvant therapy may have a role in improving the prognosis of patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), spread beyond...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - March 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Raef HS, Friedmann AM, Hawryluk EB Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Vancomycin Prescribing and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children With and Without Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Arrest.
CONCLUSIONS: In children with AKI after cardiac arrest, decreased vancomycin clearance was evident early, and early monitoring was not performed universally in those with low initial eGFR. Earlier vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring is indicated in this high-risk population. PMID: 30864056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - March 12, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Fitzgerald JC, Zane NR, Himebauch AS, Reedy MD, Downes KJ, Topjian AA, Furth SL, Thomas NJ, Scheetz MH, Zuppa AF Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Neuropathic Pain in Pediatric Oncology: A Clinical Decision Algorithm.
Abstract Neuropathic pain in pediatric oncology can be caused by distinct lesions or disease processes affecting the somatosensory system, including chemotherapy-related neuronal injury, solid tumor-related involvement of neural structures, post-surgical neuropathic pain-including phantom limb pain and pain after limb-sparing surgery-and the complex circumstances of neuropathic pain at the end of life. Treatment algorithms reflect the general treatment principles applied for adult neuropathic pain, but the dose regimens applied in children are modest and rarely escalated to the maximum doses to optimize analgesic ...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - February 14, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anghelescu DL, Tesney JM Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

A Practical Guide to Treatment of Childhood Absence Epilepsy.
Abstract Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common pediatric epilepsy syndrome with distinct seizure semiology, electroencephalography (EEG) features, and treatment. A diagnosis of CAE can be obtained during an office visit with a careful history, physical exam including prolonged hyperventilation, and a routine EEG. The treatment of choice for CAE with absence seizures only is ethosuximide. Valproic acid and lamotrigine are also effective treatments for many patients, but when compared to ethosuximide, valproic acid has more adverse effects and lamotrigine is less effective. Attention to predictors of response...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - February 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kessler SK, McGinnis E Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutic Management of Wilms Tumor: An Update.
Abstract Although differences exist in treatment and risk-stratification strategies for children with Wilms tumor (WT) between the European [International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP)] and American [Children's Oncology Group (COG)] study groups, outcomes are very similar, with an overall survival of> 85%. Future strategies aim to de-intensify treatment and reduce toxicity for children with a low risk of relapse and intensify treatment for children with high-risk disease. For metastatic WT, response of lung nodules to chemotherapy is used as a marker to modify treatment intensity. For recurrent W...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - January 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Oostveen RM, Pritchard-Jones K Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Pancreatic Enzyme Supplementation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergies: An Open-Label Pilot Study.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects both patients and their families. Current therapies often alleviate symptoms but do not prevent or eradicate the disease. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine whether pancreatic enzyme supplementation is an effective and safe treatment in refractory pediatric AD associated with food allergies. METHODS: We conducted an open-label pilot study using a case-control design. Patients with severe AD and known food allergies refractory to conventional therapies and exclusion diets were recruited and treated for ...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - December 17, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Singer S, Koenekoop J, Meddings J, Powell J, Desroches A, Seidman EG Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Clinical Features and Treatment of Down Syndrome Arthropathy: Experience from Two US Tertiary Hospitals.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Arthropathy of Down syndrome (DA) is largely under-recognized, with an average 2-year delay in diagnosis. Most patients present with polyarthritis, and treatment has historically been challenging. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate the clinical features and treatment of DA in the largest cohort reported to date. METHODS: In a retrospective chart review at two tertiary care hospitals, International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for Down syndrome (DS) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), between 1 January 1995 and 31 De...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - December 13, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jones JT, Talib N, Lovell D, Becker ML Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Serious Adverse Events Associated with Off-Label Use of Azithromycin or Fentanyl in Children in Intensive Care Units: A Retrospective Chart Review.
CONCLUSIONS: Azithromycin off-label use in pediatric ICUs does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of SAEs. Off-label use of fentanyl appears to be more frequently associated with respiratory depression when used off-label by both age and indication in pediatric ICUs. Prospective studies should be undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of fentanyl in the pediatric population so that data can be added to the FDA labeling. PMID: 30484072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - November 28, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Oshikoya KA, Wharton GT, Avant D, Van Driest SL, Fenn NE, Lardieri A, Doe E, Sood BG, Taketomo C, Lieu P, Yen L, McMahon AW Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Topical Pharyngeal Lidocaine Reduces Respiratory Adverse Events During Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopies Under Ketamine Sedation in Children.
Lechuga-Sancho AM Abstract BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (UGEs) performed under ketamine sedation may increase the risk of respiratory adverse events (RAEs) due to pharyngeal stimulation. Topical lidocaine prevents general anesthesia-induced laryngospasm. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether topical lidocaine may reduce the incidence of RAEs induced by pharyngeal stimulation in UGEs performed on children sedated with ketamine. METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective study. We included every patient admitted for an elective diagnostic UGE under ketamine sedation who...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - November 27, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Flores-González JC, Estalella-Mendoza A, Rodríguez-Campoy P, Saldaña-Valderas M, Lechuga-Sancho AM Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Dasatinib: A Review in Pediatric Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
Abstract Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease that is typically characterized by the abnormal BCR-ABL1 fusion gene on the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in neoplastic cells. Dasatinib (Sprycel®) is an orally administered, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of certain hematological malignancies, including Ph-positive CML in the chronic phase (Ph+ CML-CP) in adult and pediatric patients. In open-label phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials, dasatinib produced early and durable target responses (i.e. molecular, cytogenetic and/or hematologic) in ped...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - November 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: McCafferty EH, Dhillon S, Deeks ED Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Changes in Hemoglobin Concentrations Post-immunoglobulin Therapy in Patients with Kawasaki Disease: A Population-Based Study Using a Claims Database in Japan.
CONCLUSIONS: Although mild anemia commonly occurred post-IVIG therapy in Japanese individuals with KD, severe anemia necessitating transfusion was rare in these patients. PMID: 30345488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - October 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Takeuchi M, Ito S, Nakamura M, Kawakami K Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Potentiators and Correctors in Paediatric Cystic Fibrosis Patients: A Narrative Review.
Abstract Cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited condition in the Caucasian population and is associated with significantly reduced life expectancy. Recent advances in treatment have focussed on addressing the underlying cause of the condition, the defective production, expression and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Several drugs with different modes of action have produced promising results in clinical trials, and some have been incorporated into routine clinical care for specific patients in many countries worldwide. Further trials continue to explore the ...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - October 17, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dobra R, Edmondson C, Hughes D, Martin I, Davies JC Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Optimizing the Use of Medications and Other Therapies in Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux.
Abstract Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the retrograde movement of gastric (and sometimes duodenal) contents into the esophagus. While the majority of GER is physiologic, for patients, it can be associated with symptoms. While some symptoms are merely bothersome (crying), others can be life threatening (cough, gagging, choking). The main driver of GER in infants is the frequent feedings that produce increased intra-abdominal pressure, which is known to trigger transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter. The recent 2018 clinical practice guidelines reported by the North American and European Societie...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - September 10, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ciciora SL, Woodley FW Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

An Update in Antimicrobial Therapies and Infection Prevention in Pediatric Lung Transplant Recipients.
Abstract Lung transplantation can offer life-prolonging therapy to children with otherwise terminal end-stage lung disease. However, infectious complications, like those experienced by their adult counterparts, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. These include bacteria, viruses, and fungi that infect the patient pretransplant and those that may be acquired from the donor or by the recipient in the months to years posttransplant. An understanding of the approach to the management of each potential infecting organism is required to ensure optimal outcomes. In particular, emphasis on aggressive preope...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - September 6, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Smibert OC, Paraskeva MA, Westall G, Snell G Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

The Effect of Alginate in Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Guidelines are contradictory regarding the use of alginate in infants with persisting gastroesophageal reflux (GER). While The British National Institute for Health and Care (NICE) guidelines consider alginate as a treatment option, the guidelines of the European and North-American Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN, NASPGHAN) do not recommend alginates. AIMS: We assessed the efficacy of alginate to reduce GER episodes in infants. METHODS: In a prospective, observational study, we consecutively enrolled all infants referred for pH-multiple int...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - September 4, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Salvatore S, Ripepi A, Huysentruyt K, van de Maele K, Nosetti L, Agosti M, Salvatoni A, Vandenplas Y Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Pharmacological Approach to Managing Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus During Conception, Pregnancy and Breastfeeding.
Abstract Pediatric patients often have poor pregnancy outcomes. Systemic lupus erythematosus predominantly impacts women in their second to fourth decade of life, with childhood-onset disease being particularly aggressive. Reproductive issues are an important clinical consideration for pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as maintaining good disease control and planning a pregnancy are important for maternal and fetal outcomes. In this clinical review, we will consider the safety of medications in managing childhood-onset SLE during conception, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. The developing fe...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - September 3, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bitencourt N, Bermas BL Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Diversified Pediatric Pharmacoepidemiology: An International Priority.
PMID: 30141136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - August 23, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: MacLeod SM Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pregnant Women: Integrating Screening and Treatment into Prenatal Care.
Abstract Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis continue to be significant burdens to the health of pregnant women and their children despite easy and effective guidance for screening and treatment. Specific guidelines exist for screening for these infections as well as treatment and follow-up. In this article, we review the epidemiology of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Testing methodology is also reviewed as molecular-based techniques have replaced culture as the current gold standard tests of choice for chlamydia and gonorrhea. The nontreponemal and treponemal serologic diagnostic and screening approach to syp...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - August 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lochner HJ, Maraqa NF Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Prevention and Management of Bleeding Episodes in Children with Hemophilia.
Abstract Regular prophylactic treatment with factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) concentrates in hemophilia A and B, respectively, is introduced in early infancy and has resulted in dramatic improvement of the conditions. Recombinant FVIII and FIX concentrates have been available for > 25 years and have been modified and refined through the years; however, unfortunately frequent intravenous administrations are still necessary. The half-lives of these products have now been extended (EHL) by fusion with albumin, the Fc-portion of IgG, or by being PEGylated. This has been very successful fo...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - August 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ljung RCR Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

A Population-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Approach to Pantoprazole Dosing for Obese Children and Adolescents.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data argue against empiric dose escalation of PPIs for obese children and support current FDA-approved pediatric weight-tiered dosing for pantoprazole; however, 3- to 5-fold inter-individual variability in pantoprazole AUC0-∞ remained using this dosing approach. PMID: 30097906 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - August 11, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Shakhnovich V, Brian Smith P, Guptill JT, James LP, Collier DN, Wu H, Livingston CE, Zhao J, Kearns GL, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act–Pediatric Trials Network Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

The Challenges of Cortisol Replacement Therapy in Childhood: Observations from a Case Series of Children Treated with Modified-Release Hydrocortisone.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Hydrocortisone is the preferred treatment for adrenal insufficiency in childhood. A small minority of children experience low cortisol concentrations and symptoms of cortisol insufficiency, poorly responsive to modifications in dosing. We speculated that treatment with modified-release hydrocortisone Plenadren® may be beneficial in these selected patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to report cortisol profiles during treatment with standard formulation hydrocortisone and Plenadren, and growth and weight gain during treatment with Plenadren in selected children with adrenal...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - August 7, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Park J, Das U, Didi M, Ramakrishnan R, Peak M, Newland P, Blair J Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Colistin in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.
This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous colistin in very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight  0.99). Serum magnesium and potassium levels were significantly lower in the VLBW group than in the non-VLBW group during colistin therapy (magnesium, 1.30 vs 1.70 mg/dL, p 
Source: Paediatric Drugs - August 3, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ilhan O, Bor M, Ozdemir SA, Akbay S, Ozer EA Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Methadone for Pain Management in Children with Cancer.
Abstract Methadone is a synthetic opioid with unique pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. It is effective in treating both nociceptive and neuropathic pain, which commonly co-exist in children with cancer. Upon reviewing the literature describing the use of methadone in pediatric oncology patients, publications are limited in number and low in quality of evidence; nevertheless, there is support for the safety and efficacy of methadone in treating pain in children with cancer, particularly when pain is refractory to conventional treatment. Although the risk of life-threatening arrhythmia is commonly cite...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - July 26, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Habashy C, Springer E, Hall EA, Anghelescu DL Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Trends in Outpatient Prescription Medicine Use in New Zealand Children 2010-2015: A National Population-Based Study.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Research examining trends in the outpatient prescription medicine use of New Zealand children is limited. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to provide an overview of prescription medicine use in New Zealand children and assess changing patterns in use from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all New Zealand primary care-registered children aged
Source: Paediatric Drugs - July 25, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tomlin AM, Woods DJ, Lloyd HS, Tilyard MW Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interaction of Antiepileptic Drugs in Children and Adolescents.
Abstract Selecting the most appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) or combination of drugs for each patient and identifying the most suitable therapeutic regimen for their needs is increasingly challenging, especially among pediatric populations. In fact, the pharmacokinetics of several drugs vary widely in children with epilepsy because of age-related factors, which can influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the pharmacological agent. In addition, individual factors, such as seizure type, associated comorbidities, individual pharmacokinetics, and potential drug interactions, may cont...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - July 12, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Iapadre G, Balagura G, Zagaroli L, Striano P, Verrotti A Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Current Challenges in Neonatal Resuscitation: What is the Role of Adrenaline?
Abstract Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication. It is the best established drug in neonatal resuscitation, but only weak evidence supports current recommendations for its use. Furthermore, the available evidence is partly based on extrapolations from adult studies, and this introduces further uncertainty, especially when considering the unique physiological characteristics of newly born infants. The timing, dose, and route of administration of adrenaline are still debated, even though this medication has been used in neonatal resuscitation for a long time. According ...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Antonucci R, Antonucci L, Locci C, Porcella A, Cuzzolin L Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for Persistent Posttraumatic Headaches in Children and Adolescents: A Brief Review of the Literature.
Abstract Concussion, now most often referred to as mild traumatic brain injury in recent literature, is common in pediatrics, and headache is often the most common complaint post-injury. Although most children and adolescents recover within 1-2 weeks, some develop frequent and debilitating headaches that can last for months or longer. Most clinicians would agree on the importance of managing both acute and persistent posttraumatic headaches appropriately to speed recovery, minimize disability, maximize function, and improve quality of life, but there are no well-established guidelines to instruct physicians i...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - June 7, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kacperski J Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

The Use of Ommaya Reservoirs to Deliver Central Nervous System-Directed Chemotherapy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia.
Abstract Prophylactic eradication of central nervous system (CNS) leukaemia is the current standard of care in treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). This is conventionally achieved through regular lumbar punctures with intrathecal injections of methotrexate into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Ommaya reservoirs are subcutaneous implantable devices that provide a secure route of drug delivery into the CSF via an intraventricular catheter. They are an important alternative in cases where intrathecal injection via lumbar puncture is difficult. Among UK Paediatric Principal Treatment Centres for ALL w...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 31, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wilson R, Osborne C, Halsey C Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients: Update on Diagnosis and Eradication Strategies.
This article provides commentary on the last ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN guidelines and on publications made after the consensus conference of 2015. The majority of infected children are asymptomatic and pediatric studies do not support a role for H. pylori in functional disorders such as recurrent abdominal pain. The role of H. pylori infection in failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and celiac disease remains controversial. The diagnosis of infection should be based on upper-digestive endoscopy with biopsy-based methods. Eradication control after treatment should be based on validated non-invasive ...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kotilea K, Kalach N, Homan M, Bontems P Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Increased Metformin Clearance in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Pharmacokinetic Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Abstract BACKGROUND: In view of the increased use of metformin in obese adolescents, the aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of metformin in overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS: In overweight and obese adolescents receiving metformin 500 or 1000 mg twice daily for 37 weeks during a clinical trial, blood samples were collected over 8 h during an oral glucose tolerance test. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using NONMEM. RESULTS: Data for 22 overweight and obese adolescents with a mean total body weight (TBW) of 79.3 kg (range 54.7-104.9), body...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 10, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: van Rongen A, van der Aa MP, Matic M, van Schaik RHN, Deneer VHM, van der Vorst MM, Knibbe CAJ Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children: Not a Small Matter.
Abstract The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased substantially in the past two decades and NAFLD has now become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. NAFLD is a broad clinicopathologic spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of necroinflammation called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and subsequently to cirrhosis. Despite the increasing prevalence and progressive nature of NAFLD even among children, therapy for NAFLD in both adults and children are limited. Weight loss remains the only consistently eff...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 9, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Conjeevaram Selvakumar PK, Kabbany MN, Alkhouri N Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Vancomycin in Pediatric Patients with Solid or Hematological Malignant Disease: Predictive Performance of a Population Pharmacokinetic Model and New Optimized Dosing Regimens.
CONCLUSION: The model previously proposed by Guilhaumou et al. in pediatric patients with solid or hematological malignant disease was externally validated. Simulations have enabled the description of new dosage schedules and creation of a chart to help clinicians adapt vancomycin dosage. PMID: 29736878 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 8, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Marsot A, Gallais F, Galambrun C, Coze C, Blin O, Andre N, Guilhaumou R Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Dose-Dependent Teratology in Humans: Clinical Implications for Prevention.
Abstract Since the inception of clinical teratology, the vast majority of scientific work has focused on identification of drugs and environmental agents causing malformations in humans as a dichotomous variable (i.e. yes or no), as well as the relative and absolute risks of such occurrences. Generally, the dose dependency of such events has not been investigated. With the establishment of large pregnancy databases, dose-dependence relationships are being uncovered for increasing numbers of medications, including valproic acid, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, topiramate, and lithium. In this review we d...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - May 4, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Koren G, Berkovitch M, Ornoy A Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Using Lithium in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Efficacy, Tolerability, and Practical Considerations.
Abstract Lithium has been an intriguing treatment option in psychiatry for over a century. While seemingly just a simple elemental compound, it has powerful treatment effects for both depression and bipolar disorder. The evidence base for treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder is relatively small, but, in recent years, additional clinical trial data have enabled lithium to re-emerge as a valuable and, in many cases, preferred treatment. Pharmacologically, lithium is complex, with varied effects at both intracellular and extracellular levels. As a treatment for bipolar disorder in pediatrics, lithium is challengin...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - April 12, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Grant B, Salpekar JA Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research