A blind human expert echolocator shows size constancy for objects perceived by echoes.
Abstract Some blind humans make clicking noises with their mouth and use the reflected echoes to perceive objects and surfaces. This technique can operate as a crude substitute for vision, allowing human echolocators to perceive silent, distal objects. Here, we tested if echolocation would, like vision, show size constancy. To investigate this, we asked a blind expert echolocator (EE) to echolocate objects of different physical sizes presented at different distances. The EE consistently identified the true physical size of the objects independent of distance. In contrast, blind and blindfolded sighted controls did...
Source: Neurocase - May 29, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Milne JL, Anello M, Goodale MA, Thaler L Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Emotional evaluation and memory in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.
Abstract Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) affects emotional evaluation, but less is known regarding the patients' ability to remember emotional stimuli. Here, bvFTD patients and age-matched controls studied positive, negative, and neutral pictures followed by a recognition memory test. Compared to controls, bvFTD patients showed a reduction in emotional evaluation of negative scenes, but not of positive or neutral scenes. Additionally, the patients showed an overall reduction in recognition memory accuracy, due to impaired recollection in the face of relatively preserved familiarity. These result...
Source: Neurocase - May 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: St Jacques PL, Grady C, Davidson PS, Chow TW Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Unawareness of bipolar disorder: the role of the cingulate cortex.
Abstract Reduced awareness of illness is a well-known phenomenon that has been understudied in remitted patients with bipolar disorder. In particular, the relationship between reduced awareness and executive dysfunction is an intriguing question that has yet to be resolved. The aim of the current study is to analyze the link between reduced awareness, brain dysfunction, and concomitant cognitive-behavioral disturbances from a neurocognitive perspective. In previous studies, we demonstrated the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the unawareness of distinct pathologies that exhibit overlapping symptoms i...
Source: Neurocase - May 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Palermo S, Cauda F, Costa T, Duca S, Gallino G, Geminiani G, Keller R, Amanzio M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Phonological, lexical, and semantic errors produced by impairment at the output buffer in a Spanish aphasic patient.
We present a single case of a right-handed female patient, RH, who was categorized as suffering from conduction aphasia. She presented no articulatory problems during spontaneous speech but made a significant number of phonological paraphasias in naming and repetition tasks. The number of errors increased for long words and pseudowords. This pattern of results points to damage in the "Phonological Output Buffer" (POB) as the basis of this disorder. However, this patient did not make mistakes when reading words and pseudowords aloud, even when we introduced a delay between the presentation of the word and its prod...
Source: Neurocase - May 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Dominguez A, Socas R, Marrero H, León NM, Cuetos F Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Improving verb anomia in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia: the effectiveness of a semantic-phonological cueing treatment.
This study reports treatment of verb anomia in an individual with svPPA. The semantic-phonological cueing therapy resulted in significant improvement in naming abilities, for treated verbs only. This case study demonstrates that improvement in verb-naming abilities may be possible in svPPA. The almost complete maintenance of the treatment's effects in the patient 4 weeks after the end of the therapy also suggests improvements may be durable, at least in the short term, for some individuals with svPPA. PMID: 24827737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - May 14, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Macoir J, Leroy M, Routhier S, Auclair-Ouellet N, Houde M, Laforce R Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

The undiscovered syndrome: Macdonald Critchley's case of semantic dementia.
Abstract Semantic dementia is a unique clinicopathological syndrome in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. It is characterized by progressive and relatively selective impairment of semantic memory, associated with asymmetric antero-inferior temporal lobe atrophy. Although the syndrome became widely recognized only in the 1980s, descriptions of cases with typical features of semantic dementia have been on record for over a century. Here, we draw attention to a well documented historical case of a patient with features that would have fulfilled current consensus criteria for semantic dementia, as reconst...
Source: Neurocase - May 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Witoonpanich P, Crutch SJ, Warren JD, Rossor MN Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Stroop interference in adults with dyslexia.
Abstract Prior research on developmental dyslexia using Stroop tasks with young participants has found increased interference in participants with dyslexia relative to controls. Here we extend these findings to adult participants, and introduce a novel test of Stroop incongruity, whereby the color names appeared on an object colored in the incongruent color. The results imply that impaired inhibitory and executive attentional mechanisms are still deficient in adults with dyslexia and that other forms of attentional mechanisms, such as object-based attention, might also be impaired in dyslexia. Dyslexia arises not ...
Source: Neurocase - May 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Proulx MJ, Elmasry HM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Acute functional reactivation of the language network during awake intraoperative brain mapping.
Abstract Acute brain plasticity during resection of central lesions has been recently described. In the cases reported, perilesional latent networks, useful to preserve the neurological functions, were detected in asymptomatic patients. In this paper, we presented a case of acute functional reactivation (AFR) of the language network in a symptomatic patient. Tumor resection allowed to acutely restore the neurological deficit. Intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS) and functional neuroimaging showed new epicentres of activation of the language network after tumor excision. DCS in awake surgery is mandator...
Source: Neurocase - May 7, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Spena G, Costi E, Panciani PP, Roca E, Migliorati K, Fontanella MM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Authors: PMID: 24731217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - April 14, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

The relationship between verbal and nonverbal auditory signal processing in conduction aphasia: behavioral and anatomical evidence for common decoding mechanisms.
Abstract The processing of nonverbal auditory stimuli has not yet been sufficiently investigated in patients with aphasia. On the basis of a duration discrimination task, we examined whether patients with left-sided cerebrovascular lesions were able to perceive time differences in the scale of approximately 150 ms. Further linguistic and memory-related tasks were used to characterize more exactly the relationships in the performances between auditory nonverbal task and selective linguistic or mnemonic disturbances. All examined conduction aphasics showed increased thresholds in the duration discrimination tas...
Source: Neurocase - March 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sidiropoulos K, de Bleser R, Ablinger I, Ackermann H Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Is the desire for amputation related to disturbed emotion processing? A multiple case study analysis in BIID.
In this study, we explored, by means of a computerized experiment, facial emotion recognition and emotional responses to disgusting images in seven individuals with BIID, taking into account their clinical features and investigating in detail disgust processing, strongly linked to insular functioning. We demonstrate that BIID is not characterized by a general emotional impairment; rather, there is a selectively reduced disgust response to violations of the body envelope. Taken together, our results support the need to explore this condition under an interdisciplinary perspective, taking into account also emotional connotat...
Source: Neurocase - March 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Bottini G, Brugger P, Sedda A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Synesthetic colors induced by graphemes that have not been consciously perceived.
Abstract Grapheme-color synesthetes experience colors when they see printed letters of the alphabet. Currently, we tested four "projector" synesthetes, whose colors evoked by graphemes have sensory support or quale and appear to be restricted spatially to the letters like real colors. We use three different kinds of puzzle pictures that contained hidden letters, which require 30 s or more for nonsynesthetes to identify. Grapheme-color projector synesthetes recognize them three times faster and report that the colors were evoked before conscious letter recognition, clueing them as to what the letters...
Source: Neurocase - March 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramachandran VS, Seckel E Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Improved verbal learning in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia when using semantic cues.
We report a patient with PPA-S and impaired verbal learning who was tested to learn if when provided with semantic categories, her learning would improve. A 70-year-old right-handed woman with a 2-year history of progressive difficulties with word finding, naming, and memory was tested for language and memory deficits using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). She was then retested with the HVLT-R after being provided with the three semantic categories to which these words belonged. Confrontation naming was impaired on the Boston Naming Test. Sentence repetition was normal. Comprehension testing with word pic...
Source: Neurocase - March 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Milano NJ, Williamson JB, Heilman KM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Right half-field eye patching may not be an effective approach for chronic hemispatial neglect - a two-case investigation.
Abstract Right half-field eye-patched glasses intervention was performed in two chronic stroke patients with unilateral spatial neglect. Eye movement on the neglect side, the center of gravity as an index of the internal midline bias, neglect sign tests, and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured before and after intervention. The improvement of eye movement was not shown clearly after intervention. The center of gravity shifted significantly to the right and backward. Letter and star cancellation tests were improved in both the cases. Line bisection test showed improvement in one patient. However, ...
Source: Neurocase - March 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Shiraishi H, Muraki T, Hotta K, Fujita Y, Iwasaki Y Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Reduction of cortical excitability and increase of thalamic activity in a low-frequency rTMS treatment for chronic tinnitus.
Abstract Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has received increasing attention for the treatment of tinnitus, but its therapeutic mechanisms are unclear. We performed low-frequency rTMS treatment for a patient with chronic tinnitus and examined changes of cortical excitability and cerebral blood flow using paired-pulse TMS and single-photon emission computed tomography. After the rTMS treatment, tinnitus loudness was decreased, cortical excitability was reduced, and blood flow in the thalamus was increased. Our results suggest that low-frequency rTMS treatment reduces tinnitus loudnes...
Source: Neurocase - March 10, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Takahashi S, Ukai S, Tsuji T, Ueyama T, Kono M, Yamanaka N, Shinosaki K Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Characteristics of dyslexia and dysgraphia in a Chinese patient with semantic dementia.
We describe a 44-year-old Chinese-speaking patient with semantic dementia (SD), who demonstrates dyslexia and dysgraphia. The man was administered a series of neuropsychological inspections, including general language tests and reading and writing examinations. The patient demonstrated surface dyslexia when reading single Chinese characters aloud. While most writing errors demonstrated by the patient were orthographically similar errors and noncharacter responses, such as pictograph, logographeme, and stroke errors, rather than phonologically plausible errors that were homophonous or different only in tone from the targets...
Source: Neurocase - March 10, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu XQ, Liu XJ, Sun ZC, Chromik L, Zhang YW Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Cognitive disorders after sporadic ecstasy use? A case report.
Abstract Memory problems and changes in hippocampal structures after chronic ecstasy use are well described in the literature. Cognitive problems after incidental ecstasy use are rare, and the few patients described in case reports returned to their normal cognitive level after a relative short period. FV is a 39-year-old man who used an ecstasy tablet in 2005. This resulted in severe confusion for a few days. The confusion was followed by persistent memory complaints and difficulties orientating in new surroundings. An extensive neuropsychological examination 7 years after the ecstasy use revealed a severe memory...
Source: Neurocase - March 10, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ruis C, Postma A, Bouvy W, van der Ham I Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Rates of white matter hyperintensities compatible with the radiological profile of multiple sclerosis within self-referred synesthete populations.
We present data showing that the shared MRI profile of MS and RIS has been significantly overrepresented in synesthetes who have participated in neuroimaging research. We present validation of the clinical and MRI status of these synesthetes and an analysis showing the significant probability their unusual numbers may not have arisen by chance. We discuss how to interpret significant data based on small case numbers and consider the implications of our findings for synesthesia's clinical status. PMID: 24592877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - March 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Simner J, Carmichael DA, Hubbard EM, Morris Z, Lawrie SM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial"
Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial" Neurocase. 2014 Mar 5; Authors: Bormann T, Wolfer S, Hachmann W, Neubauer C, Konieczny L Abstract Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading in which individuals process letters serially with a pronounced length effect. Yet, there is considerable variation in the performance of alexic readers with generally very slow, but also occasionally fast responses, an observation addressed rarely in previous reports. It has been suggested that "fast" responses in pure alexia reflect residual parallel letter processing or that they may e...
Source: Neurocase - March 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Bormann T, Wolfer S, Hachmann W, Neubauer C, Konieczny L Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Visual disorders, the prosopometamorphopsia and prosopagnosia type in the early days after the onset of brain hemorrhagic stroke - a case report.
hel A Abstract Presented case report illustrates symptoms of prosopometamorphopsia (PM) and prosopagnosia, observed in the early days after the onset of a hemorrhagic stroke resulting from a complication of endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms and the use of anticoagulation therapy. PM is a visual disorder in which faces are perceived as distorted. The female patient described in the present study reported that faces she looked at seemed younger or older than in reality or as if they were dirty, swollen, or with a grimace. She also experienced symptoms of prosopagnosia, which is difficulty of recognizi...
Source: Neurocase - March 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Bala A, Iwański S, Zyłkowski J, Jaworski M, Seniów J, Marchel A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Restoration of conceptual knowledge in a case of semantic dementia.
We describe the case of a patient with SD who showed greater generalization of learning following a conceptual enrichment therapy than when learning items in a word-retrieval therapy. Our results suggest that enhancing an item's semantic network connections may result in improved generalization of learning in SD. A learning mechanism in the presence of compromised hippocampi is also discussed. PMID: 24592963 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - March 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Suárez-González A, Heredia CG, Savage SA, Gil-Néciga E, García-Casares N, Franco-Macías E, Berthier ML, Caine D Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Impaired laryngeal voice production in a patient with foreign accent syndrome.
We report a Japanese-speaking monolingual woman who developed foreign accent syndrome (FAS) following an infarction in the precentral and premotor cortices (Brodmann Area 6) at and around the inferior frontal sulcus. Her speech sounded Chinese or Korean to our bilingual coauthor who speaks Chinese and Japanese. Quantitative acoustic analyses of words and sentences showed that pitch (fundamental frequency variation) and intensity variances appeared lowered and fully voiced glottal pulses were reduced. These findings suggest laryngeal dysfunction that contributes to the unusual speech production in a case of FAS. This may be...
Source: Neurocase - March 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sakurai Y, Itoh K, Sai K, Lee S, Abe S, Terao Y, Mannen T Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Language disturbances associated to insular and entorhinal damage: study of a patient affected by herpetic encephalitis.
Abstract The herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) patient reported in this study presented a left hemisphere lesion limited to the left insula and to the left anterior parahippocampal region. The patient was followed longitudinally, focusing on the aphasia type, the language recovery, and the integrity of semantic representations. The language deficit was of fluent type, without phonological impairment, and showed a good but incomplete recovery after four months. A semantic impairment was possible at the onset, but recovered quickly and did not present a disproportionate impairment of living categories. PMID: 24...
Source: Neurocase - March 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Baratelli E, Laiacona M, Capitani E Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

The right amygdalar tumor presenting with symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD): a case report.
Abstract A patient with an astrocytoma of the right-sided amygdala developed symptoms of separation anxiety disorders (SADs). These symptoms significantly subsided after tumor resection. The temporal relationship suggested that the amygdalar tumor could result in the specific symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SAD as one manifestation of the amygdalar tumor. The tumorigenesis of amygdala resulted in impaired regulation and abnormal activity associated with anticipating anxiety and conditioning. It deserves clinical attention to early detection and intervention. PMID: 24593853 [PubMed - as...
Source: Neurocase - March 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen HC, Lin CF, Lee YC Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Deficits in egocentric-updating and spatial context memory in a case of developmental amnesia.
Abstract Patients with developmental amnesia usually suffer from both episodic and spatial memory deficits. DM, a developmental amnesic, was impaired in her ability to process self-motion (i.e., idiothetic) information while her ability to process external stable landmarks (i.e., allothetic) was preserved when no self-motion processing was required. On a naturalistic and incidental episodic task, DM was severely and predictably impaired on both free and cued recall tasks. Interestingly, when cued, she was more impaired at recalling spatial context than factual or temporal information. Theoretical implications of t...
Source: Neurocase - March 3, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Gomez A, Rousset S, Bonniot C, Charnallet A, Moreaud O Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Improvement of language functions in a chronic non-fluent post-stroke aphasic patient following bilateral sequential theta burst magnetic stimulation.
We present the results of application of 15 daily sessions of the described treatment approach in a right-handed patient with chronic post-stroke non-fluent aphasia. The intervention appeared to improve several language functions, but most notably propositional speech, semantic fluency, short-term verbal memory, and verbal learning. Bilateral TBS modulation of activation of the language-related areas of both hemispheres seems to be a feasible and promising way to induce recovery in chronic aphasic patients. Due to potentially cumulative physiological effects of bilateral stimulation, the improvements may be even greater th...
Source: Neurocase - March 3, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Vuksanović J, Jelić MB, Milanović SD, Kačar K, Konstantinović L, Filipović SR Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Working memory training with tDCS improves behavioral and neurophysiological symptoms in pilot group with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and with poor working memory.
Abstract This pilot study investigated the feasibility of treating people suffering from both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and poor working memory by employing a combination of computerized working memory training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). After treatment, all four participants showed clinically significant improvements on a range of cognitive and emotional performance measures. Moreover, these improvements were accompanied by theoretically significant neurophysiological changes between pre- and post-treatment electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Specifically, the P3a compon...
Source: Neurocase - February 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Saunders N, Downham R, Turman B, Kropotov J, Clark R, Yumash R, Szatmary A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Neuropsychological examination detects post-operative complications in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH): report of two cases.
This report presents two shunted iNPH patients with clinically silent postoperative SFC, detected after abnormal neuropsychological findings. These cases highlight the value of neuropsychological assessment in the routine postoperative assessment of iNPH. PMID: 24579876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - February 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Liouta E, Kalamatianos T, Liakos F, Stranjalis G Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

External self-representations improve self-awareness in a child with autism.
Abstract We have previously suggested that the social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be caused in part by a dysfunctional mirror neuron system (MNS). Since the recursive activity of a functioning MNS might enable the brain to integrate visual and motor sensations into a coherent body schema, the deficits in self-awareness often seen in ASD might be caused by the same mirror neuron dysfunction. CL is an autistic adolescent who is profoundly fascinated with his reflection, looking in mirrors at every opportunity. We demonstrate that CL's abnormal gait improves significantly when using a mirror for ...
Source: Neurocase - February 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Root NB, Case LK, Burrus CJ, Ramachandran VS Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Aggressive behavior as a rare side effect of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.
We present a patient with advanced PD after bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) who developed attacks of aggressive behavior. The patient with a 12 year history of PD underwent the procedure of DBS with one-stage bilateral stereotactic approach using the Leksel G stereotactic frame. For STN identification microrecording technique was applied (5 microelectrodes). Four weeks after surgery STN stimulation was switched on. With increasing the amplitude of stimulation on the right (active contacts 1 and 2) the patient experienced transient episodes of aggression. Change of stimulation mode led to withdrawal o...
Source: Neurocase - February 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Papuć E, Trojanowski T, Obszańska K, Stelmasiak Z Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Impairment of semantic memory after basal forebrain and fornix lesion.
We report the case of a patient with severe semantic knowledge impairment and anterograde amnesia after bilateral ischemic lesion of the fornix and of the basal forebrain following surgical clipping of an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed a temporal hypometabolism. Severe semantic impairment is a rare complication after rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and may result from disconnection of the temporal lobe. PMID: 24498851 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - February 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Solcà M, Di Pietro M, Schnider A, Leemann B Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

A neuropsychological comparison of siblings with neurological versus hepatic symptoms of Wilson's Disease.
Abstract Wilson's Disease (WD) (also known as hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of abnormal copper metabolism, with an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 30,000. The clinical features associated with WD are highly varied. However, subtypes generally reflect neurological, hepatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The present case study reports two brothers with a recent diagnosis of WD. Neurological symptoms and cognitive deficits were exhibited in one brother (BL) in the form of extrapyramidal features, while the other brother (AL) only exhibited hepatic symptoms. Ext...
Source: Neurocase - February 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Arguedas D, Stewart J, Hodgkinson S, Batchelor J Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Epigenetic studies of suicidal behavior.
Abstract Recent studies have shown an association between gene alterations by epigenetic mechanisms and suicidal behavior. These epigenetic mechanisms are mitotically, and in some cases meiotically, heritable changes in the genome through non-DNA sequence coding processes that alter gene expression as a result of variable changes in environmental stimuli. Genome-wide association studies have been inconsistent in elucidating the association between genes and suicidal behavior, thereby making the heritability of suicidal behavior is unclear. However, recent epigenetic studies have provided evidence that epigenetic m...
Source: Neurocase - January 31, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Bani-Fatemi A, Howe AS, De Luca V Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy in a family with TDP-43 pathology.
Conclusions: The findings raise the possibility of shared pathogenic pathways and a proximal genetic abnormality between PSP and FTLD-43. PMID: 24479957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - January 30, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Kertesz A, Finger E, Murrell J, Chertkow H, Ang LC, Baker M, Ravenscroft T, Rademakers R, Munoz DG Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Exceptional verbal intelligence after hemispherotomy in a child with Rasmussen encephalitis.
We report a longitudinal case study of a left-handed girl who underwent left hemispherotomy at 7 years for Rasmussen encephalitis (RE). Presurgical evaluation showed mild hemiparesis, no visual defect, and light neuropsychological impairment with short-term memory weakness. Language fMRI showed a right hemispheric dominance. Postoperatively, the patient exhibited right hemiplegia and hemianopsia but preserved intellectual capacities. She became seizure-free, and antiepileptic medication was discontinued. Long-term follow-up showed very high verbal intelligence at 11 years of age (VCI of 155) and improvement in working memo...
Source: Neurocase - January 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Grosmaitre C, Jambaqué I, Dorfmuller G, Rodrigo S, Ville D, Delalande O, Bulteau C Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

An example of exceptional practice effects in the verbal domain.
in A Abstract XY, a 20-year-old mnemonist (current world ranking within the top 50) was tested with standard neuropsychological tests. XY recalled all words on all trials on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, 15 words) and scored above the 99.9th percentile on the Wechsler Memory Scales R, Logical Memory (WLM, 2 short stories, 25 units per story, 50 units total). XY had not been previously tested with neuropsychological tests, but had trained memory techniques for approximately 8 years. We suggest that training on similar tasks resulted in substantial practice effects in the verbal memory domain, with n...
Source: Neurocase - January 27, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Stålhammar J, Nordlund A, Wallin A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Abolition of lifelong specific phobia: a novel therapeutic consequence of left mesial temporal lobectomy.
We report the case of a patient in whom arachnophobia was abolished after left temporal mesial lobectomy, with unchanged fear responses to other stimuli. The phenomenon of abolition of specific phobia after amygdala removal has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. PMID: 24460482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - January 27, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Binks S, Chan D, Medford N Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Brain structure alterations associated with weight changes in young females with anorexia nervosa: a case series.
Rø O Abstract Structural brain changes associated with starvation and clinical measurements were explored in four females with anorexia nervosa with different clinical course, at baseline and 1-year follow-up, after receiving intensive inpatient treatment at a specialized eating disorder unit. Global volume alterations were associated with weight changes. Regional volume alterations were also associated with weight changes, with the largest changes occurring in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, pallidum, and putamen. Largest changes in cortical thickness occurred in the frontal and temporal lobes. The result...
Source: Neurocase - January 27, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Fuglset TS, Endestad T, Landrø NI, Rø O Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Primary somatosensory cortex hand representation dynamically modulated by motor output.
Abstract The brain's primary motor and primary somatosensory cortices are generally viewed as functionally distinct entities. Here we show by means of magnetoencephalography with a phantom-limb patient, that movement of the phantom hand leads to a change in the response of the primary somatosensory cortex to tactile stimulation. This change correlates with the described conscious perception and suggests a greater degree of functional unification between the primary motor and somatosensory cortices than is currently realized. We suggest that this may reflect the evolution of this part of the human brain, which is t...
Source: Neurocase - January 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: McGeoch PD, Brang D, Huang M, Ramachandran VS Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Family-based association study between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene promoter VNTR polymorphism and Tourette's syndrome in Chinese Han population.
Abstract To clarify the association of monoamine oxidase A- variable number of tandem repeat (MAOA-pVNTR) with susceptibility to Tourette's syndrome (TS) in Chinese Han population we discuss the genetic contribution of MAOA-VNTR in 141 TS patients including all their parents in Chinese Han population using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) design. Our results revealed that no significant association was found in the MAOA gene promoter VNTR polymorphism and TS in Chinese Han population (TDT = 1.515, df = 1, p > 0.05). The negative result may be mainly due to the small sample size, b...
Source: Neurocase - January 14, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu S, Wang X, Xu L, Zheng L, Ge Y, Ma X Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Slowly progressive frontotemporal lobar degeneration caused by the C9ORF72 repeat expansion: a 20-year follow-up study.
We describe a 20-year follow-up of a unique case with very slowly progressive FTLD caused by the C9ORF72 repeat expansion. In serial neuropsychological examinations, the patient's cognitive decline was exceptionally slow and after 20 years the patient still was mainly independent in activities of daily living. Our case indicates that there is great individual variation in the progression and duration of C9ORF72-associated FTLD, and also language variants or mixed phenotypes may be present. PMID: 24417314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - January 14, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Suhonen NM, Kaivorinne AL, Moilanen V, Bode M, Takalo R, Hänninen T, Remes AM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

The emergence of artistic ability following traumatic brain injury.
In this study, the case of a patient who developed artistic ability following a traumatic brain injury is reported. The subject was a 49-year-old male who suffered brain injury at the age of 44 due to an accidental fall. At age 48, he began drawing with great enthusiasm and quickly developed a personal style with his own biomorphic iconography. At first, his drawing was restricted to realistic reproductions of photographs of buildings, but his style of drawing changed and became more personal and expressionistic over the following 6 months. PMID: 24417345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - January 14, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Midorikawa A, Kawamura M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Agenesis of the corpus callosum: symptoms consistent with developmental disability in two siblings.
Conclusions from these cases suggest that unique symptom profiles of individuals with AgCC warrant careful consideration for referral to appropriate academic and habilitative services. PMID: 24417213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - January 13, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Cavalari RN, Donovick PJ Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Efficacy of semantic-phonological treatment combined with tDCS for verb retrieval in a patient with aphasia.
Abstract Recent studies reported enhanced performance on language tasks induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with aphasia. One chronic patient with non-fluent aphasia received 20 sessions of a verb anomia training combined with off-line bihemispheric tDCS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) - anodal tDCS over left DLPFC plus cathodal tDCS over right DLPFC. A significant improvement in verb naming was observed at all testing times (4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks from post-entry/baseline testing) for treated and untreated verbs. Our findings show beneficial effects of verb...
Source: Neurocase - January 13, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Manenti R, Petesi M, Brambilla M, Rosini S, Miozzo A, Padovani A, Miniussi C, Cotelli M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Reward processing in neurodegenerative disease.
Abstract Representation of reward value involves a distributed network including cortical and subcortical structures. Because neurodegenerative illnesses target specific anatomic networks that partially overlap with the reward circuit, they would be predicted to have distinct impairments in reward processing. This review presents the existing evidence of reward processing changes in neurodegenerative diseases including mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, as well as in healthy aging. Carefu...
Source: Neurocase - January 13, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Perry DC, Kramer JH Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.
We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of p...
Source: Neurocase - December 12, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu TQ, Miller ZA, Adhimoolam B, Zackey DD, Khan BK, Ketelle R, Rankin KP, Miller BL Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Medial temporal lobe activation during autobiographical context memory retrieval of time and place and its dependency upon recency.
Abstract The contribution of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) to the retrieval of autobiographical memories is widely accepted. Results of former patient studies and functional imaging studies suggest different involvement of the MTL during the retrieval of autobiographical context information and the remoteness of these. Varying recency, the MTL contribution during chronological and locational autobiographical context information processing was investigated in this study. Thirteen males (mean = 25 years) judged the event's place or time in a two-choice recognition task. Subjects made significantly more errors on ch...
Source: Neurocase - December 11, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Lux S, Bindrich VN, Markowitsch HJ, Fink GR Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Neural correlates of clinical improvement after deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) for treatment-resistant depression: a case report using functional magnetic resonance imaging.
We report the effects of a 4-week trial of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) on depressive and anxious symptoms and brain activity in a patient (Mrs A) with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The protocol involved a pre- and a post-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during which Mrs A had to perform a working memory task (i.e., n-back). Her baseline score on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D21) was 24, indicating severe depressive symptoms. Immediately after 4 weeks of daily DTMS treatment applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), her HAM-D21 score decreas...
Source: Neurocase - December 7, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Harvey PO, Van den Eynde F, Zangen A, Berlim MT Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Signing below the dotted line: signature position as a marker of vulnerability for visuospatial processing difficulties.
Abstract Almost one-third of the participants in a neuropsychological study signed the consent form below the given line. The relationship between a signature position on or below the line and participants' cognitive function was investigated. Fifty drug-dependent individuals, 50 of their siblings, and 50 unrelated control participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Individuals signing below, rather than on, the line performed more poorly on tests of visuospatial memory, but no differently on other cognitive tests. Signature p...
Source: Neurocase - December 7, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Whitelock CF, Agyepong HN, Patterson K, Ersche KD Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Relational and conjunctive binding functions dissociate in short-term memory.
Abstract Remembering complex events requires binding features within unified objects (conjunctions) and holding associations between objects (relations). Recent studies suggest that the two functions dissociate in long-term memory (LTM). Less is known about their functional organization in short-term memory (STM). The present study investigated this issue in patient AE affected by a stroke which caused damage to brain regions known to be relevant for relational functions both in LTM and in STM (i.e., the hippocampus). The assessment involved a battery of standard neuropsychological tasks and STM binding tasks. One...
Source: Neurocase - December 6, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Parra MA, Fabi K, Luzzi S, Cubelli R, Hernandez Valdez M, Della Sala S Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research