A neuropsychological study of older adult first-time sex offenders.
CONCLUSIONS: Older adult sex offenders, overall, demonstrated poorer neuropsychological performance than older adult non-sex offenders did, although there was no difference between older first-time and historical offenders. Cognitive deficits may increase the risk of sexual offending due to impaired capacity in self-regulation, planning, judgment, and inhibition. A proportion of older adult sex offenders may be harboring acquired frontal lobe pathology. PMID: 28613138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - June 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodriguez M, Boyce P, Hodges J Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Applying fMRI complexity analyses to the single subject: a case study for proposed neurodiagnostics.
Abstract Nonlinear dynamic tools have been statistically validated at the group level to identify subtle differences in system wide regulation of brain meso-circuits, often increasing clinical sensitivity over conventional analyses alone. We explored the feasibility of extracting information at the single-subject level, illustrating two pairs of healthy individuals with psychological differences in stress reactivity. We applied statistical and nonlinear dynamic tools to capture key characteristics of the prefrontal-limbic loop. We compared single subject results with statistical results for the larger group. We co...
Source: Neurocase - May 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rădulescu AR, Hannon ER Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Dissociation between preserved body structural description and impaired body image following a pediatric spinal trauma.
Abstract In adult patients, Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) may influence the mental Body Representation (BR). Currently, there is no evidence on the modulation of SCI on BR during early stages of cognitive development. Here, we investigated BR in a 3-year-old child with complete SCI. The patient was administered with a specific battery assessing different BR components. We found evidence for putative classical neuropsychological dissociation between a preserved topological map with impaired semantic knowledge of the body. This finding sheds new light on the impact of SCI on BR in childhood, as well as on the level of in...
Source: Neurocase - May 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Salvato G, Peviani V, Scarano E, Scarpa P, Leo A, Redaelli T, Spinelli M, Sberna M, Bottini G Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Modulation of somatoparaphrenia following left-hemisphere damage.
Abstract Somatoparaphrenic symptoms after left-hemisphere damage are rare. To verify the potential role of body-related sensory (proprioceptive, visual, and somatosensory) manipulation in patients experiencing sensations of hand disownership, the symptoms of a patient suffering from right-hand somatoparaphrenia were monitored and clinical and neuropsychological variables were controlled. Four types of manipulation were administered: changes in spatial position of the hand, multisensory stimulation, and self-observation using video or mirrors. Multisensory visuo-tactile stimulation was efficacious in terms of reduc...
Source: Neurocase - May 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: D'Imperio D, Tomelleri G, Moretto G, Moro V Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Authors: PMID: 28504056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - May 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Can 8 months of daily tDCS application slow the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease? A case study.
en PM Abstract This case study presents a patient with early-onset Alzheimer`s disease, who applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) daily for 8 consecutive months. This was a much higher frequency than previous tDCS studies. Neuropsychological assessments were conducted before the first tDCS session, after 5 months and after 8 months. After 8 months, the patient's immediate recall improved with 39%, whereas delayed recall improved 23%. Overall, the results revealed that patient's cognitive functions were stabilized. There may be slight possibility that tDCS could slow the cognitive de...
Source: Neurocase - May 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bystad M, Rasmussen ID, Grønli O, Aslaksen PM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation of the anterior limb of the internal capsule for treatment of therapy-refractory obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a case study highlighting neurocognitive and psychiatric changes.
Abstract Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by repeated, unwanted thoughts and behaviors. Individuals with this condition often experience significant emotional distress secondary to their symptoms. Additionally, impairments in attention/concentration, processing speed, and executive functions are typically observed. The exact pathology of OCD remains unknown; consequently, it can be difficult to treat patients with severe symptomatology. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be a viable treatment option for individuals who do not respond to medication and/or cognitive behavioral t...
Source: Neurocase - May 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Choudhury TK, Davidson JE, Viswanathan A, Strutt AM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Akinetic mutism reversibility after L-dopa therapy in unilateral left anterior cerebral artery infarction.
PMID: 28447507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - April 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Deborah G, Ong E, Nighoghossian N Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Prefrontal tDCS and sertraline in obsessive compulsive disorder: a case report and review of the literature.
Abstract Obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorder is a disabling disorder resulting in tremendous individual and social burden. It has a large overlap with depression and anxiety disorders and shows treatment resistance in a relevant proportion of patients. Since a couple of years, different noninvasive brain stimulation methods have been investigated to improve OC symptoms. The application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown inconsistent results which can probably be attributed to a lack in randomized controlled trials with adequate sample size. Anodal stimulation of pre-supplementary motor area...
Source: Neurocase - April 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Palm U, Leitner B, Kirsch B, Behler N, Kumpf U, Wulf L, Padberg F, Hasan A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

A case of posterior cortical atrophy with vertical neglect.
Abstract Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndrome caused by a neurodegenerative disease that often presents with visuospatial deficits, and can be debilitating. PCA is often characterized by elements of Balint's syndrome and dyslexia. The most common underlying pathology has been found to be Alzheimer's disease. Signs of horizontal neglect are frequently associated with PCA, but the presence of vertical (or altitudinal) neglect has not yet been reported in a patient with PCA or other forms of neurodegenerative dementia. In this paper, we present a patient with PCA who on vertical line bisection and cancellat...
Source: Neurocase - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Glazer H, Saadatpour L, Doty L, Heilman KM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and psychosensory stimulation through DOCS scale in a minimally conscious subject.
Abstract The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on alertness improvement in a patient in a minimally conscious state (MCS) by means of disorders of consciousness scale combined with psycho-sensory stimulation. The effects of tDCS on muscle hypertonia through the Ashworth scale were also examined. tDCS was performed through a two-channel intra-cephalic stimulator. After stimulation, the patient followed a psychosensory stimulation training. Results pointed out an increase in DOCunit score, as well as an increase in alertness maintenance and an improvem...
Source: Neurocase - March 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Dimitri D, De Filippis D, Galetto V, Zettin M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Mapping nouns and finite verbs in left hemisphere tumors: a direct electrical stimulation study.
Abstract Neurosurgical mapping studies with nouns and finite verbs are scarce and subcortical data are nonexistent. We used a new task that uses finite verbs in six Italian-speaking patients with gliomas in the left language-dominant hemisphere. Language-relevant positive areas were detected only with nouns in four patients, with both tasks yet in distinct cortical areas in one patient, and only with finite verbs in another patient. Positive areas and types of errors varied across participants. Finite verbs provide complementary information to nouns, and permit more accurate mapping of language production when nou...
Source: Neurocase - March 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rofes A, Spena G, Talacchi A, Santini B, Miozzo A, Miceli G Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

"I feel your disgust and relief": can the action understanding system (mirror neuron system) be recruited to induce disgust and relief from contamination vicariously, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms?
"I feel your disgust and relief": can the action understanding system (mirror neuron system) be recruited to induce disgust and relief from contamination vicariously, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms? Neurocase. 2017 Feb 06;:1-5 Authors: Jalal B, Ramachandran VS Abstract Research has shown that brain regions mediating disgust (e.g., the insula) become activated when viewing others' disgust, a response mediated, perhaps by the mirror neuron system or the Theory of Mind module. In a novel behavioral experiment, we explore vicarious disgust and relief, in individuals w...
Source: Neurocase - February 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jalal B, Ramachandran VS Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Acute severe depression induced by stimulation of the right globus pallidus internus.
We present a patient with acute depressive symptoms induced by pallidal DBS. We believe this case strengthen the hypothesis that the basal ganglia and structures involved in the functional connectome of these nucleuses play a role not only in regulation of movement but also in regulation of mood. PMID: 28165911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - February 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Philipsson J, Sjöberg RL, Yelnik J, Blomstedt P Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

An unusual case of reversible mild cognitive impairment.
Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is cognitive dysfunction greater than expected for age and education in either a single cognitive domain or in multiple domains without impairment of activities of daily living. The present case report describes the case of an elderly male patient of 71 years who presented with MCI and was Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test reactive in serum. This was confirmed by Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination Assay. After a complete course of antibiotic therapy, his memory complaints disappeared completely. Though syphilis is termed as reversible dementia; to the best of ...
Source: Neurocase - January 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Mahajan RK, Sharma S, Dhikav V, Anand KS, Duggal N Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Visually evoked startle response in a patient with epilepsy: a case report and review of the literature.
We report this unique case with startle responses induced both by acoustic and photic stimuli and review the literature related to this exceptionally rare combination of symptoms. PMID: 28090805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - January 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeydan B, Gunduz A, Demirbilek V, Dervent A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Posterior hippocampal stroke presenting with transient global amnesia.
We describe a patient with presenting symptoms of TGA, but affected by an ischemic hippocampal stroke. The computed tomography angiography helped the etiologic diagnosis showing an hemodynamic stenosis of the posterior P2P segment. Interestingly, neuropsychological features were consistent with those found in patients suffering TGA. PMID: 28004602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Naldi F, Baiardi S, Guarino M, Spinardi L, Cirignotta F, Stracciari A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Hyperreligiosity in malignant brain tumors: a case report and accompanying bibliographic review.
We present the clinical case of a patient with an astrocytoma in the right prefrontal region, with apparent inflammatory involvement of the right temporal lobe. This tumor debuted almost exclusively as an alteration of personality consisting of hyperreligiosity, logorrhea, and mystical experiences. A review of the literature has been conducted and possible pathophysiological mechanisms are proposed. PMID: 27938192 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - December 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Carmona-Bayonas A, Jiménez-Fonseca P, Vázquez Olmos C, Vega Villar J Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

A rehabilitation program based on music practice for patients with unilateral spatial neglect: a single-case study.
oni C Abstract Two major limitations of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) rehabilitation methods are actually reported: a lack of long-term efficiency and a lack of generalization to daily life. The aim of our case study was to underline how a multisensory method-music practice-could avoid these limitations. Mrs BV suffered from a chronic severe USN. She had rehabilitation sessions of music practice over 8 weeks. An improvement of her USN was found on paper-pencil tests but also in daily activities. Benefits subsisted 4 months after rehabilitation. Music practice seemed to avoid the major limitations of USN rehabil...
Source: Neurocase - December 9, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Guilbert A, Clément S, Moroni C Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

A case of musical anhedonia due to right putaminal hemorrhage: a disconnection syndrome between the auditory cortex and insula.
Abstract A 63-year-old, right-handed professional chorus conductor developed right putaminal hemorrhage, and became unable to experience emotion while listening to music. Two years later, neurological examination revealed slight left hemiparesis. Neuromusicological assessments revealed impaired judgment of "musical sense," and the inability to discriminate the sound of chords in pure intervals from those in equal temperament. Brain MRI and tractography identified the old hemorrhagic lesion in the right putamen and impaired fiber connectivity between the right insula and superior temporal lobe. These find...
Source: Neurocase - December 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Satoh M, Kato N, Tabei KI, Nakano C, Abe M, Fujita R, Kida H, Tomimoto H, Kondo K Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

FTLD-TDP and progressive supranuclear palsy in comorbidity-a report of two cases with different clinical presentations.
We report two cases with FTLD-TDP and PSP in comorbidity: a patient with amnestic dementia developing frontal lobe dementia, Parkinsonism and supranuclear gaze palsy and a patient with cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus developing akinesia, rigidity, and subcortical dementia. Neuropathological examination revealed neuronal and glial tau pathology together with ubiquitin, and phospho-TDP-43-immunoreactivities in the hippocampus, striatum, mesencephalon, and frontal and temporal cortices. Clinical and neuropathological correlations in atypical neurodegenerations are crucial to describe new entities of overlapping syndromes. ...
Source: Neurocase - December 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Storey K, Johanidesová S, Matěj R, Keller J, Rohan Z, Rusina R Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Composing alarms: considering the musical aspects of auditory alarm design.
Abstract Short melodies are commonly linked to referents in jingles, ringtones, movie themes, and even auditory displays (i.e., sounds used in human-computer interactions). While melody associations can be quite effective, auditory alarms in medical devices are generally poorly learned and highly confused. Here, we draw on approaches and stimuli from both music cognition (melody recognition) and human factors (alarm design) to analyze the patterns of confusions in a paired-associate alarm-learning task involving both a standardized melodic alarm set (Experiment 1) and a set of novel melodies (Experiment 2). Althou...
Source: Neurocase - November 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gillard J, Schutz M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Callosal disconnection neglect: reassessment after 34 years.
The objective of this research is to reexamine this woman 34 years after her callosal disconnection to gain information about her recovery. The patient completed visual line-bisection tasks in which horizontal lines were placed in the right, left, and center hemispaces and she performed these bisections using her right or left hand. Unlike her performance 34 years ago in which each hand deviated to its ipsilateral hemispace, with greater deviation when lines were placed in the contralateral rather than ipsilateral hemispace, currently, there were no significant main effects for hand or spatial position. Thus, the...
Source: Neurocase - November 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Good AJ, Harris MK, Falchook AD, Watson RT, Heilman KM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

When the Wedding March becomes sad: Semantic memory impairment for music in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.
tta L Abstract Music can induce particular emotions and activate semantic knowledge. In the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), semantic memory is impaired as a result of anterior temporal lobe (ATL) atrophy. Semantics is responsible for the encoding and retrieval of factual knowledge about music, including associative and emotional attributes. In the present study, we report the performance of two individuals with svPPA in three experiments. NG with bilateral ATL atrophy and ND with atrophy largely restricted to the left ATL. Experiment 1 assessed the recognition of musical excerpts and both ...
Source: Neurocase - November 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Macoir J, Berubé-Lalancette S, Wilson MA, Laforce R, Hudon C, Gravel P, Potvin O, Duchesne S, Monetta L Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Calendars in the brain; their perceptual characteristics and possible neural substrate.
Abstract When we visualize a calendar, we have a vague impression of a rectangular grid hovering in front. But 1% of the population "see" vivid, crisp "calendar form" - e.g. an odd V shape as in subject ML. We found that (1) ML could "read off", months of her calendar - or alternate months - backward, unlike controls; (2) her eyes and index finger unconsciously "tracked" her reading; (3) her calendar moved with her gaze and tilted with her head; (4) after looking at a contracting spiral, her calendar expanded. In a second subject EA, the calendar was body centered and the ac...
Source: Neurocase - November 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramachandran VS, Vajanaphanich M, Chunharas C Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Clinical and imaging characteristics of late onset mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN).
We present the case of a 35-year-old Kuwaiti man with social withdrawal, drowsiness, irritability, anxiety, aphasia, memory loss, hypereflexia, and Parkinsonism. Brain MRI showed bilateral symmetric gradient echo hypointensities in the globi pallidi and substantiae nigrae. Left cortical hypometabolism was seen on brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. A cortical brain biopsy revealed a high Lewy body burden. Genetic testing revealed a homozygous p.T11M mutation in the C19orf12 gene consistent with mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration. This is the oldest onset age of MPAN reported. ...
Source: Neurocase - November 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gore E, Appleby BS, Cohen ML, DeBrosse SD, Leverenz JB, Miller BL, Siedlak SL, Zhu X, Lerner AJ Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

El Sistema-inspired ensemble music training is associated with changes in children's neurocognitive functional integration: preliminary ERP evidence.
Abstract Children (aged 9-12) training in an El Sistema-inspired program (OrKidstra) and a matched comparison group participated in an auditory Go/No-Go task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Entire-sweep waveform patterns correlated with known ERP peaks associated with executive and other cognitive functions and indicated that the spread of neural activity in the initial 250 ms of executive attention processing (pre-P300) showed higher level of topographical overlap in OrKidstra children. In these children, late potentials (post-P300) concurrent with response control were more widely distr...
Source: Neurocase - October 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hedayati N, Schibli K, D'Angiulli A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Motor simulation theories of musical beat perception.
We present evidence for a causal role of motor planning and simulation, and review theories of internal simulation for beat-based timing prediction. Brain stimulation studies have the potential to conclusively test if the motor system plays a causal role in beat perception and ground theories to their neural underpinnings. PMID: 27726485 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - October 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ross JM, Iversen JR, Balasubramaniam R Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Classifying song and speech: effects of focal temporal lesions and musical disorder.
Abstract Song and speech represent two auditory categories the brain usually classifies fairly easily. Functionally, this classification ability may depend to a great extent on characteristic features of pitch patterns present in song melody and speech prosody. Anatomically, the temporal lobe (TL) has been discussed as playing a prominent role in the processing of both. Here we tested individuals with congenital amusia and patients with unilateral left and right TL lesions in their ability to categorize song and speech. In a forced-choice paradigm, specifically designed auditory stimuli representing sung, spoken a...
Source: Neurocase - October 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Merrill J, Bangert M, Sammler D, Friederici AD Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Spontaneous confabulations in amnestic-mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: a new (yet old) atypical variant?
In this report, we describe the case of an AD patient who showed an unusual and enduring neuropsychiatric phenotype characterized by early and prominent spontaneous confabulation. Surprisingly, such atypical AD presentation bears a striking resemblance to presbyophrenia, a subtype of dementia which was described at the beginning of the twentieth century and then sank into oblivion. In discussion, we speculate on the "return" of presbyophrenia as an unrecognized neuropsychiatric variant of AD and its possible neuroanatomical substrates. PMID: 27705090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - October 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Abbate C, Trimarchi PD, Rotondo E, Inglese S, Nicolini P, Rossi PD, Arosio B, Mari D Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Characteristics of number transcoding errors of Chinese- versus English-speaking Alzheimer's disease patients.
This study aimed to understand the characterization of AD-related number processing disorder within an alphabetic language (English) and ideographical language (Chinese), and to investigate the differences between alphabetic and ideographic language processing. Chinese-speaking AD patients were hypothesized to make significantly more intrusion errors than English-speaking ones, due to the ideographical nature of both Chinese characters and Arabic numbers. A simplified number transcoding test derived from EC301 battery was administered to AD patients. Chinese-speaking AD patients made significantly more intrusion errors (p&...
Source: Neurocase - September 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ting SK, Chia PS, Kwek K, Tan W, Hameed S Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Systematically developed pilot randomized controlled trial of exercise and cognition in persons with multiple sclerosis.
Abstract Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of a systematically developed, progressive treadmill walking exercise training intervention on cognition among fully ambulatory persons with MS. Ten fully ambulatory females with MS were randomly assigned into exercise training intervention or waitlist control conditions. The intervention condition involved 12 weeks of supervised, progressive chro...
Source: Neurocase - September 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Sandroff BM, Balto JM, Klaren RE, Sommer SK, DeLuca J, Motl RW Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Atypical psychotic symptoms and Dandy-Walker variant.
Abstract New-onset psychotic symptoms often respond well to antipsychotic treatment; however, symptoms may be difficult to treat when an underlying brain malformation is present. Here, we present a case of atypical psychotic symptoms in the context of a congenital cerebellar malformation (Dandy-Walker variant). The patient ultimately improved with paliperidone palmitate after multiple antipsychotic medication trials (both oral and one long-acting injectable) were ineffective. Neuroimaging may provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information in cases of new-onset psychosis with atypical features and treatment...
Source: Neurocase - September 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Williams AJ, Wang Z, Taylor SF Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Language lateralization of a bilingual person with epilepsy using a combination of fMRI and neuropsychological assessment findings.
This report describes the findings of language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a left-handed Urdu and English speaker with right hemisphere-originating epilepsy and unclear language dominance. fMRI is a reliable method for determining hemispheric language dominance in presurgical planning. However, the effects of bilingualism on language activation depend on many factors including age of acquisition and proficiency in the tested language, and morphological properties of the language itself. This case demonstrates that completing fMRI in both spoken languages and interpreting the results within the context o...
Source: Neurocase - September 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Grady C, Omisade A, Sadler RM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

The suppression effect in visuospatial and verbal working memory span tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a 2-year follow-up study.
This study adapted a new task to assess visuospatial and verbal working memory impairments in patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD), including an executive strategy of information suppression. The aim was to examine the visuospatial and verbal difficulties, and additionally to explore the average sex differences, during a 2-year follow-up study. The results indicated that patients with AD showed a significantly lower performance, compared with healthy elderly controls, especially with the suppression of information required in this new task. However, suppression did not lead to a significantly greater decline in the perform...
Source: Neurocase - August 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Elosúa MR, Peinado M, Contreras MJ, Reales JM, Montoro PR Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Bupropion improved apathy in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia: a case report.
We present the case of a 65-year-old man with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia who suffered from severe apathy, but his apathy improved after a 10-month period of bupropion treatment. His single photon emission computed tomography report also showed slight improvement. To the best of our knowledge, such a case with imaging evidence has never been reported. Further studies to correlate the effects of bupropion on apathy in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia patients are clearly needed. PMID: 27484407 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - August 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin CP, Chu CP, Liu HC Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Neural correlates of motor recovery after robot-assisted stroke rehabilitation: a case series study.
Abstract Robot-assisted bilateral arm therapy (RBAT) has shown promising results in stroke rehabilitation; however, connectivity mapping of the sensorimotor networks after RBAT remains unclear. We used fMRI before and after RBAT and a dose-matched control intervention (DMCI) to explore the connectivity changes in 6 subacute stroke patients. Sensorimotor functions improved in the RBAT and DMCI groups after treatment. Enhanced activation changes were observed in bilateral primary motor cortex (M1) and bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) after RBAT. Dynamic causal model analysis revealed that interhemispheric co...
Source: Neurocase - August 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan YT, Lin KC, Liu HL, Wu CY, Wai YY, Lee TH Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Complete, bilateral hippocampal ischemia: a case series.
Abstract Acute and complete ischemia of the hippocampi represents a rare cause of amnesia. This paper describes the features of four such cases presenting to a single tertiary care center over a 3-year period. Interestingly, in three instances, toxicology screening was positive for opioids at the time of presentation, while in the fourth, there was a known, reportedly remote, history of heroin use. Taken together with the known literature on the topic, complete hippocampal ischemia appears at least highly suggestive of a toxic exposure. Further case finding is necessary to better understand the etiology, nature, a...
Source: Neurocase - July 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Small JE, Butler PM, Zabar Y, Barash JA Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Time perception of simultaneous and sequential events in early-onset schizophrenia.
Abstract Timing disorders in schizophrenia are a well-known phenomenon. However, no studies have yet assessed the role of temporal distortions in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), despite evidence that distorted time perception may share genetic risk factors with schizophrenia and may be a useful indicator in identifying individuals at risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the ability of 10 patients with EOS (mean age = 21.5 years, SD = 6) matched with 20 healthy control participants (mean age = 25.3 years, SD = 4.6) in order to compare the d...
Source: Neurocase - July 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: de Montalembert M, Coulon N, Cohen D, Bonnot O, Tordjman S Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Preservation of cognitive and musical abilities of a musician following surgery for chronic drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy: a case report.
We report a 16-year-old boy diagnosed with drug-resistant right-medial TLE. He is a professional musician, trained in Carnatic classical music. Clinical, electrophysiological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography evaluation localized the seizure focus to the right medial temporal lobe. Patient underwent detailed neuropsychological evaluation and functional MRI (fMRI) for musical abilities prior to surgery. He underwent an awake craniotomy and tailored resection of lateral neocortex as well as amygdalohippocampectomy under guidance of cortical stimulation and clinical monitoring. The superior te...
Source: Neurocase - July 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hegde S, Bharath RD, Rao MB, Shiva K, Arimappamagan A, Sinha S, Rajeswaran J, Satishchandra P Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Reversible hippocampal lesions detected on magnetic resonance imaging in two cases of transient selective amnesia for simple machine operation.
We report two extremely rare cases involving the development of transient selective retrograde amnesia for simple machine operation lasting for several hours. A 61-year-old male taxi driver suddenly became unable to operate a taximeter, and a 66-year-old female janitor suddenly became unable to use a fax machine. They could precisely recount their episodes to others both during and after the attacks, and their memories during their attacks corresponded to the memory of the witness and the medical records of the doctor, respectively. Therefore, it appears that these individuals remained alert and did not develop anterograde...
Source: Neurocase - July 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Yamaoka Y, Bandoh M, Kawai K Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Delineating potential epileptogenic areas utilizing resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in epilepsy patients.
Abstract Seizure localization includes neuroimaging like electroencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with limited ability to characterize the epileptogenic network. Temporal clustering analysis (TCA) characterizes epileptogenic network congruent with interictal epileptiform discharges by clustering together voxels with transient signals. We generated epileptogenic areas for 12 of 13 epilepsy patients with TCA, congruent with different areas of seizure onset. Resting functional MRI (fMRI) scans are noninvasive, and can be acquired quickly, in patients with different levels of severity and function. A...
Source: Neurocase - June 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Pizarro R, Nair V, Meier T, Holdsworth R, Tunnell E, Rutecki P, Sillay K, Meyerand ME, Prabhakaran V Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Synesthesia for manual alphabet letters and numeral signs in second-language users of signed languages.
Abstract Many synesthetes experience colors when viewing letters or digits. We document, for the first time, an analogous phenomenon among users of signed languages who showed color synesthesia for fingerspelled letters and signed numerals. Four synesthetes experienced colors when they viewed manual letters and numerals (in two cases, colors were subjectively projected on to the hands). There was a correspondence between the colors experienced for written graphemes and their manual counterparts, suggesting that the development of these two types of synesthesia is interdependent despite the fact that these systems ...
Source: Neurocase - June 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Atkinson J, Lyons T, Eagleman D, Woll B, Ward J Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Effect of the antiepileptic therapy on olfactory disorders associated with mesial temporal sclerosis.
We reported a case of parosmia associated with unilateral hyposmia and mesial temporal sclerosis. We assessed the olfactory function by using Sniffin' sticks test and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs). The findings of unilateral deficit of identification associated with parosmia only in the side ipsilateral to mesial temporal sclerosis area, that involves temporal olfactory regions responsible for higher level of smell processing, suggest a central genesis of olfactory disorders. The administration of levetiracetam restored olfactory function, OERP N1-P2 amplitude, and mesial temporal sclerosis-related electroence...
Source: Neurocase - June 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Caminiti F, De Salvo S, Nunnari D, Bramanti P, Ciurleo R, Granata F, Marino S Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus alters frontal activity during spatial working memory maintenance of patients with Parkinson's disease.
We examined cortical effects of STN-DBS on WM in early PD patients using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The effects of dopaminergic medication on WM were also examined. Lateral frontal activity during WM maintenance was greater when patients were taking dopaminergic medication. STN-DBS led to a trend-level worsening of WM performance, accompanied by increased lateral frontal activity during WM maintenance. These findings suggest that STN-DBS in PD might lead to functional modifications of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical pathway during WM maintenance. PMID: 27337498 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - June 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Mayer JS, Neimat J, Folley BS, Bourne SK, Konrad PE, Charles D, Park S Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

C9ORF72 G4C2-repeat expansion and frontotemporal dementia first reported case in Argentina.
We present a female patient aged 51 who developed behavioral disorders followed by cognitive impairment over 3 years. Neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, and radiological features suggested a probable behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). A family history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism suggested the hexanucleotide repeat expansion G4C2 in C9ORF72 . We set up a two-step genotyping algorithm for the detection of the expansion using fragment-length analysis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and repeat-primed PCR with fluorescent primers. We confirmed the presence of an expanded G4C2 allele ...
Source: Neurocase - June 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Fernández Suarez M, Surace E, Harris P, Tapajoz F, Sevlever G, Allegri R, Russo GN Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

You stole my food! Eating alterations in frontotemporal dementia.
Abstract Patients with different types of dementia may exhibit pathological eating habits, including food fads, hyperphagia, or even ingestion of inanimate objects. Several findings reveal that such eating alterations are more common in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) than other types of dementia. Moreover, eating alterations may differ between the two variants of the disease, namely the behavioral variant and semantic dementia (SD). In this review, we summarized evidences regarding four areas: eating and body weight alterations in FTD, the most common assessment methods, anatomical correlates of eatin...
Source: Neurocase - June 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Aiello M, Silani V, Rumiati RI Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Right hemisphere dominance for language in a woman with schizophrenia and a porencephalic cyst of the left hemisphere.
Abstract A large left hemisphere porencephalic cyst was incidentally found in a 48-year-old woman (MS) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia. The encephaloclastic characteristics of the cyst indicated that it was acquired between the 22nd and 24th gestational weeks, after the major waves of neuronal migration had tapered off. The cyst destroyed the left temporal and occipital lobes, and the inferior parietal lobule. Surprisingly, MS had no evidence of aphasia, alexia, agraphia, or ideational apraxia; in contrast, cognitive functions dependent on the integrity of the right hemi...
Source: Neurocase - June 9, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: de Oliveira-Souza R, Monteiro M, Pacheco P, Tovar-Moll F, Mattos P, Moll J, Nazar BP Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Chronic behavior disturbance and neurocognitive deficits in neuro-Behcet's disease: a case study.
This report presents a case of neuro-Behcet's disease characterized by an initial onset of behavior changes prior to diagnosis, which evolved into a chronic behavioral syndrome. Neuroimaging investigations revealed progressive periventricular white matter and brainstem atrophy and lesions in the basal ganglia and deep white matter tracts, while neuropsychological investigations revealed reductions in information processing, executive functioning, and memory. The case indicates that behavior changes may be the first symptoms to emerge in Behcet's, before other defining features of the disease. PMID: 27223331 [PubMed - ...
Source: Neurocase - May 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Fisher CA, Sewell K, Baker A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

Schizophrenia as a mimic of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.
We describe a 54-year-old woman fulfilling criteria for both late-onset schizophrenia and probable behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Following an initial presentation with psychosis, she developed progressive apathy, compulsiveness, and executive dysfunction. Moreover, bilateral frontotemporal hypometabolism was seen on [(18)F]fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. A post-mortem diagnosis of schizophrenia was established, given the clinical picture combined with the pathological exclusion of a neurodegenerative cause. Our case suggests that patients with other brain disorders may meet the current diagnosti...
Source: Neurocase - May 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kerssens CJ, Krudop WA, Prins ND, van Berckel BN, Rozemuller A, Seeley WW, Scheltens P, Stek ML, Pijnenburg YA Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research