Prodromal posterior cortical atrophy: clinical, neuropsychological, and radiological correlation.
We present longitudinal clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging data from a 63-year-old woman who enrolled in research as a normal control and evolved posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) over 5 year follow-up. At baseline she reported only subtle difficulty driving and performed normally on cognitive tests, but already demonstrated atrophy in left visual association cortex. With follow-up she developed insidiously progressive visuospatial and visuoperceptual deficits, correlating with progressive atrophy in bilateral visual areas. Amyloid PET was positive. This case tracks the evolution of PCA from the prodromal stage, and...
Source: Neurocase - December 5, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Chan LT, Lynch W, De May M, Horton JC, Miller BL, Rabinovici GD Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Perception of odor-induced tastes following insular cortex lesion.
Abstract Lesions of the insula can affect olfaction and gustation. Here, we examined the effect of insula lesions on taste and taste-like experiences generated via smelling (i.e., odor-induced tastes) in patients with focal insula lesions and intact olfaction. From a set of 16 patients with lesions to the insula, we found 7 (6 with right-sided lesions) who performed normally on various olfactory measures. These were compared to 42 normal control subjects on tests of gustatory and odor-induced taste perception as well as control measures. The patients were impaired relative to controls on most gustatory measures. T...
Source: Neurocase - December 5, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Stevenson RJ, Miller LA, McGrillen K Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Intraoperative smile in a multiple sclerosis patient with medication-refractory tremor.
Abstract Deep brain stimulation has been utilized to improve disease symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor, and other neuropsychiatric syndromes such as depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. Deep brain stimulation has also been observed to improve tremor for select patients with multiple sclerosis. During intraoperative stimulation in these multiple sclerosis patients, researchers have observed a wide spectrum of motor and sensory phenomena, but no stimulation-induced emotional responses have been reported. We detailed intraoperative smiling associated with stimulation o...
Source: Neurocase - October 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Thompson AJ, Peng-Chen Z, Pastrana M, Foote KD, Haq I, Okun MS Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Atypical association of semantic dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and 4R tauopathy.
Abstract A 57-year-old male with no family history was diagnosed with semantic dementia. He also showed some unusual cognitive features such as episodic memory and executive dysfunctions, spatial disorientation, and dyscalculia. Rapidly progressive cognitive and physical decline occurred. About 1.5 years later, he developed clinical features of a corticobasal syndrome. He died at the age of 60. Brain autopsy revealed numerous 4R-tau-positive lesions in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, basal ganglia, and brainstem. Neuronal loss was severe in the temporal cortex. Such association of semantic dementia with ...
Source: Neurocase - October 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Clerc MT, Deprez M, Leuba G, Lhermitte B, Lopez U, von Gunten A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Dynamic aphasia following low-grade glioma surgery near the supplementary motor area: A selective spontaneous speech deficit.
We describe a patient (KO) with reduced spontaneous speech, resembling dynamic aphasia, after awake glioma surgery in the proximity of the supplementary motor area. Naming, repetition, and comprehension were intact. He was tested with an extensive neuropsychological test-battery and a protocol for dynamic aphasia at 1 year. He presented with postoperative reduced spontaneous speech and selective executive function deficits. Most language recovery took place at 3 months postoperatively, whereas the executive functions improved between 3 months and 1 year. Results suggest that resection near the supplementary motor area coul...
Source: Neurocase - October 7, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Satoer D, Kloet A, Vincent A, Dirven C, Visch-Brink E Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume and improves memory in multiple sclerosis: Preliminary findings.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in nonhuman animals. Here, we investigate the benefits of aerobic exercise in memory-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Pilot data were collected from two ambulatory, memory-impaired multiple sclerosis participants...
Source: Neurocase - October 4, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Leavitt VM, Cirnigliaro C, Cohen A, Farag A, Brooks M, Wecht JM, Wylie GR, Chiaravalloti ND, Deluca J, Sumowski JF Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
The relationship between sleep patterns and attention levels.
Abstract Fifty-nine adults slept five nights with an Actigraph and answered two questionnaires related to sleeping quality and morningness/eveningness preferences. Next they performed a computerized attention task (the mathematics continuous performance test (MATH-CPT)) to assess various measures of attention. Results showed significant correlations between six attention variables and two measures of sleep assessed by the Actigraph. Linear regression with sleep variables as independent variables, and measures of the computerized test as dependent variables showed that sleep measures explained 30% of the variance o...
Source: Neurocase - October 1, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Lufi D Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
The panoply of field-dependent behavior in 1436 stroke patients. The mirror neuron system uncoupled and the consequences of loss of personal autonomy.
Abstract Evaluation of the multifaceted nature of frontal network syndromes is uniquely challenging and rarely tested in the acute/sub-acute stroke period. Field-dependent behavior such as imitation behavior, utilization behavior, and environmental dependency syndrome, as a component of altered environmental autonomy, may be a reliable bedside test. This research focused on the frequency of field-dependent behavior in stroke, the subtypes and relation to frontal lobe lesion location and stroke etiology. A validated frontal network score incorporating a 10-point imitation behavior scale was applied to alert patient...
Source: Neurocase - September 2, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Hoffmann M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
A cognitive chameleon: Lessons from a novel MAPT mutation case.
We report a case of frontotemporal dementia caused by a novel MAPT mutation (Q351R) with a remarkably long amnestic presentation mimicking familial Alzheimer's disease. Longitudinal clinical, neuropsychological and imaging data provide convergent evidence for predominantly bilateral anterior medial temporal lobe involvement consistent with previously established neuroanatomical signatures of MAPT mutations. This case supports the notion that the neural network affected in MAPT mutations is determined to a large extent by the underlying molecular pathology. We discuss the diagnostic significance of anomia in the context of ...
Source: Neurocase - September 2, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Liang Y, Gordon E, Rohrer J, Downey L, de Silva R, Jäger HR, Nicholas J, Modat M, Cardoso MJ, Mahoney C, Warren J, Rossor M, Fox N, Caine D Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron emission tomography in a case of slowly progressive pure alexia.
We describe a 71-year-old patient with slowly progressive pure alexia in which analysis of her fluorodeoxyglucose FDG-PET scan revealed an area of focal hypometabolism in the visual word form area. She presented with difficulty reading. Examination revealed pure alexia with preservation of other cognitive domains. Brain MRI revealed only slight atrophy. A Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron emission tomography scan revealed hypometabolism in the occipital cortex bilaterally, left greater than right, with normal metabolism elsewhere in the brain. This case highlights the utility of FDG-PET scan in evaluating focal neurodegenera...
Source: Neurocase - September 2, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Graff-Radford J, Benarroch EE, Duffy JR, Drubach DA Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Motor inhibition during motor imagery: A MEG study with a quadriplegic patient.
Abstract The neurophysiological substrates underlying motor imagery are now well established. However, the neural processes of motor inhibition while mentally rehearsing an action are poorly understood. This concern has received limited experimental investigations leading to divergent conclusions. Whether motor command suppression is mediated by specific brain structures or by intracortical facilitation/inhibition is a matter of debate. Interestingly, although motor commands are inhibited during motor imagery (MI) in healthy participants, spinal cord injury may result in weakened motor inhibition. Using magentoenc...
Source: Neurocase - September 2, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Di Rienzo F, Guillot A, Daligault S, Delpuech C, Rode G, Collet C Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
The effects of immunologic brainstem encephalopathy on cognitive function following awakening from a progressive autoimmune coma.
We describe a unique patient who experienced a progressive autoimmune coma from age 14 to 17. The patient awoke after treatment with immunosuppressant medication. Although alertness, verbalization, and mobilization markedly improved, the patient reported persistent cognitive difficulties. Neuropsychological assessment from age 21 showed impairments in selective attention, distractibility, and memory. Conversely, higher-order executive functions were preserved. Electrophysiological analysis also identified abnormal neural signatures of selective attention. Eighteen months after the neuropsychological assessment, voxel-based...
Source: Neurocase - September 2, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Salomone S, Robertson IH, Lynch T, Balsters JH, Fearon C, Marnane M, Pender NP, Dockree PM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Impaired reading not due to visual field loss in a patient with a right-hemipsheric lesion.
We describe a right-handed patient (M.B.), who developed left hemianopsia and a severe reading impairment after right occipital-parietal hemorrhage. The pattern of his reading deficit was very similar to that of pure alexia (alexia-without-agraphia): extremely slow reading times with frequent grapheme substitutions and omissions. A test of letter reading while controlling for saccadic eye movements and hemifield of presentation ruled out hemianoptic alexia. Although there have already been reports of reading impairments in right handers following right- hemispheric lesions, ours is, to the best of our knowledge, the first ...
Source: Neurocase - August 28, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Basagni B, Patané I, Ferrari V, Bruno N Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
The spinning dancer illusion and spontaneous brain fluctuations: An fMRI study.
Abstract The brain activation associated with the Spinning Dancer Illusion, a cognitive visual illusion, is not entirely known. Inferences from other study modalities point to the involvement of the dorso-parieto-occipital areas in the spontaneous switchings of perception in other bistable non-kinetic illusions. fMRI is a mature technique used to investigate the brain responses associated with mental changes. Resting-state fMRI is a novel technique that may help ascertain the effects of spontaneous brain changes in the top-down regulation of visual perception. The purpose of this report is to describe the brain ac...
Source: Neurocase - August 28, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Bernal B, Guillen M, Marquez JC Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
The amnestic syndrome: Applying the Rorschach Inkblot method for differential diagnosis.
Abstract Dissociative processes were investigated in a man diagnosed with focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) following a traumatic head injury without any anterograde memory deficit. Findings were derived from the Rorschach Inkblot method, which was administered together with other performance-based tests and a self-report inventory for evaluating dissociative proneness in personality functioning. A substantial set of behavioral and test response variables indicated dissociation proneness and the activation of dissociative mechanisms. This conception was supported a few months following the evaluation when the patient...
Source: Neurocase - August 28, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Czopp ST, Zeligman R, Kedem S, Hadar U Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Cognitive and behavioral deficits following bilateral thalamic stroke: A longitudinal study.
We report clinical neuropsychological/behavioral data over a 43-month follow-up. The results show early after the stroke a severe amnesic-confabulatory syndrome with dysexecutive deficits, associated with memory disorders both for visuo-spatial and verbal materials and TD both for known and new places. Behavioral disinhibition and anosognosia for cognitive deficits were also observed. All cognitive impairments have been recovered during the long-term follow-up. Bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts often lead to severe and long-lasting neurological and cognitive impairments. Only a few cases showed good recovery. Our pati...
Source: Neurocase - August 27, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Rusconi ML, Carelli L, Stampatori C, Mattioli F Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Persistent extreme regressive behavior in severe traumatic brain injury patients: A rare neurological phenomenon.
We report three cases of young adults who, following a severe TBI, developed continual regressive behavior. The Disability Rating Scale (DRS) was used to assess possible change in their condition. First, while admitted, which was performed in retrospect, and again 6 years later at the time stated. Inter-rater reliability for the scale items showed adequate correlation. Results showed no significant difference in patients' scores, indicating persistent functional difficulties. We conclude that this "regressive syndrome" presents an unusual form of behavior that is stable over time. It seems to be in line with othe...
Source: Neurocase - August 23, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Heled E, Sverdlik A, Agranov E Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Sound symbolism in synesthesia: Evidence from a lexical-gustatory synesthete.
Abstract Synesthesia is a condition in which perceptual or cognitive stimuli (e.g., a written letter) trigger atypical additional percepts (e.g., the color yellow). Although these cross-modal pairings appear idiosyncratic in that they superficially differ from synesthete to synesthete, underlying patterns do exist and these can, in some circumstances, reflect the cross-modal intuitions of nonsynesthetes (e.g., higher pitch sounds tend to be "seen" in lighter colors by synesthetes and are also paired to lighter colors by nonsynesthetes in cross-modal matching tasks). We recently showed that grapheme-color...
Source: Neurocase - August 23, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Bankieris K, Simner J Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Callosal disconnection and limb-kinetic apraxia.
Abstract According to Liepmann, patients with limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) have a loss of upper limb deftness-dexterity. Prior studies have revealed in right-handed patients that, whereas injury of the left hemisphere induces an ipsilesional LKA, injury to the right hemisphere does not induce an ipsilesional LKA. There are at least two possible means by which the left hemisphere may influence the deftness of the left hand, either by callosal connections or by ipsilesional corticospinal projections. The purpose of this study was to learn whether a patient with a focal lesion of the corpus callosum had a callosal disc...
Source: Neurocase - August 23, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Acosta LM, Bennett JA, Heilman KM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Unawareness of deficits in ischemic injury: Role of the cingulate cortex.
Abstract Reduced awareness of illness is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in patients with vascular disease, but the precise nature of their executive dysfunction is an intriguing question that still has to be resolved. It would be particularly interesting to study patients with reduced awareness of disease possibly related to vascular lesions of the prefrontal cortex. Due to the clinical importance of the case, here we present a patient with a selective right anterior cingulate ischemic injury and impaired awareness of deficits. We suggest that the cingulo-frontal area dysfunction may represent one o...
Source: Neurocase - August 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Palermo S, Leotta D, Bongioanni MR, Amanzio M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Phantabulation: A case of visual imagery interference on visual perception.
We report the case of a 52-year old man who, following rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm, presented with a phenomenon not previously described, which we have labelled "Phantabulation." Phantabulation is characterized by frequent and purposeful interactions with contextually appropriate imagined objects. We suggest that this phenomenon results from confusion between real and imagined objects, caused by failure to inhibit florid visual imagery, facilitated by cortical release mechanisms. PMID: 23962109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - August 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Cocchini G, Lello O, McIntosh RD, Sala SD Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Case study: A patient with agenesis of the corpus callosum with minimal associated neuropsychological impairment.
Abstract This is a case study of an 88-year-old man who presented with agenesis of the corpus callosum and colpocephaly. Symptomatically, he reported a sudden onset of mild, intermittent left hand apraxia, but denied any previous manifestations consistent with this type of brain malformation. The patient underwent neuroimaging, evaluation by neurology, and comprehensive neuropsychological testing to determine the nature of any other associated impairments. Test results indicated that he was, with a few exceptions, neuropsychologically normal. He performed well on tests that are highly sensitive to acquired brain d...
Source: Neurocase - August 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Brescian NE, Curiel RE, Gass CS Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
A case of bilateral frontal tumors without "frontal syndrome"
We report the longitudinal case study of a right-handed patient harboring two frontal tumors that benefited from bilateral simultaneous surgery. The tumors were WHO Grade II gliomas located in the left inferior frontal area (including the cingulate gyrus) and the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. The double tumor resection was guided by direct electrical stimulation of brain areas while the patient was awake. Neuropsychological assessments were administered before and after the surgery to analyse how the brain functions in the presence of two frontal gliomas that affect both hemispheres and reacts to a bilateral resec...
Source: Neurocase - August 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Plaza M, du Boullay V, Perrault A, Chaby L, Capelle L Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Behavioral and neuroplastic effects of low-frequency rTMS of the unaffected hemisphere in a chronic stroke patient: A concomitant TMS and fMRI study.
Abstract Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) ameliorates motor and neuropsychological deficits following stroke, but little is known about the underlying neuroplasticity. We investigated neuroplastic changes following 5 days of low-frequency rTMS on the intact motor cortex to promote motor recovery in a chronic patient with subcortical stroke. The feasibility of administering multiple treatments was also assessed 6 months later by applying the same protocol over the patient's parietal cortex to improve visuospatial disorders. Behavioral improvements and no adverse events were observed. Neuroimaging...
Source: Neurocase - August 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Salatino A, Berra E, Troni W, Sacco K, Cauda F, D'Agata F, Geminiani G, Duca S, Dimanico U, Ricci R Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Pathological generosity: An atypical impulse control disorder after a left subcortical stroke.
We report on a case of pathological generosity secondary to a left lenticulocapsular stroke with hypoperfusion of several anatomically intact cortical areas. A 49-year-old man developed excessive and persistent generosity as he recovered from a left lenticulocapsular hematoma. His symptoms resembled an impulse control disorder. (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT demonstrated hypoperfusion mostly in the ipsilateral striatum, dorsolateral, and orbitofrontal cortex. This case study adds pathological generosity to the range of behavioral changes that may result from discrete unilateral lesions of the lenticular nucleus and nearby pathways. I...
Source: Neurocase - August 20, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Ferreira-Garcia R, Fontenelle LF, Moll J, de Oliveira-Souza R Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Alice in Wonderland syndrome as aura of migraine.
Abstract Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS), named for Lewis Carroll's titular character, is a disorder characterized by transient episodes of visual hallucinations and perceptual distortions, during which objects or body parts are perceived as altered in various ways (metamorphopsia), including enlargement (macropsia) or reduction (micropsia) in the perceived size of a form. Migraine aura is a transient neurological symptom that most commonly involves the visual fields and occurs before the headache phase. Aura symptoms include the perception of flashing lights that begin in the center of vision and expand in ja...
Source: Neurocase - August 19, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Ilik F, Ilik K Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Emergence of hyper empathy after right amygdalohippocampectomy.
We report a fascinating case of a patient with a hyper empathy that appeared after resective epilepsy surgery. This behavioral modification has remained unchanged since the surgery took place 13 years ago. Recent neuropsychological objective assessments confirmed hyper empathy in a self-report questionnaire, and revealed higher affective theory of mind than controls in a "Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task." Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of epilepsy and the investigation of emotional processes after surgery in these patients deserves to be related. PMID: 23944742 [PubMed - as supplied by publ...
Source: Neurocase - August 14, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Richard-Mornas A, Mazzietti A, Koenig O, Borg C, Convers P, Thomas-Antérion C Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Resection of glioma in an fMRI-defined "split" Broca's area.
In this report, we present a patient with left frontal glioma of complex morphology, wherein the tumor was enveloped by Broca's area on fMRI. Intraoperative mapping and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) allowed gross total resection of the tumor with preservation of language function and illustrate the utility of multiple contemporary modalities in the surgical management of low-grade gliomas located in eloquent cortices. PMID: 23937303 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - August 13, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Kim JH, Amankulor NM, Peck KK, Brennan N, Gutin PH, Holodny AI Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Occipital cortex activation by long-term repetitive tactile stimulation is necessary for object recognition in blinds: A case report.
We report the results of passive tactile stimulation, as well as rTMS, applied to a 50 year old left handed blind male with over 97% loss of vision, who suffers from Peter's anomaly and microphthalmia. After 15 weeks of passive tactile stimulation, the subject showed increased activity in occipital areas associated with the development of visual-like perception which remained unchanged after three months without passive tactile stimulation. Inhibitory rTMS over the visual cortex led to noticeable reduction of spatial recognition performance and visual sensations in this subject. Stable changes in occipital cortical activit...
Source: Neurocase - July 2, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Ortiz T, Poch J, Santos JM, Martínez AM, Ortiz-Terán L, Requena C, Barcia JA, de Erausquin GA, Pascual-Leone A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Cognitive load results in motor overflow in essential tremor.
es EB Abstract SK is an 84-year-old woman diagnosed with essential tremor (ET) but no cognitive deficits. In this experiment, we tested the effects of mental rotation (a form of additional cognitive load) during reaching behavior (with the right hand) on the tremor profile of the non-moving left hand. We observed a marked increase in tremor and its variability, as well as the "freezing" of the movement pattern as effects of the cognitive load. These findings imply cognitive-motor overlaps in patients with ET, raising the possibility that the deficits reflect the loss of a common pool of neural resources,...
Source: Neurocase - May 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Hong SL, Isenhower RW, José JV, Torres EB Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Influenza-associated global amnesia and hippocampal imaging abnormality.
We describe a case of a 24 year-old man who developed global amnesia in the acute phase of influenza A infection. His deficits resolved over the course of several weeks. Transient abnormalities of diffusion and T2-weighted imaging were seen in the bilateral hippocampi. We review cerebral complications of influenza and discuss the possible role of previously proposed mechanisms in our patient's case. PMID: 23697757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - May 22, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Lopez J, Lomen-Hoerth C, Deutsch GK, Kerchner GA, Koshy A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Simulating the neural correlates of stuttering.
This study shows that it is feasible to match stuttering speakers' utterances more closely to simulated stutters for the investigation of neural correlates of real stuttering. Significant main effects and contrast effects were obtained for the differences between fluent and stuttered speech, and right-hemisphere lateralization associated with real stuttered speech was shown in a single subject. PMID: 23697790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - May 22, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: den Ouden DB, Montgomery A, Adams C Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Neural correlates of the rubber hand illusion in amputees: A report of two cases.
HH Abstract One of the current challenges in the field of advanced prosthetics is the development of artificial limbs that provide the user with detailed sensory feedback. Sensory feedback from our limbs is not only important for proprioceptive awareness and motor control, but also essential for providing us with a feeling of ownership or simply put, the sensation that our limbs actually belong to ourselves. The strong link between sensory feedback and ownership has been repeatedly demonstrated with the so-called rubber hand illusion (RHI), during which individuals are induced with the illusory sensation that an ...
Source: Neurocase - May 17, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Schmalzl L, Kalckert A, Ragnö C, Ehrsson HH Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Unilateral cortical hyperexcitability in congenital hydrocephalus: A TMS study.
Conclusion: We hypothesize that in this ambidextrous subject, the observed RH hyper-excitability could represent a mechanism of plasticity to preserve functionality of specific brain areas possibly devoted to some special skills, such as multilingualism. PMID: 23682715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - May 17, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Guerra A, Curcio G, Pasqualetti P, Bressi F, Petrichella S, Scrascia F, Ponzo D, Ferilli M, Vernieri F, Rossini PM, Ferreri F Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with writing disturbance mainly consisting of omission of kana letters.
Abstract A right-handed woman developed pseudobulbar palsy and a particular writing disturbance mainly composed of omission of kana letters (OKL) at the age of 79, followed by gradual progression of generalized motor disturbance and mutism. She died at the age of 88. Postmortem examination revealed frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The precentral cortex and premotor area were the most severely degenerated among the affected frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. The omission of kana letters has been recently reported as a characteristic feature of writing disturbance in Japanese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS...
Source: Neurocase - May 16, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Shimizu T, Mochizuki Y, Bandoh M, Taguchi T, Mishima K, Takeda K, Nojima K, Mizutani T, Matsubara S Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Electroconvulsive therapy in patient with psychotic depression and multiple sclerosis.
ska J Abstract Safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in depressive patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is still discussed and based solely on case reports. This kind of therapy was used in both unipolar depression and depression in bipolar disorder. It was suggested that ECT might cause the deterioration of neurological state (new MS lesions in magnetic resonance imaging). Moreover, there were also data indicating some anesthesiological complications and difficulties in patients with MS. We have presented a case of a patient who was treated with ECT and developed grand mal seizure after 14th electroconvulsiv...
Source: Neurocase - May 16, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Urban-Kowalczyk M, Rudecki T, Wróblewski D, Smigielski J, Kałużyńska O, Rabe-Jabłońska J Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Investigating deaf students' knowledge of Persian syntax: Further evidence for a critical period hypothesis.
Abstract The present study aims to investigate syntactic deficits in 13 Iranian deaf students aged between 17 and 21 years. Four tests in the form of sentence-recognition and sentence-completion were administered to examine their knowledge of verb inflection, derivational morphology, word order, and prepositions. A between-category analysis of errors indicated a significant dissociation between categories, most notably between verb inflection and derivational morphology and between word order as the category with fewest errors and the three others. On theoretical grounds, the fact that subjects have not acquired m...
Source: Neurocase - May 16, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Gheitury A, Ashraf V, Hashemi R Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Impact of (18)F-florbetapir PET imaging of β-amyloid neuritic plaque density on clinical decision-making.
We present 11 cases (age range 67-84) of cognitively impaired subjects in whom clinician surveys were done before and after PET scanning to document the theoretical impact of amyloid imaging on the diagnosis and treatment plan of cognitively impaired subjects. Subjects have been clinically followed for about 5 months after the PET scan. Negative scans occurred in five cases, leading to a change in diagnosis for four patients and a change in treatment plan for two of these cases. Positive scans occurred in six cases, leading to a change in diagnosis for four patients and a change in treatment plan for three of these cases. ...
Source: Neurocase - May 14, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Zannas AS, Doraiswamy PM, Shpanskaya KS, Murphy KR, Petrella JR, Burke JR, Wong TZ Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Taste and olfactory status in a gourmand with a right amygdala lesion.
G, Rolls ET Abstract In a patient with a lesion of the right amygdala and temporal pole who had the characteristics of the gourmand syndrome, sensory and hedonic testing was performed to examine the processing of taste, olfactory, and some emotional stimuli. The gourmand syndrome describes a preoccupation with food and a preference for fine eating and is associated with right anterior lesions. It was found that the taste thresholds for sweet, salt, bitter, and sour were normal; that the patient did not dislike the taste of salt (NaCl) at low and moderate concentrations as much as age-matched controls; that this al...
Source: Neurocase - May 13, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Gallo M, Gámiz F, Perez-García M, Del Moral RG, Rolls ET Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Frontal-executive constructional apraxia: When delayed recall is better than copying.
Abstract In assessments of visuospatial function and memory, patients are often required to copy a figure and later to reproduce that figure from memory. Whereas most people perform better on a copying task than when drawing from memory, in this study we describe an unusual pattern of performance in which patients are better at drawing from memory than copying. Consecutive patients in a neurocognitive disorders clinic were given a battery of clinical cognitive tests that included copying a figure of intersecting pentagons and then drawing the figure from memory. Patterns of drawing performance at the two time poin...
Source: Neurocase - April 15, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Roth HL, Bauer RM, Crucian GP, Heilman KM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
The Zeitraffer phenomenon, akinetopsia, and the visual perception of speed of motion: A case report.
Abstract The Zeitraffer phenomenon is the altered perception of the speed of moving objects. A single case is reported using the subject's own description of a transient alteration of the visual perception of motion. The literature on the subject is reviewed. The Zeitraffer phenomenon probably arises from dysfunction of brain networks subserving visual perception of speed. It shares characteristics with akinetopsia, the loss of visual ability to perceive motion. PMID: 23557277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - April 5, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Ovsiew F Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Praxis and writing in a right-hander with crossed aphasia.
We report a patient who illustrates this confound. This patient is a right-handed man who developed global aphasia and neglect after a right hemispheric stroke. His right hand remained deft, and when asked to produce specific transitive gestures (pantomimes), he often performed normally but did make some body part as object and perseverative errors. However, he did not demonstrate the temporal or spatial errors typical of ideomotor apraxia. He also had a perseverative agraphia. Our patient's left hemisphere praxis system appeared to be intact, and the error types demonstrated during production of transitive gestures cannot...
Source: Neurocase - April 5, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Falchook AD, Burtis DB, Acosta LM, Salazar L, Hedna VS, Khanna AY, Heilman KM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Controlling the alien hand through the mirror box. A single case study of Alien Hand Syndrome.
Abstract Disruption of motor control in the alien hand syndrome might result from a dissociation between intentions and sensory information. We hypothesized that voluntary motor control in this condition could improve by restoring the congruency between motor intentions and visual feedback. The present study shows that, in one patient with right alien hand syndrome, the use of a mirror box paradigm improved motor speed. We speculate that the visual feedback provided by the mirror increases the sense of congruence between intention and sensory feedback, leading to motor improvement. PMID: 23557374 [PubMed - as...
Source: Neurocase - April 5, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Romano D, Sedda A, Dell'aquila R, Dalla Costa D, Beretta G, Maravita A, Bottini G Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Color obsessions and phobias in autism spectrum disorders: The case of J.G.
Abstract The current study is the first investigation of color 'obsessions' and 'phobias' in ASD. We investigate the color perception and cognition of J.G., a boy with ASD who has a strong obsession with blue, and a strong phobia of other colors. J.G.'s performance on a series of color tasks (color-entity association; chromatic discrimination; color classification) is compared to 13 children with and without autism who do not have color obsessions or phobias. The findings lead to the formalization of two hypotheses: (i) color obsessions and phobias in individuals with ASD are related to an unusually strong ability...
Source: Neurocase - April 3, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Ludlow AK, Heaton P, Hill E, Franklin A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Distance-mediated spatial neglect.
We report on the case of a patient, EC, who showed severe USN in his everyday behavior, yet performed normally on standard tests for USN. Presented with stimuli in separate blocks, he performed flawlessly with 4 cm gaps between blocks, yet ignored all leftward blocks of stimuli when the gap was larger than this. EC's dissociation between good performance on standard tasks and severe neglect with separate groups of stimuli, and the distance-mediated nature of his USN are novel observations with relevant theoretical and clinical implications. PMID: 23548033 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - April 3, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Cubelli R, Della Sala S, Beschin N, McIntosh RD Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Loss of person-specific knowledge in Alzheimer's disease: Evidence from priming.
Abstract Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often more severe for items that are characterized by a unique semantic and lexical association, such as famous people. Whether these deficits are due to the degradation of semantic information or a deficit in the ability to intentionally access semantic knowledge remains controversial. To assess the integrity of the semantic system without explicitly accessing it, a priming paradigm was used. Semantic and repetition priming effects in individuals with AD (n = 7) and age-matched controls (n = 13) were measured in a familiarity j...
Source: Neurocase - April 3, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Predovan D, Gandini D, Montembeault M, Rouleau I, Bherer L, Joubert S, Brambati SM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Temporal lobe discharges and glossolalia.
Abstract Glossolalia (speaking in tongues) is a religious phenomenon of which there has been only limited scientific investigation. Described here is the case of a 44-year-old woman who had clonic jerking of the left forearm while speaking in tongues. Waking EEG while she was thinking of nothing in particular was normal. After several minutes of silently praying in tongues she manifested right temporal sharp wave discharges and may have been in a state resembling light sleep. Possible relationships between glossolalia, ecstatic religious phenomena, and temporal lobe electrical discharges are discussed. PMID: ...
Source: Neurocase - April 3, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Reeves RR, Kose S, Abubakr A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Cortical reorganization in multiple sclerosis after intrathecal baclofen therapy.
We reported a case of a woman affected by MS and severe spasticity, who performed an fMRI examination, before and after the ITB implantation. The subject showed controlateral motor cortex activation after motor task. After a month of ITB implantation, patient showed ipsilateral and controlateral motor cortex activation although with a broader extension. fMRI examination supported the hypothesis of a central influence in patients who undergo physiotherapy and therapy with ITB. PMID: 23548099 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - April 3, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Guerrera S, Morabito R, Baglieri A, Corallo F, Ciurleo R, De Luca R, De Salvo S, Marino MA, Spadaro L, Timpano F, Bramanti P, Marino S Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research