Autobiographical memory and the self in a single-case of chronic unilateral spatial neglect.
Abstract Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is mainly defined as a condition affecting perception and the mental representation of the environment. However, nothing is known about its impact on the ability to mentally represent one's past and on personal identity. We addressed these questions in a case of chronic USN, DR, a 59-year-old right-handed woman, who underwent a variety of measures exploring the self and autobiographical memory (AM). DR showed preserved self-images and her AM performance was only preserved when memories were prompted by her own self-images and not by self-unrelated cues. Our findings are di...
Source: Neurocase - April 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ernst A, Gourisse L, Wauquiez G, Souchay C Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Preserved processing of musical structure in a person with agrammatic aphasia.
Abstract Evidence for shared processing of structure (or syntax) in language and in music conflicts with neuropsychological dissociations between the two. However, while harmonic structural processing can be impaired in patients with spared linguistic syntactic abilities (Peretz, I. (1993). Auditory atonalia for melodies. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 10, 21-56. doi:10.1080/02643299308253455), evidence for the opposite dissociation-preserved harmonic processing despite agrammatism-is largely lacking. Here, we report one such case: HV, a former musician with Broca's aphasia and agrammatic speech, was impaired in makin...
Source: Neurocase - April 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Slevc LR, Faroqi-Shah Y, Saxena S, Okada BM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
A young-onset frontal dementia with dramatic calcifications due to a novel CSF1R mutation.
We present the case of a 33-year-old female with a 2-year rapid decline to dementia and immobility marked by personality change, executive deficits including compulsions, attention deficit, apraxia, Parkinsonism, and pyramidal signs. She had unique and dramatic calcifications and confluent white matter changes on imaging and was found to have a novel mutation in the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor gene causing adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP). Here, we review ALSP and briefly discuss differential diagnoses. PMID: 27092868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - April 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gore E, Manley A, Dees D, Appleby BS, Lerner AJ Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Depth perception disorder after left ventral occipital lobe infarction.
PMID: 26822936 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - January 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Tsuyusaki Y, Sakakibara R, Ogata T, Tateno F, Kishi M, Tateno H, Aiba Y Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Visual art therapy in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case study.
Abstract This paper describes the diagnostic and treatment utility of visual art therapy in a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Visual art therapy was compared longitudinally with clinical and neuroimaging data over five-month period in an autopsy-confirmed case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of MM2-cortical subtype. Art therapy sessions and content were useful in ascertaining neuropsychiatric symptoms during the course of her illness. Art therapy offered a unique emotional and cognitive outlet as illness progressed. Patients and families affected by sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may benefit ...
Source: Neurocase - January 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Shrestha R, Trauger-Querry B, Loughrin A, Appleby BS Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
"Cat-gras" delusion: a unique misidentification syndrome and a novel explanation.
"Cat-gras" delusion: a unique misidentification syndrome and a novel explanation. Neurocase. 2016 Jan 14;:1-6 Authors: Darby RR, Caplan D Abstract ABSRACT Capgras syndrome is a distressing delusion found in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases where a patient believes that a family member, friend, or loved one has been replaced by an imposter. Patients recognize the physical resemblance of a familiar acquaintance but feel that the identity of that person is no longer the same. Here we describe a 73-year-old male with right posterior frontal and bilateral anterior-medial frontal...
Source: Neurocase - January 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Darby RR, Caplan D Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Is better preservation of eccentric strength after stroke due to altered prefrontal function?
bekk CJ Abstract Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) is part of a network that exerts inhibitory control over the motor cortex (MC). Recently, we demonstrated that VLPFC was more activated during imagined maximum eccentric than during imagined concentric contractions in healthy participants. This was accompanied with lower activation levels within motor regions during imagined eccentric contractions. The aim was to test a novel hypothesis of an involvement of VLPFC in contraction mode-specific modulation of force. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine differences in VLPFC and motor regions ...
Source: Neurocase - January 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hedlund M, Lindström B, Sojka P, Lundström R, Boraxbekk CJ Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of post-stroke depression in aphasic patients: a case series.
ni AR Abstract Aphasia is a common consequence of stroke; it is estimated that about two-thirds of aphasic patients will develop depression in the first year after the stroke. Treatment of post-stroke depression (PSD) is challenging due to the adverse effects of pharmacotherapy and difficulties in evaluating clinical outcomes, including aphasia. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a novel treatment that may improve clinical outcomes in the traditionally pharmacotherapy-refractory PSD. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tDCS for patients with PSD and with aphasia. The Stroke Aphasic De...
Source: Neurocase - January 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Valiengo L, Casati R, Bolognini N, Lotufo PA, Benseñor IM, Goulart AC, Brunoni AR Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Progression of neuropsychiatric and cognitive features due to exons 2 to 5 deletion in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene: a case report.
We present a case of a 34-year-old woman with early childhood onset of myoclonic jerks, dystonic posture and developmental delay due to exons 2 to 5 deletion in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene. Over time, she developed neuropsychiatric symptoms. She underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus for her motor symptoms, which greatly improved but she exhibited slow deterioration of her neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, particularly apathy, aggression and severe executive dysfunction. PMID: 26652670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - December 11, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Multani N, Moro E, Lang A, Zurowski M, Duff Canning S, Tartaglia MC Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Wandering behavior of a severely demented patient with frontotemporal dementia.
This study analyzed data about the wandering behavior of a 77-year-old woman with severe frontotemporal dementia. Due to severe atrophy of the anterior cortex, she was totally unable to act spontaneously. Nevertheless, she walked with her husband every day. Her walking pattern varied on a daily basis but it appeared to be random. However, a mathematical analysis showed that her walking pattern was not random. Our case suggests that even patients with severe atrophy in the anterior cortex may be able to orient themselves within their neighborhood if their posterior cortex is preserved. PMID: 26645189 [PubMed - as suppl...
Source: Neurocase - December 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Midorikawa A, Suzuki H, Hiromitsu K, Kawamura M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Compensating arithmetic ability with derived fact strategies in Broca's aphasia: a case report.
Abstract We investigated derived fact strategy use in RR, an aphasic patient with severely impaired working memory (no phonological loop), and 16 neurologically healthy matched controls. Participants were tested on derived fact strategy use in multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. RR's accuracy only differed from controls in multiplication. He was as quick as controls in addition and subtraction when able to use the strategies, though significantly slower in addition, division, and multiplication without strategies. Our findings suggest the phonological loop is non-essential for multi-di...
Source: Neurocase - December 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Puvanendran K, Dowker A, Demeyere N Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Reward circuit DBS improves Parkinson's gait along with severe depression and OCD.
Abstract A 59-year-old Caucasian man with a past history of Parkinson's disease (PD) status post-bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), who also had treatment-resistant (TR) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and treatment-resistant depression (TRD), presented for further evaluation and management of his TR OCD. After an unsuccessful attempt to treat his OCD by reprogramming his existing STN DBS, he was offered bilateral ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) DBS surgery. In addition to the expected improvement in OCD symptoms, he experienced significant improvement in both PD-relate...
Source: Neurocase - December 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Williams NR, Hopkins TR, Short EB, Sahlem GL, Snipes J, Revuelta GJ, George MS, Takacs I Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
The spatial side of somatoparaphrenia: a case study.
Abstract The perception of the bodily self in space is a composite cognitive function requiring a dynamic integrated brain mechanism. Somatoparaphrenia (SP), a delusional belief concerning the experienced disownership for the contralesional paralyzed arm, represents the disruption of such mechanism. In two experiments, we have investigated the alteration of limb disownership after spatial manipulations in a right-brain-damaged patient affected by chronic SP. In experiment 1 the patient's spatial attention was switched between the left and right sides of space. SP signs worsened when the patient was interviewed fro...
Source: Neurocase - August 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Salvato G, Gandola M, Veronelli L, Agostoni EC, Sberna M, Corbo M, Bottini G Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Relearning knowledge for people in a case of right variant frontotemporal dementia.
, Crutch SJ Abstract Right variant frontotemporal dementia (Rvt-FTD) is a rare variant of FTD that usually presents with a progressive difficulty in recognizing familiar people. We aimed to determine whether rehabilitation of semantic knowledge for people improves recognition by both verbal and visual channels in a patient with Rvt-FTD. Knowledge for 21 famous people was assessed in a patient with Rvt-FTD before and after completing a semantic rehabilitation program. After rehabilitation recognition increased by 95% when presented with the famous people's names and related semantic facts, but only by 28% when pres...
Source: Neurocase - August 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Suárez-González A, Crutch SJ Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Neglect and extinction in kinesthesia and thesesthesia: understanding proprioceptive inattention.
Abstract This paper describes a new observation of neglect and extinction of kinesthesia and thesesthesia (movement and position imperception), jointly reflecting proprioceptive inattention, in a series of patients with parietal lesions. A prototypical case is discussed in detail and unaddressed aspects of proprioceptive inattention are discussed through findings from four additional cases. Thesesthetic and kinesthetic extinction were tested through simultaneous antidromic vertical displacement of index fingers, while having patients report on finger proprioceptive perception with eyes closed. Patients had variabl...
Source: Neurocase - August 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Karageorgiou E Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
White matter integrity, hippocampal volume, and cognitive performance of a world-famous nonagenarian track-and-field athlete.
Abstract Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with successful brain and cognitive aging. However, little is known about the effects of PA, CRF, and exercise on the brain in the oldest-old. Here we examined white matter (WM) integrity, measured as fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM hyperintensity (WMH) burden, and hippocampal (HIPP) volume of Olga Kotelko (1919-2014). Olga began training for competitions at age of 77 and as of June 2014 held over 30 world records in her age category in track-and-field. We found that Olga's WMH burden was larger and the HIPP was smaller than in th...
Source: Neurocase - August 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Burzynska AZ, Wong CN, Chaddock-Heyman L, Olson EA, Gothe NP, Knecht A, Voss MW, McAuley E, Kramer AF Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.
We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right ...
Source: Neurocase - July 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Sakurai Y, Hamada K, Tsugawa N, Sugimoto I Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Intermanual transfer in an artist with Parkinson's disease.
Abstract A professional right-handed painter with Parkinson's disease (PD) broke his right arm and continued to paint with his left hand, showing an intact intermanual transfer of skills. This neurocognitive process is related to the supplementary motor area, a brain region that has also been shown to be involved in PD. This observation raises questions about the exact neural underpinnings of intermanual transfer and the possible impact of neurodegenerative disease and medication. PMID: 26050705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - June 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kho KH, Janssen N Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Amyloid in dementia associated with familial FTLD: not an innocent bystander.
Abstract Patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) can show superimposed amyloid pathology, though the impact of amyloid on the clinical presentation of FTLD is not well characterized. This cross-sectional case-control study compared clinical features, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography metabolism and gray matter volume loss in 30 patients with familial FTLD in whom amyloid status was confirmed with autopsy or Pittsburgh compound B-PET. Compared to the amyloid-negative patients, the amyloid-positive patients performed significantly worse on several cognitive tests and showed hypometabolis...
Source: Neurocase - June 4, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Naasan G, Rabinovici GD, Ghosh P, Elofson JD, Miller BL, Coppola G, Karydas A, Fong J, Perry D, Lee SE, Yokoyama JS, Seeley WW, Kramer JH, Weiner MW, Schuff N, Jagust WJ, Grinberg LT, Pribadi M, Yang Z, Sears R, Klein E, Wojta K, Rosen HJ Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Anterior opercular syndrome induced by Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis.
We report a 19-year-old female presenting with fever, drooling, anarthria, and voluntary facial movement disruption, characteristic of anterior opercular syndrome (AOS). Serological examination revealed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection following acute encephalitis with severe ataxia. A single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) examination indicated hypoperfusion in the left perisylvian region, bilateral thalamus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum. This is the first report of AOS related to EBV encephalitis. SPECT was a useful method for detecting the damaged region of the operculum. In addition, AOS is a clinic...
Source: Neurocase - June 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Matsushima T, Nishioka K, Tanaka R, Yokoyama K, Hattori N Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.
A, Macoir J Abstract Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman...
Source: Neurocase - May 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Lavoie M, Routhier S, Légaré A, Macoir J Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Wilson's disease with cognitive impairment and without extrapyramidal signs: improvement of neuropsychological performance and reduction of MRI abnormalities with trientine treatment.
In this report, we describe a 49-year-old woman presenting with memory impairments and without Parkinsonian or extrapyramidal signs. She was diagnosed with WD based on the presence of Kayser-Fleischer rings around the irises of her eyes and two ATP7B gene mutations, R778L at exon 8 and A874V at exdyon 11. Serial magnetic resonance imaging analysis and neuropsychological tests showed improvements following treatment with trientine. PMID: 25988284 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - May 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Chung EJ, Kim EG, Kim SJ, Ji KH, Seo JH Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Eye movements as probes of lexico-semantic processing in a patient with primary progressive aphasia.
Abstract Eye movement trajectories during a verbally cued object search task were used as probes of lexico-semantic associations in an anomic patient with primary progressive aphasia. Visual search was normal on trials where the target object could be named but became lengthy and inefficient on trials where the object failed to be named. The abnormality was most profound if the noun denoting the object could not be recognized. Even trials where the name of the target object was recognized but not retrieved triggered abnormal eye movements, demonstrating that retrieval failures can have underlying associative compo...
Source: Neurocase - May 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Seckin M, Mesulam MM, Rademaker AW, Voss JL, Weintraub S, Rogalski EJ, Hurley RS Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Profound anterograde amnesia following routine anesthetic and dental procedure: a new classification of amnesia characterized by intermediate-to-late-stage consolidation failure?
Abstract Anterograde amnesia caused by bilateral hippocampal or diencephalon damage manifests in characteristic symptoms of preserved intellect and implicit learning, and short span of awareness with complete and rapid forgetting of episodic material. A new case, WO, 38-year-old male with anterograde amnesia, in the absence of structural brain changes or psychological explanation is presented, along with four comparison cases from the extant literature that share commonalities between them including preserved intellect, span of awareness greater than working memory, and complete forgetting within hours or days fol...
Source: Neurocase - May 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Burgess GH, Chadalavada B Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Polarity-dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Abstract About one third of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to experience significant clinical benefit from currently available treatments. Hyperactivity of the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) has been detected in OCD patients, but it is not clear whether it is the primary cause or a secondary compensatory mechanism in OCD pathophysiology. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with polarity-dependent effects on motor cortical excitability. A 33-year-old woman with treatment-resistant OCD received 20 daily consecutive 2 mA/20&nb...
Source: Neurocase - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: D'Urso G, Brunoni AR, Anastasia A, Micillo M, de Bartolomeis A, Mantovani A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Somatotopic mismatch of hand representation following stroke: is recovery possible?
Abstract Well-organized somatotopic representation of the hand is required to interpret input from cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Previous reports have identified patients with various distortions of somatotopic representation after stroke. Importantly, those patients were investigated years after the stroke, indicating that afferent signal regained access to the cortical circuits; however, further plastic changes, which would re-establish somatotopic order and ability to correctly localize tactile stimuli, did not follow. Thus, it was not known whether somatotopic organization could be restored in such patients and ...
Source: Neurocase - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Birznieks I, Logina I, Wasner G Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Mixed tau and TDP-43 pathology in a patient with unclassifiable primary progressive aphasia.
Abstract Classifying primary progressive aphasia (PPA) into variants that may predict the underlying pathology is important. However, some PPA patients cannot be classified. A 78-year-old woman had unclassifiable PPA characterized by anomia, dysarthria, and apraxia of speech without agrammatism. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed left mesial temporal atrophy and 18-flourodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography showed left anterior temporal and posterior frontal (premotor) hypometabolism. Autopsy revealed a mixed tauopathy (argyrophilic grain disease) and transactive response-DNA-binding-protein-43 proteinopath...
Source: Neurocase - May 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Flanagan EP, Duffy JR, Whitwell JL, Vemuri P, Dickson DW, Josephs KA Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Verbal emotional memory in a case with left amygdala damage.
Abstract The amygdala nuclei appear to be critically implicated in emotional memory. However, in most studies, encoding and consolidation processes cannot be analyzed separately. We thus studied the verbal emotional memory in a young woman with a ganglioglioma of the left amygdala and analyzed its impact (1) on each step of the memory process (encoding, retrieval, and recognition) (2) on short- and long-term consolidation (1-hour and 1-week delay) and (3) on processing of valence (positive and negative items compared to neutral words). Results showed emotional encoding impairments and, after encoding was controlle...
Source: Neurocase - April 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Claire MD, Sophie D, Claudia P, Philippe M, Eliane RP Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Spatial neglect in a patient with logopenic progressive aphasia.
Abstract Spatial neglect and extinction are induced by posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal dysfunction. In patients with logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA) these structures are often degenerated, but there are no reports of these disorders being associated. A 53-year-old man with the signs of LPA revealed right-sided spatial neglect on line bisection and drawing tests as well as multimodal extinction. MRI showed left hemispheric posterior temporoparietal atrophy. Since injury to the core structures for these aphasic and attentional syndromes overlaps, patients with LPA should be screened for spatial...
Source: Neurocase - April 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zilli EM, Heilman KM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Impaired executive functioning after left anterior insular stroke: a case report.
We present the case of a woman with an acute left anterior insular infarction leading to executive (i.e., word and design fluency, mental flexibility, sustained attention, inhibitory control), but not language, visuoperceptual, or memory impairment. This case confirms the left anterior insula's involvement in executive functioning and suggests that an infarction may result in executive impairment. PMID: 25537237 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - December 30, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Markostamou I, Rudolf J, Tsiptsios I, Kosmidis MH Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Processing past tense in the left cerebellum.
We report the case of a patient with ischemic lesion of the left cerebellum, who showed specific deficits in processing past versus future tense of action verbs. These findings confirm, in the presence of cerebellar damage, previous results obtained with transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects and suggest a specificity of the left cerebellum for preparation of responses to the past tense of action verbs. As part of the procedural brain, the cerebellum could play a role in applying the linguistic rules for selection of morphemes typical of past and future tense formation. PMID: 25537238 [PubMed - in proce...
Source: Neurocase - December 30, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Mangano GR, Turriziani P, Bonnì S, Caltagirone C, Oliveri M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Neural bases of event knowledge and syntax integration in comprehension of complex sentences.
Abstract Comprehension of complex sentences is necessarily supported by both syntactic and semantic knowledge, but what linguistic factors trigger a readers' reliance on a specific system? This functional neuroimaging study orthogonally manipulated argument plausibility and verb event type to investigate cortical bases of the semantic effect on argument comprehension during reading. The data suggest that telic verbs facilitate online processing by means of consolidating the event schemas in episodic memory and by easing the computation of syntactico-thematic hierarchies in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The resu...
Source: Neurocase - December 20, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Malaia E, Newman S Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Degree of abnormality is associated with rate of change in measures of beta-amyloid, glucose metabolism and cognition in an autopsy-verified Alzheimer's disease case.
Abstract The degree of abnormality and rate of change in cognitive functions, positron emission tomography Pittsburg compound B (PET PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measures were studied for 8 years in an autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient, who died 61 years old (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 7). At first encounter with medical care, the patient was very mildly demented (MMSE score 27). She had four cognitive assessments and two examinations with PET PIB and FDG in 23 bilateral brain regions. The onset of cognitive decline was retrospectively estimated to have started in the early f...
Source: Neurocase - December 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Almkvist O, Kadir A, Nordberg A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Nonvisual spatial navigation fMRI lateralizes mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in a patient with congenital blindness.
We report on an exceptional case of a congenitally blind woman with late-onset left MTLE undergoing presurgical memory fMRI. To activate mesial temporal structures despite the lack of visual memory, the patient was requested to recall familiar routes using nonvisual multisensory and verbal cues. Our findings demonstrate the diagnostic value of a nonvisual fMRI task to lateralize MTLE despite congenital blindness and may therefore contribute to the risk assessment for postsurgical amnesia in rare cases with refractory MTLE and accompanying congenital blindness. PMID: 25485743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - December 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Toller G, Adhimoolam B, Grunwald T, Huppertz HJ, König K, Jokeit H Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Impairments in an early stage of the decision-making process in patients with ventromedial prefrontal damage: preliminary results.
tbrod K Abstract Lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex can result in a deficient decision-making behavior. So far, most experimental results in the neuropsychological decision-making research have been obtained with gambling tasks. Due to their high complexity, it is difficult to evaluate the underlying processes of the decision-making deficits. The aim of this study was to assess if patients with ventromedial prefrontal damage compared to patients with dorsolateral prefrontal damage and controls show a deficit in an early stage of the decision-making process. Nine patients with ventromedial prefrontal dam...
Source: Neurocase - August 1, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Eggen C, Huber O, Bär A, Huber OW, Perrig WJ, Müri R, Gutbrod K Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Global attentional neglect of segmented lines in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Global attention requires disengagement from focal elements of stimuli. Since people with Parkinson's disease (PD) may reveal impaired disengagement, this study attempted to learn if people with PD may be impaired at allocating global attention. Healthy adults and people with PD attempted to bisect lines of uniform thickness and lines composed of two segments of unequal thickness and length. When the longer line segment was to the right of the shorter segment, the group with PD demonstrated an increased deviation toward the longer segment, supporting the postulate that people with PD have an impaired abil...
Source: Neurocase - July 30, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Falchook AD, Salazar L, Neal D, Kesayan T, Williamson JB, Malaty IA, McFarland NR, Okun MS, Rodriguez RL, Wagle Shukla A, Heilman KM Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Psychiatric misdiagnoses in Dandy-Walker variant.
Abstract Cases of intellectual impairment and aberrant behavior in patients with cerebellar diseases have been described since the early nineteenth century. Here, we report on a patient suffering from Dandy-Walker variant who presented with symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder and delusional disorder. The current findings emphasize the potential relevance of focal cerebellar lesions as organic correlates of these disorders. PMID: 25058305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - July 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Blaettner C, Pfaffenberger NM, Cartes-Zumelzu F, Hofer A Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Tonic and phasic alertness training: a novel treatment for executive control dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury.
Abstract Many individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) suffer difficulty regulating fundamental aspects of attention (focus, sustained attention) and may also exhibit hypo- or hyper-states of alertness. Deficits in the state of attention may underlie or exacerbate higher order executive dysfunction. Recent studies indicate that computerized cognitive training targeting attentional control and alertness can ameliorate attention deficits evident in patients with TBI or acquired brain injury. The current study examined whether improvements in attentional state following training can also influence performance on...
Source: Neurocase - July 1, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Van Vleet TM, Chen A, Vernon A, Novakovic-Agopian T, D'Esposito MT Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Ipsilesional and contralesional regions participate in the improvement of poststroke aphasia: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.
In this study, a dual transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on anterior and posterior language areas was applied for 2 weeks to a patient with a possible crossed aphasia following a right hemisphere stroke. Inhibitory cathodal stimulation of the right Brodmann areas (BA) 44/45 and simultaneous anodal stimulation of the left BA 44/45 improved the patient's performance in picture naming. Conversely, the same bilateral montage on BA 39/40 did not produce any significant improvement; finally, electrode polarity inversion over BA 39/40 yielded a further improvement compared with the first anterior stimulation. Our find...
Source: Neurocase - June 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Costa V, Giglia G, Brighina F, Indovino S, Fierro B Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Anarchic hand with abnormal agency following right inferior parietal lobe damage: a case report.
We report a case of AHS following right-hemisphere parietal damage, with left-sided somatosensory and proprioceptive impairment. Agency was examined for nonanarchic (volitional) movements performed using the anarchic hand. The patient experienced abnormal agency for movements whether motor intention and visual feedback were congruent or incongruent, but not when intention was absent (passive movement). Findings suggest a general disturbance of veridical motor awareness and agency in this case of parietal AHS. PMID: 24898941 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - June 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Jenkinson PM, Edelstyn NM, Preston C, Ellis SJ Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Different levels of implicit emotional recognition in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA).
In this study, we investigated three levels of visual recognition in both a female patient with PCA and a control group during the presentation of neutral, positive, and negative affective stimuli. Our results confirmed the profile of impaired explicit recognition and intact psychophysiological responses in the patient. In addition, she was able to implicitly recognize the valence and intensity of arousal of these stimuli. We suggest that implicit emotional awareness may mediates explicit and psychophysiological recognition in PCA. PMID: 24874521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocase)
Source: Neurocase - May 30, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Gonzalez-Gadea ML, Ibanez A, Damm J, Ramirez Romero DA, Abrevaya S, Manes F, Richly P, Roca M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
A blind human expert echolocator shows size constancy for objects perceived by echoes.
Abstract Some blind humans make clicking noises with their mouth and use the reflected echoes to perceive objects and surfaces. This technique can operate as a crude substitute for vision, allowing human echolocators to perceive silent, distal objects. Here, we tested if echolocation would, like vision, show size constancy. To investigate this, we asked a blind expert echolocator (EE) to echolocate objects of different physical sizes presented at different distances. The EE consistently identified the true physical size of the objects independent of distance. In contrast, blind and blindfolded sighted controls did...
Source: Neurocase - May 29, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Milne JL, Anello M, Goodale MA, Thaler L Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Emotional evaluation and memory in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.
Abstract Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) affects emotional evaluation, but less is known regarding the patients' ability to remember emotional stimuli. Here, bvFTD patients and age-matched controls studied positive, negative, and neutral pictures followed by a recognition memory test. Compared to controls, bvFTD patients showed a reduction in emotional evaluation of negative scenes, but not of positive or neutral scenes. Additionally, the patients showed an overall reduction in recognition memory accuracy, due to impaired recollection in the face of relatively preserved familiarity. These result...
Source: Neurocase - May 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: St Jacques PL, Grady C, Davidson PS, Chow TW Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Unawareness of bipolar disorder: the role of the cingulate cortex.
Abstract Reduced awareness of illness is a well-known phenomenon that has been understudied in remitted patients with bipolar disorder. In particular, the relationship between reduced awareness and executive dysfunction is an intriguing question that has yet to be resolved. The aim of the current study is to analyze the link between reduced awareness, brain dysfunction, and concomitant cognitive-behavioral disturbances from a neurocognitive perspective. In previous studies, we demonstrated the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the unawareness of distinct pathologies that exhibit overlapping symptoms i...
Source: Neurocase - May 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Palermo S, Cauda F, Costa T, Duca S, Gallino G, Geminiani G, Keller R, Amanzio M Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Phonological, lexical, and semantic errors produced by impairment at the output buffer in a Spanish aphasic patient.
We present a single case of a right-handed female patient, RH, who was categorized as suffering from conduction aphasia. She presented no articulatory problems during spontaneous speech but made a significant number of phonological paraphasias in naming and repetition tasks. The number of errors increased for long words and pseudowords. This pattern of results points to damage in the "Phonological Output Buffer" (POB) as the basis of this disorder. However, this patient did not make mistakes when reading words and pseudowords aloud, even when we introduced a delay between the presentation of the word and its prod...
Source: Neurocase - May 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Dominguez A, Socas R, Marrero H, León NM, Cuetos F Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research