Mid-Epidemic Forecasts of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths: A Bivariate Model Applied to the UK
CONCLUSIONS: Many applications of phenomenological models have been to complete epidemics. However, evaluation of such models based simply on their fit to observed data may give only a partial picture, and cross validation against actual trends is also valuable. Similarly, it may be preferable to model incidence rather than cumulative data, although this raises questions about suitable error densities for modelling often erratic fluctuations. Hence, there may be utility in evaluating alternative error assumptions.PMID:33628235 | PMC:PMC7881738 | DOI:10.1155/2021/8847116 (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Congdon Source Type: research

Association between Clinical Characteristics and Laboratory Findings with Outcome of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Report from Northeast Iran
Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 5;2021:5552138. doi: 10.1155/2021/5552138. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first discovered in December 2019 in China and has rapidly spread worldwide. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and their association with the outcome of patients with COVID-19 can be decisive in management and early diagnosis. Data were obtained retrospectively from medical records of 397 hospitalized COVID-19 patients between February and May 2020 in Imam Reza Hospital, northeast Iran. Clinical and laboratory features were evaluated among survivors and nonsurviv...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sahar Sobhani Reihaneh Aryan Elham Kalantari Salman Soltani Nafise Malek Parisa Pirzadeh Amir Yarahmadi Atena Aghaee Source Type: research

Mid-Epidemic Forecasts of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths: A Bivariate Model Applied to the UK
CONCLUSIONS: Many applications of phenomenological models have been to complete epidemics. However, evaluation of such models based simply on their fit to observed data may give only a partial picture, and cross validation against actual trends is also valuable. Similarly, it may be preferable to model incidence rather than cumulative data, although this raises questions about suitable error densities for modelling often erratic fluctuations. Hence, there may be utility in evaluating alternative error assumptions.PMID:33628235 | PMC:PMC7881738 | DOI:10.1155/2021/8847116 (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Congdon Source Type: research

Association between Clinical Characteristics and Laboratory Findings with Outcome of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Report from Northeast Iran
Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 5;2021:5552138. doi: 10.1155/2021/5552138. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first discovered in December 2019 in China and has rapidly spread worldwide. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and their association with the outcome of patients with COVID-19 can be decisive in management and early diagnosis. Data were obtained retrospectively from medical records of 397 hospitalized COVID-19 patients between February and May 2020 in Imam Reza Hospital, northeast Iran. Clinical and laboratory features were evaluated among survivors and nonsurviv...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sahar Sobhani Reihaneh Aryan Elham Kalantari Salman Soltani Nafise Malek Parisa Pirzadeh Amir Yarahmadi Atena Aghaee Source Type: research

Mid-Epidemic Forecasts of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths: A Bivariate Model Applied to the UK
CONCLUSIONS: Many applications of phenomenological models have been to complete epidemics. However, evaluation of such models based simply on their fit to observed data may give only a partial picture, and cross validation against actual trends is also valuable. Similarly, it may be preferable to model incidence rather than cumulative data, although this raises questions about suitable error densities for modelling often erratic fluctuations. Hence, there may be utility in evaluating alternative error assumptions.PMID:33628235 | PMC:PMC7881738 | DOI:10.1155/2021/8847116 (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Congdon Source Type: research

Association between Clinical Characteristics and Laboratory Findings with Outcome of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Report from Northeast Iran
Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 5;2021:5552138. doi: 10.1155/2021/5552138. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first discovered in December 2019 in China and has rapidly spread worldwide. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and their association with the outcome of patients with COVID-19 can be decisive in management and early diagnosis. Data were obtained retrospectively from medical records of 397 hospitalized COVID-19 patients between February and May 2020 in Imam Reza Hospital, northeast Iran. Clinical and laboratory features were evaluated among survivors and nonsurviv...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sahar Sobhani Reihaneh Aryan Elham Kalantari Salman Soltani Nafise Malek Parisa Pirzadeh Amir Yarahmadi Atena Aghaee Source Type: research

Mid-Epidemic Forecasts of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths: A Bivariate Model Applied to the UK
CONCLUSIONS: Many applications of phenomenological models have been to complete epidemics. However, evaluation of such models based simply on their fit to observed data may give only a partial picture, and cross validation against actual trends is also valuable. Similarly, it may be preferable to model incidence rather than cumulative data, although this raises questions about suitable error densities for modelling often erratic fluctuations. Hence, there may be utility in evaluating alternative error assumptions.PMID:33628235 | PMC:PMC7881738 | DOI:10.1155/2021/8847116 (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Congdon Source Type: research

Intestinal Parasites Infection in Children with Cancer in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran.
Conclusion: Blastocystis and Endolimax nana are the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasitic protozoans that infect individuals admitted to Baqaei2 Hospital of Ahvaz, Iran. Since parasitic intestinal infections in immunocompromised patients lead to fatal diarrhea, children with parasitic infections must be carefully identified and treated. PMID: 33424965 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Modeling the Effects of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions on COVID-19 Spread in Kenya.
Authors: Gathungu DK, Ojiambo VN, Kimathi MEM, Mwalili SM Abstract Mathematical modeling of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Kenya is presented. A susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) compartment model is considered with additional compartments of hospitalized population whose condition is severe or critical and the fatality compartment. The basic reproduction number (R 0) is computed by the next-generation matrix approach and later expressed as a time-dependent function so as to incorporate the NPIs into the model. The resulting system of ordinary differential eq...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Study of Lophomonas blattarum Infection in Kidney Transplant Patients in Mashhad City, Iran.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that L. blattarum should be considered as a pathogenic agent in kidney transplant recipients. It is necessary to examine sputum samples in posttransplant pneumonia patients, especially in those resistant to antibacterial therapy. PMID: 33381171 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Nasal Carriage by Staphylococcus aureus among Healthcare Workers and Students Attending a University Hospital in Southern Brazil: Prevalence, Phenotypic, and Molecular Characteristics.
Conclusion: High prevalence of healthcare workers and students were identified as nasal carriers of S. aureus exhibiting different antimicrobial resistance profiles, including mecA-positive oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (OS-MRSA) and the presence of virulence-encoding genes. Both cohorts may represent potential sources for the emergence of a successful S. aureus strain highly adapted to the hospital environment. PMID: 33343658 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Fungal Infection among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Individuals in Nepal.
This study aimed to investigate the status of fungal infection in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Materials and Methods: A total of 670 samples were collected from 134 participants. From each participant, five samples were collected from different sites like an oral wash, toe swab, midstream urine, hair shaft, and nail scrapings. All samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Gram stain was used to observe yeast cells and lactophenol cotton blue stain was used for hyphae. Chlamydospore production by Candida species was observed in cornmeal agar medium by Dalmau Plate method. Candida spe...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Level of Knowledge and Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Mining Area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.
Authors: Margonari C, Menezes JA, Mayr de Lima Carvalho G, Miranda JB, Furtado de Sousa F, Rêgo FD, Campos AM, Monteiro CC, Madureira AP, Andrade Filho JD Abstract Aiming to optimize and adjust leishmaniasis prevention and control measures for the resident population of Pains, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a structured questionnaire containing conceptual questions and questions about household characteristics was used to evaluate knowledge level and exposure risk. A total of 396 individuals were interviewed revealing unscientific and fragmented knowledge about the subject for most of the studied population. ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of Serum Interleukin 6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, and Interferon-Gamma Levels in Relation to Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in HIV Seropositive Pregnant Women Coinfected with Malaria.
Authors: Chukwuagwu IU, Ukibe NR, Ogbu II, Ikimi CG, Agu VO, Kalu OA, Ukibe SN, Awalu JC Abstract Malaria and HIV are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Both diseases are highly endemic and have a wide geographic overlap with severe impact on pregnancy. This was a case-control study designed to evaluate the levels of interleukin -6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and their relationship with some anthropometric indices such as body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure in HIV-malaria coinfected women attending antenatal c...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus and Its Association with Other Sexually Transmitted Coinfection among Sexually Active Women from the Northeast of Brazil.
Conclusion: The findings suggest that the presence of T. vaginalis can contribute to HPV infection, and HPV/IST association may influence the development of cervical intraepithelial lesions that are precursors of cervical cancer. PMID: 33178264 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Mutations Associated with Rifampicin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Moroccan Patients: Systematic Review.
Conclusion: Identification of a resistance-associated mutation to rifampicin can be a good marker of drug-resistant TB, but lack of a mutation in the target sequence must be interpreted with caution. PMID: 33133185 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Review of the Urinary Schistosomiasis Control in Morocco (1960-2018).
Authors: Balahbib A, Amarir F, Bouhout S, Rhajaoui M, Adlaoui E, Sadak A Abstract The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological profile and evolution of urinary schistosomiasis in Morocco, from the first confirmed case in 1960 until disease elimination, and control snails. During this period, 129,526 cases were recorded in Morocco. A majority of cases were reported in Agadir province (25%), Errachidia (18%), and Beni Mellal (13%). Other cases have been reported in the other provinces. Activities within the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme for more than three decades were focused in priori o...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Associated Factors in Areka Town, South Ethiopia, 2018.
Conclusions: The prevalence of active trachoma in the children aged 1-9 years in the study area was found to be high, and it is much higher than the WHO elimination threshold. PMID: 33123195 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serological Evidence of Rickettsia Exposure among Patients with Unknown Fever Origin in Angola, 2016-2017.
Authors: Barradas PF, Neto Z, Mateus TL, Teodoro AC, Duarte L, Gonçalves H, Ferreira P, Gärtner F, Sousa R, Amorim I Abstract Spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) is one among the aetiologies that cause fever of unknown origin in Angola. Despite their occurrence, there is little information about its magnitude in this country either because it is misdiagnosed or due to the lack of diagnostic resources. For this purpose, eighty-seven selected malaria- and yellow fever-negative serum specimens collected between February 2016 and March 2017 as part of the National Laboratory of Febrile Syndromes, from pat...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - September 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Utility of Platelet Indices in Predicting Multiorgan Dysfunction in Scrub Typhus.
Authors: Vijayakumar S, Viswanathan S, Jain D Abstract Platelet indices have been used to diagnose and prognosticate infections such as tuberculosis, malaria, dengue, and septic shock. Platelet indices have previously not been used in the prediction of multiorgan dysfunction (MODS) in patients with scrub typhus. A three-year retrospective review of patient charts was performed. Patients with and without MODS were compared. Platelet indices and other clinical and laboratory variables were used in logistic regression analysis to determine significant predictors. A ROC curve was generated with the platelet indices to ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - August 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Falciparum Malaria in Febrile Patients at Sentinel Sites for Influenza Surveillance in the Central African Republic from 2015 to 2018.
This study therefore aimed to characterize malaria in the network of sentinel sites set up for influenza surveillance. A retrospective analysis was conducted to explore the data from these sentinel sites from 2015 to 2018. The Paracheck-Pf® rapid diagnosis test kit was used to screen for malaria in febrile illness cases. A total of 3609 malaria cases were identified in 5397 febrile patients, giving an incidence rate of 66.8%. The age group of 1-4 years was the most affected by malaria (76.0%). Moreover, prevalence varied across different sentinel sites, with the Bossembele Health Center, located in a rural area, showin...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - August 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Thematic Maps of the Impact of Urbanization and Socioeconomic Factors on the Distribution of the Incidence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Cases in Sefrou Province, Central North of Morocco (2007-2011).
Conclusion: This study may be useful for the implementation of future adequate measures and controls. Getting rid of leishmaniasis requires a comprehensive approach by acting on the sources of contamination through good continuous surveillance, appropriate management, effective vector control, and awareness-raising strategies. PMID: 32733551 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - August 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Risk Factors Associated with Leishmaniasis in the Most Affected Provinces by Leishmania infantum in Morocco.
This study concerned nine provinces located in the extreme and central north of Morocco (Taounate, Taza, Chefchaouen, Al Hoceima, Larache, Tétouane, Tanger-Assilah, M'diq-Fnideq, and Fahs-Anjra Provinces). In this work, leishmaniasis cases (VL and CL) were subjected to an epidemiological study which was performed using a linear regression model to identify the impact as well as the interaction between all predictor variables on the distribution of leishmaniasis in this region. Results: During the period 1997-2018, a total of 6 128 cases of VL and CL were recorded in the study area. Our results showed that among ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis among High-Risk Individuals in Morocco.
Conclusion: Individuals engaged in risk activities are often exposed to leptospiral infection. Therefore, control and prevention policies toward these populations are necessary. PMID: 32565788 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Coinfection of Strongyloides stercoralis and Aspergillus sp.
Conclusion. The case highlights the features of concomitant infection of S. stercoralis and Aspergillus in immunocompromised patients and the importance of screening patients for strongyloidiasis before initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID: 32565789 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

In Search of Risk Factors for Recurrent Erysipelas and Cellulitis of the Lower Limb: A Cross-Sectional Study of Epidemiological Characteristics of Patients Hospitalized due to Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections.
Conclusions: Patients with lymphedema and obesity should be viewed at high risk of developing recurrence of erysipelas and thus should be considered as candidates for antibiotic prophylaxis and other prevention methods. Minor local trauma directly preceding the skin infection does not by itself confer a higher risk for erysipelas recurrence. More research is needed to assess the association of recurrent skin and soft-tissue infection to preceding minor local trauma, individual components of the metabolic syndrome, and COPD. PMID: 32454817 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Predictors of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers Working in Madda Walabu University, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
This study was aimed at determining the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers working in Madda Walabu University, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 15 May to 10 June 2017 among 198 symptom-free food handlers. Data on sociodemographic variables were collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Stool samples were collected immediately after the interview using labeled wide-mouthed plastic container and clean wooden applicator. Direct wet-mount method and formal-ether concentration techniques were performed to identify ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cartography and Epidemiological Study of Leishmaniasis Disease in Sefrou Province (2007-2010), Central North of Morocco.
This study presents the epidemiological profile of the provincial population, aims at analyzing the epidemiological profile, and in particular, spatiotemporal follow-up of all cases of leishmaniasis. It is a retrospective analysis of leishmaniasis cases recorded between 2007 and 2010. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 20). Over a four-year period, from 2007 to 2010, there were 62 cases of leishmaniasis, 93.12% of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and 6.87% of visceral leishmaniasis. The case number of leishmaniasis in the Province of Sefrou varies between 0.165% and 0.0018%. For each type of leishmaniasis, th...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Impact of Urbanization and Socioeconomic Factors on the Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Center of Morocco.
Conclusion: Our results show that the CL affects the majority of the municipalities with predominance of the urban environment, so the distribution of cases of this pathology is not influenced by the poverty; however, the urbanization and the number of inhabitants have a positive impact on the distribution of this scourge. PMID: 32377183 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) Genotypes among Multidrug-Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from a Teaching Hospital of Nepal.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the burden of antimicrobial resistance and occurrence of ESBL genes among clinical isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli at a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal. During the study period, we processed a total of 1,626 urinary tract specimens, isolated significant bacterial pathogens, and investigated their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Escherichia coli (n = 154), the predominant pathogen associated with UTI, was further investigated for the existence of ESBL enzymes by using conventional phenotypic as well as molecular approaches. Among suspected cases of UTI...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Modelling the Transmission Dynamics of Tuberculosis in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.
Authors: Mettle FO, Osei Affi P, Twumasi C Abstract Mathematical models can aid in elucidating the spread of infectious disease dynamics within a given population over time. In an attempt to model tuberculosis (TB) dynamics among high-burden districts in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, the SEIR epidemic model with demography was employed within both deterministic and stochastic settings for comparison purposes. The deterministic model showed success in modelling TB infection in the region to the transmission dynamics of the stochastic SEIR model over time. It predicted tuberculosis dying out in ten of twelve high-burd...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - April 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Effects of Lysozyme, Proteinase K, and Cephalosporins on Biofilm Formation by Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Authors: Eladawy M, El-Mowafy M, El-Sokkary MMA, Barwa R Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can form biofilms, which confer resistance to immune clearance and antibacterial treatment. Therefore, effective strategies to prevent biofilm formation are warranted. Here, 103 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were quantitatively screened for biofilm formation ability via the tissue culture plate method. The effects of lysozyme (hydrolytic enzyme) and proteinase K (protease) on biofilm formation were evaluated at different concentrations. Lysozyme (30 μg/mL), but not proteinase K, sig...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of Escherichia Coli and Its Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles among Patients with UTI at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
Conclusion: Escherichia coli, the predominant uropathogen, showed significant multidrug resistance to antibiotics commonly prescribed for the management of UTIs. These findings should form a basis for preliminary decision making on the appropriate line of treatment for UTIs.Escherichia coli isolates were highly susceptible to cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (100%) and nitrofurantoin (70%) but showed high resistance to cefuroxime (100%), ceftazidime (100%), nalidixic acid (90%), and ciprofloxacin (90%). PMID: 32076437 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Markov Chain Modeling of HIV, Tuberculosis, and Hepatitis B Transmission in Ghana.
Authors: Twumasi C, Asiedu L, Nortey ENN Abstract Several mathematical and standard epidemiological models have been proposed in studying infectious disease dynamics. These models help to understand the spread of disease infections. However, most of these models are not able to estimate other relevant disease metrics such as probability of first infection and recovery as well as the expected time to infection and recovery for both susceptible and infected individuals. That is, most of the standard epidemiological models used in estimating transition probabilities (TPs) are not able to generalize the transition esti...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Rubella Transmission in Kuyu District, Ethiopia, 2018: A Case-Control Study.
Authors: Abdulkadir A, Gebrehiwot TT Abstract Background: Rubella is a vaccine-preventable disease associated with a significant morbidity and adverse pregnancy outcomes, mainly if acquired in the first trimester of pregnancy with serious consequences to the fetus. Despite increased episodes of rubella epidemics (127 outbreaks in 2009-2015), rubella national vaccination is not yet introduced in Ethiopia. In January 2018, an increase of fever and rash cases was reported in Kuyu District of Oromia. We investigated the outbreak to confirm rubella, determine risk factors, and guide interventions. Methods: We identi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - October 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Predictors of Major Bleeding and Mortality in Dengue Infection: A Retrospective Observational Study in a Tertiary Care Centre in South India.
Authors: John KJ, Gunasekaran K, Prasad JD, Mathew D, Das S, Sultan N, Abraham AM, Iyyadurai R Abstract We conducted a retrospective observational study to describe the clinical profile and outcomes of patients admitted with a diagnosis of dengue fever in a tertiary hospital in South India. A total of 159 patients admitted from April 2014 to October 2018 were included in the study. Vomiting (70.4%), myalgia (60.4%), headache (42.1%), abdominal pain (38.4%), bleeding (38%), and rash (37.1%) were the most common symptoms at presentation. The mean duration of hospital stay was 4.9 days (SD ± 2.4),...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Pathology of A(H5N8) (Clade 2.3.4.4) Virus in Experimentally Infected Chickens and Mice.
We report the identification of novel HPAIV A(H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4 virus that was isolated from sick domestic duck at commercial farm during the second wave of spread that began in October and affected poultry (ducks; chiсkens) in several European regions of Russia and Western Siberia in 2016. The strain was highly lethal in experimental infection of chickens and mice with IVPI = 2.34 and MLD50 = 1.3log10⁡ EID50, accordingly. Inoculation of chickens with the HPAIV A/H5N8 demonstrated neuroinvasiveness, multiorgan failure, and death of chickens on the 3rd day post inoculation. Virus replicated in all collected organ sam...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Herpes Virus Type 8 (HHV-8), Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1), and Syphilis among Female Sex Workers in Malindi, Kenya.
Authors: Nzivo MM, Lwembe RM, Odari EO, Kang'ethe JM, Budambula NLM Abstract The prevalence of Human Herpes Virus type 8 (HHV-8), Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis is high in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studies on HHV-8 in Kenya are few and data on its coinfection with HIV and syphilis scanty. This cross-sectional study among female sex workers (FSWs) in Malindi, Kenya, aimed to determine the prevalence of HHV-8, HIV, and syphilis mono/coinfections and identify associated risk factors. A total of 268 FSWs consented and were administered a structured questionnaire and screened for antibodies against HHV-8, HI...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Total Delay in Treatment of Tuberculosis and Associated Factors among New Pulmonary TB Patients in Selected Health Facilities of Gedeo Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2017/18.
Conclusions: There was higher median total delay in treatment of TB (60 days) and an overall prevalence of 50.9% unacceptable/longer total delay in treatment of TB. Female gender, rural residence, not attending formal education, visiting nonformal health facility as first health care seeking, having poor knowledge of TB, and having antibiotic treatment before TB diagnosis were identified as independent significant associated factors. PMID: 31275370 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Awareness and Malaria Prevention Practices in a Rural Community in the Ho Municipality, Ghana.
In this study, we examined the awareness of malaria prevention practices among indigenes of Godokpe, a rural community in the Ho Municipality of Ghana. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey that used a self-developed questionnaire recruited 246 residents of Godokpe who were aged 18 years and above using a systematic sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze data into descriptive and analytical statistics. The descriptive statistics comprised frequency, percentage, and means. Also, analytical statistics of cross tabulation was conducted considering a p
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - June 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Assessing the Impact of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) on Tuberculosis Incidence and Predictors of Tuberculosis among Adult Patients Enrolled on ART in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
Conclusion: Isoniazid preventive therapy use was associated with significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence, even in the absence of Tuberculin Skin Test (TST). Therefore, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) coverage should be used more widely, with special emphasis given to patients at higher risk of tuberculosis. The study shows that the absence of TST testing should not be a limitation. PMID: 31186628 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - June 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Current Perspectives on Treatment of Gram-Positive Infections in India: What Is the Way Forward?
Authors: Kulkarni AP, Nagvekar VC, Veeraraghavan B, Warrier AR, Ts D, Ahdal J, Jain R Abstract The emerging antimicrobial resistance leading to gram-positive infections (GPIs) is one of the major public health threats worldwide. GPIs caused by multidrug resistant bacteria can result in increased morbidity and mortality rates along with escalated treatment cost and hospitalisation stay. In India, GPIs, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence among invasive S. aureus isolates, have been reported to increase exponentially from 29% in 2009 to 47% in 2014. Apart from MRSA, rising preva...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Utilization of Insecticide Treated Bed Nets (ITNs) among Caregivers of Children under Five Years in the Ho Municipality.
In this study, we examined the utilisation of ITN among caregivers of children under five years in Ho municipality of Ghana. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study recruited 283 household representatives through a multistage sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and was analyzed using STATA version 14. Descriptive and inferential statistics were adopted in presenting the data. Results: Ownership of ITN was higher (80.7%) than its utilisation (41.7%). The age of caregiver was strongly associated with the utilisation of ITN (AOR=2.00, 95% CI=0.00, 0.02, p
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Channa striata (Ikan Gabus) Extract and the Acceleration of Tuberculosis Treatment: A True Experimental Study.
The objective of the study is to determine the effect of Channa striata extract toward the acceleration of tuberculosis treatment. The study used true experiment, in which the intervention of the study was Channa striata supplementation to respondent. In addition, Chi-square was used to analyze the data with SPSS version 22. The result is the proportion of respondent classified in negative category in intervention group within week 0, week 1, week 2, week 3, and week 4 being 10.7%, 35.9%, 56.3%, 70.9%, and 90.3%, respectively. Besides, the proportion of respondent classified in negative category in control group within wee...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - April 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Biofilm Formation in Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus spp.
Authors: Shridhar S, Dhanashree B Abstract Enterococcus is a commensal in the intestine and is now emerging as a drug-resistant pathogen. It produces different virulence factors. Enterococcus surface protein (esp) is a virulence factor that helps in the adhesion, but its role in biofilm formation is still contradictory. Moreover, in many bacterial species, strong biofilm producer exhibits multidrug resistance. Hence, this study is done to know the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterococcus spp. and to correlate the drug resistance with biofilm production and esp gene. Enterococcal isolates were collected ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Daclatasvir and Sofosbuvir Therapy Enhance Monocyte Phenotypic Changes in Naive Chronic Hepatitis C Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study.
Conclusion: CHC infection promotes a proinflammatory and profibrotic monocytes profile. SOF/DCV therapy efficiently decreases viral load, reduces fibrosis potentials, attenuates monocyte activation, normalizes monocytes phenotypic abnormalities, and modulates monocyte subsets recruitment and differentiation later in the liver. PMID: 30941170 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Vaccine Prophylaxis of Pneumococcal Infections in Children under Conditions of Severe Flood in the Amur River Basin.
Conclusion: Comparative statistical analysis revealed a high degree of effectiveness of regional programs with the methods of immunoprophylaxis of pneumococcal infections. PMID: 30906320 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - March 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Current Practice and Barriers to an Early Antimicrobial Conversion from Intravenous to Oral among Hospitalized Patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital: Prospective Observational Study.
Authors: Beyene Berha A, Kassie GM Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the current practice and its barriers to an early antimicrobial conversion from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) therapy among hospitalized patients. Method: Hospital based prospective observational study was conducted to assess the practice of an early antimicrobial IV to PO conversion and its barriers using medical chart and case-specific physicians' interviews, respectively, from February to September, 2014. Patient charts and medication records were reviewed for appropriateness of IV to PO conversion program ever...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - March 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Vaginal Dysplasia and HIV: An African American and Caribbean American Cohort Study.
Conclusion: In this cohort of Caribbean American and African American women living with HIV diagnosed with VaIN, Caribbean Americans had the highest grade of VaIN at baseline, but more African Americans progressed to more advanced stages of the disease. PMID: 30693024 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Brucella Seroprevalence in a High-Risk Population in Greece: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Conclusions: Healthy livestock farmers may present with positive Rose Bengal test but this translates to true seroprevalence in only a small proportion. Livestock farmers have no significant seroprevalence that may obscure diagnosis of acute brucellosis in clinical settings. PMID: 30675154 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research