Epidemiology of Rhodotorula: an emerging pathogen.
Authors: Wirth F, Goldani LZ Abstract This is an updated paper focusing on the general epidemiological aspects of Rhodotorula in humans, animals, and the environment. Previously considered nonpathogenic, Rhodotorula species have emerged as opportunistic pathogens that have the ability to colonise and infect susceptible patients. Rhodotorula species are ubiquitous saprophytic yeasts that can be recovered from many environmental sources. Several authors describe the isolation of this fungus from different ecosystems, including sites with unfavourable conditions. Compared to R. mucilaginosa, R. glutinis and R. minuta ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cardiac autonomic control mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chagas' heart disease.
Authors: Dávila DF, Donis JH, Arata de Bellabarba G, Villarroel V, Sanchez F, Berrueta L, Salmen S, Das Neves B Abstract Primary abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system had been postulated as the pathogenic mechanisms of myocardial damage, in patients with Chagas disease. However, recent investigations indicate that these abnormalities are secondary and amenable to treatment with beta-adrenergic blockers. Moreover, muscarinic cardiac autoantibodies appear to enhance parasympathetic activity on the sinus node. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze how knowledge on Chagas' disease evolved fr...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Specific and Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Clinical Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Conclusion. Our trimarker-based PCR method could specifically detect M. tuberculosis and MTB complex infection from that of major pathogenic NTM and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. This method, by well distinguishing between MTB complex and NTM, presented a fast and accurate method to detect and diagnose mycobacterial infections more efficiently and could thereby help in better patient management particularly considering the increase in mycobacterial infections due to emergence of NTM over the past decades. PMID: 23093958 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Global fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology and implictions for clinical use.
Authors: Dalhoff A Abstract This paper on the fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology stratifies the data according to the different prescription patterns by either primary or tertiary caregivers and by indication. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone resistance rates increased in the past years in almost all bacterial species except S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections. However, 10 to 30% of these isolates harbored first-step mutations conferring low level fluoroquinolone resistance. Fluoroquinolone resistance increased in Enterobacteriace...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in an era of globalization.
Authors: Senok AC, Botta GA, Soge OO PMID: 23118747 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Developments in diagnosis and antileishmanial drugs.
Authors: Bhargava P, Singh R Abstract Leishmaniasis ranks the third in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years caused by neglected tropical diseases and is the second cause of parasite-related deaths after malaria; but for a variety of reasons, it is not receiving the attention that would be justified seeing its importance. Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. Imp...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Study of the Granulomatous Responses Induced by Different Strains of Schistosoma mansoni.
Authors: Zuim NR, Allegretti SM, Linhares AX, Magalhães LA, Zanotti-Magalhães EM Abstract The increased pathogenesis of the Schistosoma mansoni BH strain compared with the SJ strain has been attributed to the number of granulomas formed in experimental infections, which increase the mortality in definitive hosts. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of granulomas around the eggs of the S. mansoni BH and SJ strains and to determine whether this host reaction was strain specific. Four experimental groups were analyzed. Two groups contained mice inoculated in the caudal vein wi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Experimental Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of Different Strains of Schistosoma mansoni.
Authors: Euzébio AA, Zuim NR, Linhares AX, Magalhães LA, Zanotti-Magalhães EM Abstract The pathogenesis of three different Schistosoma mansoni strains from the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais (BH strain) and São Paulo (SJ and SD strains) was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. Observations of the most severe clinical cases among local patients treated (SD strain) in the city of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil) formed the basis of this study. Mice were used as definitive hosts and were infected with cercariae from Biomphalaria tenagophila (SJ and SD strains) and Biomphalaria gl...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Q Fever: an old but still a poorly understood disease.
Authors: Honarmand H Abstract Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influence of Triatoma dimidiata in Modulating the Virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi Mexican Strains.
Authors: Guzman-Marin E, Jimenez-Coello M, Puerto-Solis M, Ortega-Pacheco A, Acosta-Viana KY Abstract The epidemiology of Chagas disease is complex. There are different vectors and reservoirs and different clinical manifestations. In order to assess whether the biological behavior of three strains isolated in southeastern Mexico (H4 isolated from human, Z17 isolated from Didelphis sp., and V isolated from T. dimidiata) could be modified during passage through the vector T. dimidiata, the parasitemia curve, the amount of amastigote nests, and mortality of BALB/c infected with blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi were e...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

A 5-year retrospective review of fungal keratitis at hospital universiti sains malaysia.
Conclusions. The percentage of positive fungal isolated has steadily increased and the trend of common fungal isolated has changed. The latest review regarding fungal keratitis is important for us to improve patients' outcome in the future. PMID: 23304138 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Natural History and Factors Associated with Early and Delayed Mortality in HIV-Infected Patients Treated of Tuberculosis under Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course Strategy: A Prospective Cohort Study in India.
Authors: Alvarez-Uria G, Naik PK, Pakam R, Bachu L, Midde M Abstract Despite the impressive global results of DOTS in India, the effectiveness of DOTS for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known. This is an observational prospective cohort study performed in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study included 1000 DOTS antituberculosis treatment (ATT) episodes and 840 person-years. CD4 lymphocyte count was below 200 cells/mm(3) in 77% of the cases, and 21% were retreatments. Two thirds were presented with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and the most common form ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Analysis of Kinetoplast DNA from Mexican Isolates of Leishmania (L.) mexicana.
This study analyzed DNA minicircles of Mexican isolates of L. (Leishmania) mexicana to look for genetic differences between strains isolated from patients with diffuse cutaneous (DCL) and localized (LCL) leishmaniasis. The kDNA was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of the PCR products (PCR-RFLP) and the PCR products were sequenced. In the PCR with primers specific for the subgenus Leishmania, the Mexican isolates gave higher amplification products than the other L. mexicana complex strains and with specific primers for the L. mexicana complex they were poorly amplifi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Neglected infectious diseases: mechanism of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immune response.
Authors: Romero EC, Pimenta F, Diament D PMID: 23326262 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serological Evidence of Exposure to Leptospira spp. in Veterinary Students and Other University Students in Trinidad and Tobago.
Authors: James A, Siele K, Harry N, Suepaul S, Stewart-Johnson A, Adesiyun A Abstract The study compared the serological evidence of leptospirosis in 212 students in four schools (veterinary, dental, advanced nursing education and pharmacy) of the University of the West Indies (UWI), by testing for IgG immunoglobulins to Leptospira spp. using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Overall, of 212 students tested by the ELISA, 12 (5.7%) and 31 (14.6%) were positive and borderline, respectively. Amongst the 113 veterinary students 11 (9.7%) and 19 (16.8%) were sero...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Immunological aspects of Candida and Aspergillus systemic fungal infections.
Authors: Mueller-Loebnitz C, Ostermann H, Franzke A, Loeffler J, Uharek L, Topp M, Einsele H Abstract Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating con...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Changing Behavior among Nurses to Track Indwelling Urinary Catheters in Hospitalized Patients.
Authors: Yoon B, McIntosh SD, Rodriguez L, Holley A, Faselis CJ, Liappis AP Abstract Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are preventable complications of hospitalization. An interdisciplinary team developed a curriculum to increase awareness of the presence of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs) in hospitalized patients, addressed practical, primarily nurse-controlled inpatient risk-reduction interventions, and promoted the use of the IUC labels ("tags"). Five thirty-minute educational sessions were cycled over three daily nursing shifts on two inpatient medical floors over a 1-year peri...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Knowledge of and Adherence to Hygiene Guidelines among Medical Students in Austria.
Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high. PMID: 23690765 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Entry, Retention, and Virological Suppression in an HIV Cohort Study in India: Description of the Cascade of Care and Implications for Reducing HIV-Related Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
This study describes the cumulative retention from HIV diagnosis to the achievement of virological suppression after ART initiation in an HIV cohort study in India. Of all patients diagnosed with HIV, 70% entered into care within three months. 65% of patients ineligible for ART at the first assessment were retained in pre-ART care. 67% of those eligible for ART initiated treatment within three months. 30% of patients who initiated ART died or were lost to followup, and 82% achieved virological suppression in the last viral load determination. Most attrition occurred the in pre-ART stages of care, and it was estimated that ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Atherosclerosis Induced by Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A Controversial Theory.
Authors: Honarmand H Abstract More than a century ago, inflammation and infection were considered to have atherogenic effects. The old idea that coronary heart disease (CHD) possibly has an infectious etiology has only reemerged in recent years. Atherosclerosis is the main pathological process involved in CHD and is, logically, the first place to look for infectious etiology. The process of atherosclerosis itself provides the first hints of potential infectious cause. Smooth muscle proliferation, with subsequent intimal thickening, luminal narrowing, and endothelial degeneration, constitutes the natural history of ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Periprosthetic joint infections.
Authors: Lima AL, Oliveira PR, Carvalho VC, Saconi ES, Cabrita HB, Rodrigues MB Abstract Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infe...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Risk factors associated with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus in intensive care unit settings in saudi arabia.
Conclusions. Factors associated with VRE acquisition are often complex and may be confounded by local variables. PMID: 24027580 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Property of Extracts of Indian Lichen against Human Pathogenic Bacteria.
Conclusion. The present study demonstrates the relatively higher activity of this lichen against not only gram (+) but significantly also against gram (-) bacteria. This indicates that this lichen might be a rich source of effective antimicrobial agents. PMID: 24062769 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Etiology and Outcome of Patients with HIV Infection and Respiratory Failure Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit.
Authors: Orsini J, Ahmad N, Butala A, Flores R, Tran T, Llosa A, Fishkin E Abstract Background. Although access to HAART has prolonged survival and improved quality of life, HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression or comorbidities may develop complications that require critical care support. Our objective is to evaluate the etiology of respiratory failure in patients with HIV infection admitted to the ICU, its relationship with the T-lymphocytes cell count as well as the use of HAART, and its impact on outcome. Methods. A single-center, prospective, and observational study among all patients with HIV-in...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prospective trial of a novel nomogram to achieve updated vancomycin trough concentrations.
Conclusions. A novel vancomycin nomogram was prospectively validated and found to be more effective than traditional pharmacokinetic dosing. The nomogram is being implemented as the standard dosing protocol at our institution. PMID: 24163693 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Importance of IgG Avidity and the Polymerase Chain Reaction in Treating Toxoplasmosis during Pregnancy: Current Knowledge.
Authors: Bortoletti Filho J, Araujo Júnior E, Carvalho Nda S, Helfer TM, Nogueira Serni Pde O, Nardozza LM, Moron AF Abstract A brief report on the nature and epidemiology of T. gondii infection is firstly presented. The importance of the specific IgG avidity test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for toxoplasmosis is discussed, along with their significance and importance as auxiliary methods for determining the most likely time for the initial infection by this coccidian and for defining the therapeutic strategy. Lastly, practical comments are made in relation to the classical therapeutic regimens, with ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Utility of Serum Neopterin and Serum IL-2 Receptor Levels to Predict Absolute CD4 T Lymphocyte Count in HIV Infected Cases.
Authors: Chadha S, Bhalla P, Gautam H, Chakravarti A, Saini S, Anuradha S, Dewan R Abstract A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of serum neopterin and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) concentrations in comparison to CD4 count to study the progression of HIV disease and monitor response to ART in HIV cases. One hundred newly diagnosed HIV seropositive subjects were recruited. CD4 counts were determined by FACS system. Serum neopterin and sIL-2R levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay. In our study, levels of neopterin and sIL-2R were significantly higher in subjects with CD4 25.1 ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Control of a Clonal Outbreak of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Hospital of the Basque Country after the Introduction of Environmental Cleaning Led by the Systematic Sampling from Environmental Objects.
Authors: Delgado Naranjo J, Villate Navarro JI, Sota Busselo M, Martínez Ruíz A, Hernández Hernández JM, Torres Garmendia MP, Urcelay López MI Abstract Background. Between July 2009 and September 2010, an outbreak of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii was detected in one critical care unit of a tertiary hospital in the Basque Country, involving 49 infected and 16 colonized patients. The aim was to evaluate the impact of environmental cleaning and systematic sampling from environmental objects on the risk of infection by MDR A. baumannii. Methods. After systematic sa...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Level of CD8 T Lymphocytes Activation in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women: In the Context of CD38 and HLA-DR Activation Markers.
Authors: Musyoki S, Mining S, Nyongesa P Abstract Background. To date the effect of pregnancy on the immune activation of CD8 T cells that may affect HIV disease progression has not been well studied and remains unclear. Objective. To determine the effect of pregnancy on CD8 T lymphocyte activation and its relationship with CD4 count in HIV infected pregnant women. Study Design. Case control. Study Site. AMPATH and MTRH in Eldoret, Kenya. Study Subjects. Newly diagnosed asymptomatic HIV positive pregnant and nonpregnant women with no prior receipt of antiretroviral medications. Study Methods. Blood samples were col...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Steroids Decrease Prevalence of Positive Tuberculin Skin Test in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Implications on Anti-TNF Therapies.
Conclusion. Prevalence of tuberculin positivity in patients with RA was found to be low. Results were not affected by methotrexate; however tuberculin skin test results in patients with recent use of steroids are likely to be negative. PMID: 24707285 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Authors: Sharma P, Satorius AE, Raff MR, Rivera A, Newton DW, Younger JG Abstract Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Identification of Sphingomyelinase on the Surface of Chlamydia pneumoniae: Possible Role in the Entry into Its Host Cells.
Authors: Peñate Medina TA, Korhonen JT, Lahesmaa R, Puolakkainen M, Peñate Medina O, Kinnunen PK Abstract We have recently suggested a novel mechanism, autoendocytosis, for the entry of certain microbes into their hosts, with a key role played by the sphingomyelinase-catalyzed topical conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide, the differences in the biophysical properties of these two lipids providing the driving force. The only requirement for such microbes to utilize this mechanism is that they should have a catalytically active SMase on their outer surface while the target cells should expose sphingo...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Comparative Systematic Review of the Optimal CD4 Cell Count Threshold for HIV Treatment Initiation.
Authors: Olubajo B, Mitchell-Fearon K, Ogunmoroti O Abstract HIV infection is no longer characterized by high morbidity, rapid progression to AIDS, and death as when the infection was first identified. While anti-retroviral drugs have improved the outcome of AIDS patients, clinical research on the appropriate time to initiate therapy continues to evolve. Optimal therapy initiation would maximize the benefits of these drugs, while minimizing side effects and drug resistance. Recent 2013 WHO guidelines changed HIV therapy initiation from 350 cells/ μ L to 500 cells/ μ L. This systematic review pro...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Multicenter Study of Beta-Lactamase Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Reveals High Level Chromosome Mediated Extended Spectrum β Lactamase Resistance in Ogun State, Nigeria.
A Multicenter Study of Beta-Lactamase Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Reveals High Level Chromosome Mediated Extended Spectrum β Lactamase Resistance in Ogun State, Nigeria. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2014;2014:819896 Authors: Adeyankinnu FA, Motayo BO, Akinduti A, Akinbo J, Ogiogwa JI, Aboderin BW, Agunlejika RA Abstract As a result of the ever increasing problem of multiresistant bacteria, we instituted a surveillance program with the aim of identifying the basic molecular properties of ESBL in our environment. About 197 isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneu...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Thailand momentum on policy and practice in local legislation on dengue vector control.
Authors: Bhumiratana A, Intarapuk A, Chujun S, Kaewwaen W, Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp P, Koyadun S Abstract Over a past decade, an administrative decentralization model, adopted for local administration development in Thailand, is replacing the prior centralized (top-down) command system. The change offers challenges to local governmental agencies and other public health agencies at all the ministerial, regional, and provincial levels. A public health regulatory and legislative framework for dengue vector control by local governmental agencies is a national topic of interest because dengue control program has been i...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serine Proteases of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum: Potential as Antimalarial Drug Targets.
Authors: Alam A Abstract Malaria is a major global parasitic disease and a cause of enormous mortality and morbidity. Widespread drug resistance against currently available antimalarials warrants the identification of novel drug targets and development of new drugs. Malarial proteases are a group of molecules that serve as potential drug targets because of their essentiality for parasite life cycle stages and feasibility of designing specific inhibitors against them. Proteases belonging to various mechanistic classes are found in P. falciparum, of which serine proteases are of particular interest due to their invol...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion's Disease in Amazonas, Peru.
This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P> 0.05) between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru. PMID: 24847360 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Human Nontyphoidal Isolates of Salmonella enterica from Crete, Greece.
We report on the serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 20 different antimicrobials of 150 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from stools of diarrhoeal patients on the island of Crete over the period January 2011-December 2012. Among the S. enterica serotypes recovered, Enteritidis was the most prevalent (37.3%), followed by Typhimurium (28.7%) and Newport (8.7%). No resistance was detected to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole were 9.3%, 4%, 2%, 15.3%, and 8.7%, resp...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Impact of environmental conditions on the survival of cryptosporidium and giardia on environmental surfaces.
The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The die-off coefficient rates (K) were calculated using first-order exponential formula. For both parasites, the fastest die-off was rec...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7.6%) medium risk, 11 (30.6%) high risk, and 13 (7.7%) unsure risk). We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV in...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

ITS1 PCR-RFLP Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania in Clinical Samples and Strains from Cases of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in States of the Mexican Southeast.
Authors: Monroy-Ostria A, Nasereddin A, Monteon VM, Guzmán-Bracho C, Jaffe CL Abstract American cutaneous leishmaniasis includes a spectrum of clinical forms localized cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis which can be caused by different strains of Leishmania belonging to the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes which may coexist in the same endemic area. We evaluated the PCR-RFLP assay of the ITS1 genes for direct identification of Leishmania species in 163 clinical samples and 21 Mexican isolates of Leishmania. In relation to the Mexican isolates of Leishmania 52% displayed a p...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Multidrug resistance: an emerging crisis.
Authors: Tanwar J, Das S, Fatima Z, Hameed S Abstract The resistance among various microbial species (infectious agents) to different antimicrobial drugs has emerged as a cause of public health threat all over the world at a terrifying rate. Due to the pacing advent of new resistance mechanisms and decrease in efficiency of treating common infectious diseases, it results in failure of microbial response to standard treatment, leading to prolonged illness, higher expenditures for health care, and an immense risk of death. Almost all the capable infecting agents (e.g., bacteria, fungi, virus, and parasite) have emplo...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Performance of an ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay in serological diagnosis of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in iran.
Conclusion. Findings of this study demonstrated that serological test, especially IFA, can be used for proper diagnosis of CL. PMID: 25177349 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The impact of cooperative social organization on reducing the prevalence of malaria and intestinal parasite infections in awramba, a rural community in South gondar, ethiopia.
Conclusion. This study showed that good household and environmental hygiene, good toilet construction and usage, and proper utilization of ITN in Awramba cooperative community have significantly contributed to the reduction of the burden of parasitic infections. Thus, the positive achievement in reducing parasitic infections in Awramba cooperative community could be used as a model for affordable health intervention in the neighboring communities, in particular, and the whole country in general. PMID: 25180032 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus.
Authors: Pensel PE, Maggiore MA, Gende LB, Eguaras MJ, Denegri MG, Elissondo MC Abstract The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was ob...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Chest Radiographs for Pediatric TB Diagnosis: Interrater Agreement and Utility.
Authors: Kaguthi G, Nduba V, Nyokabi J, Onchiri F, Gie R, Borgdorff M Abstract The chest radiograph (CXR) is considered a key diagnostic tool for pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in clinical management and endpoint determination in TB vaccine trials. We set out to compare interrater agreement for TB diagnosis in western Kenya. A pediatric pulmonologist and radiologist (experts), a medical officer (M.O), and four clinical officers (C.Os) with basic training in pediatric CXR reading blindly assessed CXRs of infants who were TB suspects in a cohort study. C.Os had access to clinical findings for patient management. Weighte...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical features and outcome of mucormycosis.
The objective was to report 14 cases of mucormycosis infection and review the relevant literature. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and clinical data of 14 consecutive patients that presented with MCM in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in northern Mexico. The mean age of the patients was 39.9 (range 5-65). Nine of the patients were male. Ten patients had diabetes mellitus as the underlying disease, and 6 patients had a hematological malignancy (acute leukemia). Of the diabetic patients, 3 had chronic renal failure and 4 presented with diabetic ketoacidosis. All patients had rhinocerebral involvement. In-hospit...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

In Vitro Cestocidal Activity of Thymol on Mesocestoides corti Tetrathyridia and Adult Worms.
Authors: Maggiore M, Elissondo MC Abstract Nothing is known about the possible effect of thymol or other compounds of essential oils against the adult worms of cestodes. The aim of the present work was to determine in vitro cestodicidal activity of thymol against Mesocestoides corti adult worms. Moreover, the in vitro effect on tetrathyridia was also demonstrated. Tetrathyridia exposed to different concentrations of thymol showed a concentration and time-dependent effect. At lower concentrations, the main change observed was mainly in morphology, with larvae exhibiting an elongation of the body. When tetrathyridia ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens in a Tertiary Hospital from 2010 to 2012.
Authors: Juayang AC, de Los Reyes GB, de la Rama AJ, Gallega CT Abstract MRSA infection can affect a wide array of individuals that may lead to treatment failure. Also, the infection has the potential to spread from one area to another particularly health care facilities or communities eventually causing minor outbreaks. With this premise, the study aimed to describe MRSA infections using the hospital-based data of a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City, Philippines, from 2010 to 2012. Specifically, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens and to put empha...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research