Utility of Serum Neopterin and Serum IL-2 Receptor Levels to Predict Absolute CD4 T Lymphocyte Count in HIV Infected Cases.
Authors: Chadha S, Bhalla P, Gautam H, Chakravarti A, Saini S, Anuradha S, Dewan R Abstract A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of serum neopterin and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) concentrations in comparison to CD4 count to study the progression of HIV disease and monitor response to ART in HIV cases. One hundred newly diagnosed HIV seropositive subjects were recruited. CD4 counts were determined by FACS system. Serum neopterin and sIL-2R levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay. In our study, levels of neopterin and sIL-2R were significantly higher in subjects with CD4 25.1 ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Control of a Clonal Outbreak of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Hospital of the Basque Country after the Introduction of Environmental Cleaning Led by the Systematic Sampling from Environmental Objects.
Authors: Delgado Naranjo J, Villate Navarro JI, Sota Busselo M, Martínez Ruíz A, Hernández Hernández JM, Torres Garmendia MP, Urcelay López MI Abstract Background. Between July 2009 and September 2010, an outbreak of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii was detected in one critical care unit of a tertiary hospital in the Basque Country, involving 49 infected and 16 colonized patients. The aim was to evaluate the impact of environmental cleaning and systematic sampling from environmental objects on the risk of infection by MDR A. baumannii. Methods. After systematic sa...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Level of CD8 T Lymphocytes Activation in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women: In the Context of CD38 and HLA-DR Activation Markers.
Authors: Musyoki S, Mining S, Nyongesa P Abstract Background. To date the effect of pregnancy on the immune activation of CD8 T cells that may affect HIV disease progression has not been well studied and remains unclear. Objective. To determine the effect of pregnancy on CD8 T lymphocyte activation and its relationship with CD4 count in HIV infected pregnant women. Study Design. Case control. Study Site. AMPATH and MTRH in Eldoret, Kenya. Study Subjects. Newly diagnosed asymptomatic HIV positive pregnant and nonpregnant women with no prior receipt of antiretroviral medications. Study Methods. Blood samples were col...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Steroids Decrease Prevalence of Positive Tuberculin Skin Test in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Implications on Anti-TNF Therapies.
Conclusion. Prevalence of tuberculin positivity in patients with RA was found to be low. Results were not affected by methotrexate; however tuberculin skin test results in patients with recent use of steroids are likely to be negative. PMID: 24707285 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Authors: Sharma P, Satorius AE, Raff MR, Rivera A, Newton DW, Younger JG Abstract Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Identification of Sphingomyelinase on the Surface of Chlamydia pneumoniae: Possible Role in the Entry into Its Host Cells.
Authors: Peñate Medina TA, Korhonen JT, Lahesmaa R, Puolakkainen M, Peñate Medina O, Kinnunen PK Abstract We have recently suggested a novel mechanism, autoendocytosis, for the entry of certain microbes into their hosts, with a key role played by the sphingomyelinase-catalyzed topical conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide, the differences in the biophysical properties of these two lipids providing the driving force. The only requirement for such microbes to utilize this mechanism is that they should have a catalytically active SMase on their outer surface while the target cells should expose sphingo...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Comparative Systematic Review of the Optimal CD4 Cell Count Threshold for HIV Treatment Initiation.
Authors: Olubajo B, Mitchell-Fearon K, Ogunmoroti O Abstract HIV infection is no longer characterized by high morbidity, rapid progression to AIDS, and death as when the infection was first identified. While anti-retroviral drugs have improved the outcome of AIDS patients, clinical research on the appropriate time to initiate therapy continues to evolve. Optimal therapy initiation would maximize the benefits of these drugs, while minimizing side effects and drug resistance. Recent 2013 WHO guidelines changed HIV therapy initiation from 350 cells/ μ L to 500 cells/ μ L. This systematic review pro...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Multicenter Study of Beta-Lactamase Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Reveals High Level Chromosome Mediated Extended Spectrum β Lactamase Resistance in Ogun State, Nigeria.
A Multicenter Study of Beta-Lactamase Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Reveals High Level Chromosome Mediated Extended Spectrum β Lactamase Resistance in Ogun State, Nigeria. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2014;2014:819896 Authors: Adeyankinnu FA, Motayo BO, Akinduti A, Akinbo J, Ogiogwa JI, Aboderin BW, Agunlejika RA Abstract As a result of the ever increasing problem of multiresistant bacteria, we instituted a surveillance program with the aim of identifying the basic molecular properties of ESBL in our environment. About 197 isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneu...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Thailand momentum on policy and practice in local legislation on dengue vector control.
Authors: Bhumiratana A, Intarapuk A, Chujun S, Kaewwaen W, Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp P, Koyadun S Abstract Over a past decade, an administrative decentralization model, adopted for local administration development in Thailand, is replacing the prior centralized (top-down) command system. The change offers challenges to local governmental agencies and other public health agencies at all the ministerial, regional, and provincial levels. A public health regulatory and legislative framework for dengue vector control by local governmental agencies is a national topic of interest because dengue control program has been i...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serine Proteases of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum: Potential as Antimalarial Drug Targets.
Authors: Alam A Abstract Malaria is a major global parasitic disease and a cause of enormous mortality and morbidity. Widespread drug resistance against currently available antimalarials warrants the identification of novel drug targets and development of new drugs. Malarial proteases are a group of molecules that serve as potential drug targets because of their essentiality for parasite life cycle stages and feasibility of designing specific inhibitors against them. Proteases belonging to various mechanistic classes are found in P. falciparum, of which serine proteases are of particular interest due to their invol...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion's Disease in Amazonas, Peru.
This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P> 0.05) between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru. PMID: 24847360 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Human Nontyphoidal Isolates of Salmonella enterica from Crete, Greece.
We report on the serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 20 different antimicrobials of 150 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from stools of diarrhoeal patients on the island of Crete over the period January 2011-December 2012. Among the S. enterica serotypes recovered, Enteritidis was the most prevalent (37.3%), followed by Typhimurium (28.7%) and Newport (8.7%). No resistance was detected to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole were 9.3%, 4%, 2%, 15.3%, and 8.7%, resp...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Impact of environmental conditions on the survival of cryptosporidium and giardia on environmental surfaces.
The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The die-off coefficient rates (K) were calculated using first-order exponential formula. For both parasites, the fastest die-off was rec...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7.6%) medium risk, 11 (30.6%) high risk, and 13 (7.7%) unsure risk). We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV in...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

ITS1 PCR-RFLP Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania in Clinical Samples and Strains from Cases of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in States of the Mexican Southeast.
Authors: Monroy-Ostria A, Nasereddin A, Monteon VM, Guzmán-Bracho C, Jaffe CL Abstract American cutaneous leishmaniasis includes a spectrum of clinical forms localized cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis which can be caused by different strains of Leishmania belonging to the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes which may coexist in the same endemic area. We evaluated the PCR-RFLP assay of the ITS1 genes for direct identification of Leishmania species in 163 clinical samples and 21 Mexican isolates of Leishmania. In relation to the Mexican isolates of Leishmania 52% displayed a p...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Multidrug resistance: an emerging crisis.
Authors: Tanwar J, Das S, Fatima Z, Hameed S Abstract The resistance among various microbial species (infectious agents) to different antimicrobial drugs has emerged as a cause of public health threat all over the world at a terrifying rate. Due to the pacing advent of new resistance mechanisms and decrease in efficiency of treating common infectious diseases, it results in failure of microbial response to standard treatment, leading to prolonged illness, higher expenditures for health care, and an immense risk of death. Almost all the capable infecting agents (e.g., bacteria, fungi, virus, and parasite) have emplo...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Performance of an ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay in serological diagnosis of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in iran.
Conclusion. Findings of this study demonstrated that serological test, especially IFA, can be used for proper diagnosis of CL. PMID: 25177349 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The impact of cooperative social organization on reducing the prevalence of malaria and intestinal parasite infections in awramba, a rural community in South gondar, ethiopia.
Conclusion. This study showed that good household and environmental hygiene, good toilet construction and usage, and proper utilization of ITN in Awramba cooperative community have significantly contributed to the reduction of the burden of parasitic infections. Thus, the positive achievement in reducing parasitic infections in Awramba cooperative community could be used as a model for affordable health intervention in the neighboring communities, in particular, and the whole country in general. PMID: 25180032 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus.
Authors: Pensel PE, Maggiore MA, Gende LB, Eguaras MJ, Denegri MG, Elissondo MC Abstract The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was ob...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Chest Radiographs for Pediatric TB Diagnosis: Interrater Agreement and Utility.
Authors: Kaguthi G, Nduba V, Nyokabi J, Onchiri F, Gie R, Borgdorff M Abstract The chest radiograph (CXR) is considered a key diagnostic tool for pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in clinical management and endpoint determination in TB vaccine trials. We set out to compare interrater agreement for TB diagnosis in western Kenya. A pediatric pulmonologist and radiologist (experts), a medical officer (M.O), and four clinical officers (C.Os) with basic training in pediatric CXR reading blindly assessed CXRs of infants who were TB suspects in a cohort study. C.Os had access to clinical findings for patient management. Weighte...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical features and outcome of mucormycosis.
The objective was to report 14 cases of mucormycosis infection and review the relevant literature. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and clinical data of 14 consecutive patients that presented with MCM in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in northern Mexico. The mean age of the patients was 39.9 (range 5-65). Nine of the patients were male. Ten patients had diabetes mellitus as the underlying disease, and 6 patients had a hematological malignancy (acute leukemia). Of the diabetic patients, 3 had chronic renal failure and 4 presented with diabetic ketoacidosis. All patients had rhinocerebral involvement. In-hospit...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

In Vitro Cestocidal Activity of Thymol on Mesocestoides corti Tetrathyridia and Adult Worms.
Authors: Maggiore M, Elissondo MC Abstract Nothing is known about the possible effect of thymol or other compounds of essential oils against the adult worms of cestodes. The aim of the present work was to determine in vitro cestodicidal activity of thymol against Mesocestoides corti adult worms. Moreover, the in vitro effect on tetrathyridia was also demonstrated. Tetrathyridia exposed to different concentrations of thymol showed a concentration and time-dependent effect. At lower concentrations, the main change observed was mainly in morphology, with larvae exhibiting an elongation of the body. When tetrathyridia ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens in a Tertiary Hospital from 2010 to 2012.
Authors: Juayang AC, de Los Reyes GB, de la Rama AJ, Gallega CT Abstract MRSA infection can affect a wide array of individuals that may lead to treatment failure. Also, the infection has the potential to spread from one area to another particularly health care facilities or communities eventually causing minor outbreaks. With this premise, the study aimed to describe MRSA infections using the hospital-based data of a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City, Philippines, from 2010 to 2012. Specifically, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens and to put empha...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Prevalence of HIV by Ethnic Group Is Correlated with HSV-2 and Syphilis Prevalence in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Conclusion. Further attention needs to be directed to what determines higher rates of partner change and concurrency in communities with high STI prevalence. PMID: 25328516 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Effect of Different Terpene-Containing Essential Oils on the Proliferation of Echinococcus granulosus Larval Cells.
Authors: Albani CM, Denegri GM, Elissondo MC Abstract Human cystic echinococcosis remains a major public health problem on several countries and the treatment strategies are not solved. The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of thymol and Mentha piperita, M. pulegium, and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils on the proliferation of E. granulosus larval cells. Isolated cells and cellular aggregates were obtained from hydatid cyst's germinal layer and exposed to 1, 5, and 10 μg/ml of thymol and the different essential oils for 7 days. Drug effect was evaluated using test viability...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Ecotope-based entomological surveillance and molecular xenomonitoring of multidrug resistant malaria parasites in anopheles vectors.
Authors: Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp P, Bhumiratana A Abstract The emergence and spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax have become increasingly important in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). MDR malaria is the heritable and hypermutable property of human malarial parasite populations that can decrease in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to proven antimalarial drugs as they exhibit dose-dependent drug resistance and delayed parasite clearance time in treated patients. MDR malaria risk situations reflect consequences of the national policy and strategy as this...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage.
We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 in...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research