Seroprevalence and seroconversion of dengue and implications for clinical diagnosis in amazonian children.
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of serum IgG dengue in children in an Amazonian population, to assess the seroconversion rate in 12 months, and to estimate how many seropositive children had a prior clinical diagnosis of dengue. We conducted a population-based study between 2010 and 2011, with children aged 6 months to 12 years that were living in the urban area of a small town in the Brazilian Amazon. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against dengue antigens was determined by indirect ELISA technique, and seronegative children were reexamined after 12 months to determine seroconversion rates. Results showed ser...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Compliance of healthcare workers with hand hygiene practices in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units: overt observation.
The objective of this study was to assess the compliance of hand hygiene (HH) of healthcare workers (HCWs) in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary university hospital in Istanbul. Methods. An observational study was conducted on the compliance of HH for the five World Health Organization (WHO) indications. HCWs were observed during routine patient care in day shift. The authors also measured the technique of HH through hand washing or hand hygiene with alcohol-based disinfectant. Results. A total of 704 HH opportunities were identified during the observation period. Overall compliance was 37.0% (261...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Incidence and Clinical Predictors of Ocular Candidiasis in Patients with Candida Fungemia.
Authors: Khalid A, Clough LA, Symons RC, Mahnken JD, Dong L, Eid AJ Abstract Purpose. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and the predictors of ocular candidiasis among patient with Candida fungemia. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with candidemia at the University of Kansas Medical Center during February 2000-March 2010. Data regarding patients' demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and ophthalmology examination findings were collected. Results. A total of 283 patients with candidemia were enrolled. The mean age (± standard devi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 11, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

External Ventricular Drain Infections: Risk Factors and Outcome.
Authors: Hagel S, Bruns T, Pletz MW, Engel C, Kalff R, Ewald C Abstract External ventricular drainage (EVD) is frequently used in neurosurgery to drain cerebrospinal fluid in patients with raised intracranial pressure. We performed a retrospective single center study in order to evaluate the incidence of EVD-related infections and to identify underlying risk factors. 246 EVDs were placed in 218 patients over a 30-month period. EVD was continued in median for 7 days (range 1-44). The cumulative incidence of EVD-related infections was 8.3% (95% CI, 5.3-12.7) with a device-associated infection rate of 10.4 per 1000 dr...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 11, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Non-albicans Candida Infection: An Emerging Threat.
Authors: Deorukhkar SC, Saini S, Mathew S Abstract The very nature of infectious diseases has undergone profound changes in the past few decades. Fungi once considered as nonpathogenic or less virulent are now recognized as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. Candida spp. are among the most common fungal pathogens. Candida albicans was the predominant cause of candidiasis. However, a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been recently observed. These non-albicans Candida species demonstrate reduced susceptibility to commonly used antifungal drugs. In th...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Networks and the epidemiology of infectious disease.
Authors: Danon L, Ford AP, House T, Jewell CP, Keeling MJ, Roberts GO, Ross JV, Vernon MC Abstract The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways th...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemic percolation networks, epidemic outcomes, and interventions.
Authors: Kenah E, Miller JC Abstract Epidemic percolation networks (EPNs) are directed random networks that can be used to analyze stochastic "Susceptible-Infectious-Removed" (SIR) and "Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed" (SEIR) epidemic models, unifying and generalizing previous uses of networks and branching processes to analyze mass-action and network-based S(E)IR models. This paper explains the fundamental concepts underlying the definition and use of EPNs, using them to build intuition about the final outcomes of epidemics. We then show how EPNs provide a novel and useful perspective on...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Network models: an underutilized tool in wildlife epidemiology?
Authors: Craft ME, Caillaud D Abstract Although the approach of contact network epidemiology has been increasing in popularity for studying transmission of infectious diseases in human populations, it has generally been an underutilized approach for investigating disease outbreaks in wildlife populations. In this paper we explore the differences between the type of data that can be collected on human and wildlife populations, provide an update on recent advances that have been made in wildlife epidemiology by using a network approach, and discuss why networks might have been underutilized and why networks could and...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influenza and bacterial pathogen coinfections in the 20th century.
Authors: Wang XY, Kilgore PE, Lim KA, Wang SM, Lee J, Deng W, Mo MQ, Nyambat B, Ma JC, Favorov MO, Clemens JD Abstract To help understand the potential impact of bacterial coinfection during pandemic influenza periods, we undertook a far-reaching review of the existing literature to gain insights into the interaction of influenza and bacterial pathogens. Reports published between 1950 and 2006 were identified from scientific citation databases using standardized search terms. Study outcomes related to coinfection were subjected to a pooled analysis. Coinfection with influenza and bacterial pathogens occurred more f...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cryptococcus neoformans as a Model for Radioimmunotherapy of Infections.
Authors: Dadachova E, Casadevall A Abstract There is an obvious and urgent need for novel approaches to treat infectious diseases. The use of monoclonal antibodies in therapy of infectious diseases is now experiencing renewed interest. During the last 5 years radioimmunotherapy (RIT), a modality previously developed only for cancer treatment, has been successfully adapted for the treatment of experimental fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. As our model organism for studying the efficacy, mechanisms, potential toxicity, and radioresistance to RIT, as well as for comparison of RIT with the existing antimicrobia...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Candida albicans Dse1 Protein Is Essential and Plays a Role in Cell Wall Rigidity, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence.
Authors: Daher JY, Koussa J, Younes S, Khalaf RA Abstract The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is one of the leading causative agents of death in immunocompromised individuals. It harbors an arsenal of cell wall anchored factors that are implicated in virulence such as filamentation inducing factors, adhesins, lipases, proteases, and superoxide dismutases. Dse1 is a cell wall protein involved in cell wall metabolism. The purpose of this study is to characterize the role Dse1 plays in virulence. Dse1 appears to be an essential gene as no homozygous null mutant was possible. The heterozygote mutant exhibited increase...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as an Effective Probiotic for Murine Giardiasis.
Authors: Goyal N, Tiwari RP, Shukla G Abstract The gut microflora is an important constituent in the intestinal mucosal barrier and has been introduced as the concept of probiotic therapy that beneficially affects the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to explore the protective potential of various lactobacilli strains for murine giardiasis. By experimentation, it was found that the probiotic supplementation of either Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, or L. rhamnosus GG, 7 days prior to inoculation with G. lamblia trophozoites, reduced...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Patient safety climate: variation in perceptions by infection preventionists and quality directors.
This study explores perceptions of infection preventionists (IPs) and quality directors (QDs) regarding two safety microclimates, Senior Management Engagement (SME) and Leadership on Patient Safety (LOPS), across California hospitals. Methods. This was an analysis of two cross-sectional surveys. We conducted Wilcoxon signed-rank test, univariate analyses, and a multivariate ordinary least square regression. Results. There were 322 eligible hospitals; 149 hospitals (46.3%) responded to both surveys. The IP response rate was 59%, and the QD response rate was 79.5%. We found IPs perceived SME more positively than did QDs (21.4 vs. 20.4, P
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Immune Modulation as Adjunctive Therapy for Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Authors: Wang J, Wright TW, Gigliotti F Abstract Pneumocystis is an opportunistic fungal respiratory pathogen that causes life-threatening pneumonia (Pcp) in patients suffering from defects in cell-mediated immunity, including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunosuppression secondary to chemotherapy or organ transplantation. Despite major advances in health care, the mortality associated with Pcp has changed little over the past 25  years. Pcp remains a leading cause of death among HIV infected patients, with mortality rates of 50% or higher for patients developing severe Pcp. In a...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

MRSA: A Challenge to Norwegian Nursing Home Personnel.
In this study, 388 staff members in 42 nursing homes in Oslo County responded to questions about personal experience with MRSA and of own attitudes to challenges associated with the control and treatment of MRSA patients. Half (52%) of the nursing staff were concerned of becoming infected with MRSA and the consequences of this would be for own social life, family, economy, and work restriction. The concern was associated with risk factors like old buildings not suitable for modern infection control work, low staffing rate (70% without specific training in healthcare and 32% without formal healthcare education), defective c...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Quantitative evaluation of bacteria adherent and in biofilm on single-wall carbon nanotube-coated surfaces.
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that single wall SWCNTs-coated surfaces are not suitable to counteract bacterial adhesion and biofilm development. PMID: 22007207 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Intensive Care Usage by HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era.
Authors: Turtle L, Vyakernam R, Menon-Johansson A, Nelson MR, Soni N Abstract In the 1980s the outlook for patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and critical illness was poor. Since then several studies of outcome of HIV+ patients on ICU have shown improving prognosis, with anti-retroviral therapy playing a large part. We retrospectively examined intensive care (ICU) admissions in a large HIV unit in London. Between April 2001 and April 2006 43 patients were admitted to the ICU. The mean age of patients was 44 years and 74% were male. Fifty-six percent of admissions were receiving anti-retrovi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

It takes a community to raise the prevalence of a zoonotic pathogen.
Authors: Brisson D, Brinkley C, Humphrey PT, Kemps BD, Ostfeld RS Abstract By definition, zoonotic pathogens are not strict host-species specialists in that they infect humans and at least one nonhuman reservoir species. The majority of zoonotic pathogens infect and are amplified by multiple vertebrate species in nature, each of which has a quantitatively different impact on the distribution and abundance of the pathogen and thus on disease risk. Unfortunately, when new zoonotic pathogens emerge, the dominant response by public health scientists is to search for a few, or even the single, most important reservoirs ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Validation of a Pediatric Primary Care Network in a US Metropolitan Region as a Community-Based Infectious Disease Surveillance System.
Authors: Feemster KA, Li Y, Grundmeier R, Localio AR, Metlay JP Abstract This cross-sectional study used Geographic Information System methods to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of children enrolled and not enrolled in a primary care network to determine the suitability of the network to estimate population-based disease rates. We validated the network surveillance system by comparing invasive pneumococcal disease rates between network and nonnetwork children using population-based surveillance data. Among the study population of 130300 children, network children were more likely to be female,...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The simultaneous effects of spatial and social networks on cholera transmission.
This study uses social network and spatial analytical methods simultaneously to understand cholera transmission in rural Bangladesh. Both have been used separately to incorporate context into health studies, but using them together is a new and recent approach. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database consisting of approximately 200,000 people and a database of all laboratory-confirmed cholera cases from 1983 to 2003. A complete kinship-based network linking households is created, and distance matrices are also constructed to model spatial relationships. A spatial error-social effects model tes...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

A community outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in sydney associated with a public swimming facility: a case-control study.
Authors: Mayne DJ, Ressler KA, Smith D, Hockey G, Botham SJ, Ferson MJ Abstract In February, 2008, the South Eastern Sydney Illawarra Public Health Unit investigated an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis within the south east region of Sydney, Australia. Thirty-one cases with laboratory-confirmed cryptosporidiosis and 97 age- and geographically matched controls selected by random digit dialling were recruited into a case-control study and interviewed for infection risk factors. Cryptosporidiosis was associated with swimming at Facility A (matched odds ratio = 19.4, 95% confidence interval: 3.7-100.8) and exposure to hou...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Listeria spp. in Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods.
Authors: El-Shenawy M, El-Shenawy M, Mañes J, Soriano JM Abstract Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ≥10(3) CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Fatigue in medical residents leads to reactivation of herpes virus latency.
Authors: Uchakin PN, Parish DC, Dane FC, Uchakina ON, Scheetz AP, Agarwal NK, Smith BE Abstract The main objective of this study was to detect fatigue-induced clinical symptoms of immune suppression in medical residents. Samples were collected from the subjects at rest, following the first night (low-stress), and the last night (high-stress) of night float. Computerized reaction tests, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Wellness Profile questionnaires were used to quantify fatigue level. DNA of human herpes viruses HSV-1, VZV, EBV, as well as cortisol and melatonin concentrations, were measured in saliva. Residents at t...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Changes Related to Age in Natural and Acquired Systemic Self-IgG Responses in Malaria.
Authors: Dassé R, Lefranc D, Dubucquoi S, Dussart P, Dutoit-Lefevre V, Sendid B, Sombo Mambo F, Vermersch P, Prin L Abstract Background. Absence of acquired protective immunity in endemic areas children leads to higher susceptibility to severe malaria. To investigate the involvement of regulatory process related to self-reactivity, we evaluated potent changes in auto-antibody reactivity profiles in children and older subjects living in malaria-endemic zones comparatively to none-exposed healthy controls. Methods. Analysis of IgG self-reactive footprints was performed using Western blotting against healthy br...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Network perspectives on infectious disease dynamics.
Authors: Meyers LA, Kerr B, Koelle K PMID: 22272198 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Development of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention using a model of actionable feedback.
We describe the development of an audit and feedback intervention to improve antibiotic prescribing in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using a theoretical framework. Participants included attending physicians, neonatal fellows, pediatric residents, and nurse practitioners. The intervention was based on the "model of actionable feedback" which emphasizes that feedback should be timely, individualized, nonpunitive, and customized to be effective. We found that real-time feedback could not be provided for the parameters established in this study, as we had to collect and analyze numerous data elements to ass...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Bacterial contamination of clothes and environmental items in a third-level hospital in Colombia.
Conclusion. There are significant opportunities to reduce patient exposure to frequently pathogenic bacteria in the hospital setting; patients are likely exposed to many bacteria through direct contact with white coats, curtains, and ties. They may be exposed to additional bacterial reservoirs indirectly through the hands of clinicians, using computer keyboards and cell phones. PMID: 22536231 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Late Presentation of HIV and Estimation of Antiretroviral Treatment Need according to CD4 Lymphocyte Count in a Resource-Limited Setting: Data from an HIV Cohort Study in India.
We describe the CD4 lymphocyte count at HIV presentation in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India. The majority of patients were diagnosed for their HIV-related symptoms, although a sizeable proportion of women were diagnosed because of antenatal screening or for having an HIV-positive partner. Patients diagnosed of HIV for antenatal screening or having an HIV-positive sexual partner had higher CD4 lymphocyte count than patients having tuberculosis or HIV-related symptoms. The proportion of patients diagnosed with CD4 count
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

A review of ecological factors associated with the epidemiology of wildlife trypanosomiasis in the luangwa and zambezi valley ecosystems of zambia.
Authors: Munang'andu HM, Siamudaala V, Munyeme M, Nalubamba KS Abstract Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Low compliance to handwashing program and high nosocomial infection in a brazilian hospital.
Conclusion. In a combination of high prevalence of NI and low compliance to hand hygiene, the programme of measure does not motivate the HCW hand hygiene. Future interventions should employ incremental evaluation to develop effective hand hygiene initiatives. PMID: 22719756 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Glycopeptide resistance in gram-positive cocci: a review.
Authors: Sujatha S, Praharaj I Abstract Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens in the past two decades all over the world and have seriously limited the choices available to clinicians for treating infections caused by these agents. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, perhaps the most notorious among the nosocomial pathogens, was till recently susceptible to vancomycin and the other glycopeptides. Emergence of vancomycin nonsusceptible strains of S. aureus has led to a worrisome scenario where the options available for treating serious infections due to these ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

In Vitro Activities of Ertapenem and Imipenem against Clinical Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Collected in Military Teaching Hospital Mohammed V of Rabat.
Authors: Elouennass M, Zohoun A, El Ameri A, Alem N, Kasouati J, Benlahlou Y, El Yaagoubi I, Frikh M, Lemnouer A, Benouda A Abstract Objective. To study the sensitivity level of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae to Carbapenems (Imipenem, Ertapenem) marketed in Morocco and discusses the place of Ertapenem in the treatment of extended spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 110 extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates obtained from blood cultures, superficial and deep pus, and catheters were conducted. The minimum in...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The dragon and the tiger: realties in the control of tuberculosis.
Authors: Bhatter P, Chatterjee A, Mistry N Abstract India and China are two Asian super-powers with developing economies carried on the shoulders of their booming populations. This growth can only be sustained by nurturing their "human resource". However increasing reports of insufficient public health (PH) initiatives in India when compared to the aggressive PH system of China may prove to be the Achilles' heels for India. This review compares the PH system in India and China for combating Tuberculosis (TB), the disease responsible for maximum mortality and morbidity by a single infectious agent. While C...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Inhibited Production of iNOS by Murine J774 Macrophages Occurs via a phoP-Regulated Differential Expression of NFκB and AP-1.
Conclusion. S. typhimurium inhibit NFκB and AP-1 interaction with macrophage DNA via the PhoP regulon, this reduces nitrite ion production and is principally associated with typhoidal serovars. PMID: 22848212 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Gram-negative bacterial infection in thigh abscess can migrate to distant burn depending on burn depth.
Authors: Hamrahi V, Hamblin MR, Jung W, Benjamin JB, Paul KW, Fischman AJ, Tompkins RG, Carter EA Abstract Sepsis remains the major cause of death in patients with major burn injuries. In the present investigation we evaluated the interaction between burn injuries of varying severity and preexisting distant infection. We used Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis) that were genetically engineered to be bioluminescent, which allowed for noninvasive, sequential optical imaging of the extent and severity of the infection. The bioluminescent bacteria migrated from subcutaneous abscesses i...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Impact of inappropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy on mortality of septic patients with bacteremia: a retrospective study.
Conclusion. Higher mortality rates in bacteremic septic patients were substantially associated with inappropriate first-dose antimicrobials and 3-hour delayed antimicrobial administration after sepsis diagnosis. PMID: 22919379 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms.
We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion. PMID: 22927844 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Adaptation of Ritchie's Method for Parasites Diagnosing with Minimization of Chemical Products.
Authors: Anécimo RS, Tonani KA, Fregonesi BM, Mariano AP, Ferrassino MD, Trevilato TM, Rodrigues RB, Segura-Muñoz SI Abstract Latin America, Africa, and Asia present wide dissemination and high prevalence rates of waterborne parasitic diseases, which is a strong indicative of the fragility of public sanitation systems. In this context, parasitological analyses represent extremely relevant instruments. Several parasite diagnosis methods exist, among which Ritchie's method (1948) stands out. This method uses formaldehyde and ether, two reagents of toxicological importance that can cause damages to envir...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Use of Albuterol in Young Infants Hospitalized with Acute RSV Bronchiolitis.
Conclusions. The use of albuterol does not appear to be useful in the treatment of young infants with RSV bronchiolitis and may actually be harmful, in regards to increased supplemental oxygen need. PMID: 22966227 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Pyoverdine, the Major Siderophore in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Evades NGAL Recognition.
We report that pyoverdine did not bind to NGAL, as measured by tryptophan fluorescence quenching, while enterobactin bound to NGAL effectively causing a strong response. The experimental data indicate that pyoverdine evades NGAL recognition. We then employed a molecular modeling approach to simulate the binding of pyoverdine to human NGAL using NGAL's published crystal structures. The docking of pyoverdine to NGAL predicted nine different docking positions; however, neither apo- nor ferric forms of pyoverdine docked into the ligand-binding site in the calyx of NGAL where siderophores are known to bind. The molecular modeli...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Leprosy: an overview of pathophysiology.
Authors: Bhat RM, Prakash C Abstract Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a microorganism that has a predilection for the skin and nerves. The disease is clinically characterized by one or more of the three cardinal signs: hypopigmented or erythematous skin patches with definite loss of sensation, thickened peripheral nerves, and acid-fast bacilli detected on skin smears or biopsy material. M. leprae primarily infects Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves leading to nerve damage and the development of disabilities. Despite reduced prevalence of M....
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Authors: Gouveia C, de Oliveira RM, Zwetsch A, Motta-Silva D, Carvalho BM, de Santana AF, Rangel EF Abstract American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management act...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Cats from the Tropics of Mexico Using Serological and Molecular Tests.
Authors: Castillo-Morales VJ, Acosta Viana KY, Guzmán-Marín Edel S, Jiménez-Coello M, Segura-Correa JC, Aguilar-Caballero AJ, Ortega-Pacheco A Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats using an indirect-ELISA (IgM and IgG) and PCR. Samples collected from 220 cats from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed. Cases were reported as acute or chronic. Cases when positive to IgM and IgG and PCR were considered as reactivated chronic infection. Risk factors (sex, age, body condition, diet access to hunt...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Community-Based Research among Marginalized HIV Populations: Issues of Support, Resources, and Empowerment.
Authors: Brondani M, Moniri NR, Kerston RP Abstract A research question was posed to us by a local HIV-resource organization interested in exploring the educational and service needs of those unreached. In order to properly address this inquiry, we developed a community-based participatory research by training peer-led volunteers to facilitate focus-group discussions within Aboriginal and refugees participants following an interview guide. We gathered Aboriginal people and refugees separated into three focus groups each, enrolling a total of 41 self-identified HIV-positive, 38 males. The discussions were tape recor...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Diversity of mosquito vectors (Diptera: culicidae) in caxiuanã, pará, Brazil.
Diversity of mosquito vectors (Diptera: culicidae) in caxiuanã, pará, Brazil. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2012;2012:741273 Authors: Confalonieri UE, Costa Neto C Abstract THIS PAPER PRESENTS A STUDY BASED ON ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS REPRESENTED BY DIVERSITY AND RICHNESS INDICES APPLIED IN A COMMUNITY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: Culicidae), at the National Forest of Caxiuanã, Melgaço municipality, state of Pará, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 25,433 specimens of culicids were collected in the study, from five field collection periods, over 10 months, between 2005 an...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Serotypes from Cochin Estuary.
This study aimed at detecting the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant serotypes of Escherichia coli in Cochin estuary, India. E. coli strains were isolated during the period January 2010-December 2011 from five different stations set at Cochin estuary. Water samples from five different stations in Cochin estuary were collected on a monthly basis for a period of two years. Isolates were serotyped, antibiogram-phenotyped for twelve antimicrobial agents, and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction for uid gene that codes for β-D-glucuronidase. These E. coli strains from Cochin estuary were tested against twelve antibiotics...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Ophthalmic parasitosis: a review article.
Authors: Nimir AR, Saliem A, Ibrahim IA Abstract Ocular parasitosis in human is more prevalent in geographical areas where environmental factors and poor sanitary conditions favor the parasitism between man and animals. Lesions in the eye can be due to damage directly caused by the infectious pathogen, indirect pathology caused by toxic products, or the immune response incited by infections or ectopic parasitism. The epidemiology of parasitic ocular diseases reflects the habitat of the causative parasites as well as the habits and health status of the patient. An ocular examination may provide clues to the underlyi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students.
Conclusion. It was concluded that serious efforts are needed to improve the hand hygiene practices among medical students. PMID: 23024653 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Association of Hepatitis C Virus Infection with Type II Diabetes in Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.
Conclusion. In this study, we found a positive association between past HCV infection and type II diabetes. As we did not perform HCV RNA test, we could not assess the association with HCV viremia. PMID: 23049551 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Ecologic and sociodemographic risk determinants for dengue transmission in urban areas in Thailand.
This study analyzed the association between household-level ecologic and individual-level sociodemographic determinants and dengue transmission in urban areas of Chachoengsao province, Thailand. The ecologic and sociodemographic variables were examined by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. In the ecologic model, dengue risk was related to households situated in the ecotope of residential mixed with commercial and densely populated urban residential areas (RCDENPURA) (aOR = 2.23, P = 0.009), high historical dengue risk area (aOR = 2.06, P 45 years (aOR = 3.24,...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research