A step change towards risk assessment in the 21st century.
Authors: Patlewicz GY, Lander DR Abstract Chemical Regulation and the means by which data is generated for the purposes of risk assessment is undergoing a tremendous shift. There is a strong impetus in Europe, in particular, to move towards non-animal approaches to address data gaps for specific endpoints either in lieu of testing or as part of weight of evidence approaches within integrated testing strategies (ITS). An Exposure assessment considering workers and/or consumers is a critical component of a robust risk assessment. The EU chemicals legislation REACH, for example, provides considerable flexibility in th...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Ethical and legal issues in the clinical practice of primary health care.
Authors: Maestro FJ, Martinez-Romero M, Vazquez-Naya JM, Pereira J, Pazos A Abstract Since it was conceived, the notion of primary care has been a crucial concept in health services. Most health care is provided at this level and primary care clinicians have an essential role, both in terms of disease prevention and disease management. During the last decades, primary health care has evolved from a traditional paternalistic model, in which patients played the role of passive recipient of care, towards a situation in which patients are partners involved in the decision making-process. This new context opened a consi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Regulatory affairs issues and legal ontologies in drug development.
Authors: Munteanu CR, Dorado J, Matei-Ilfoveanu I, Nita SA Abstract It usually can take more than ten years from the time a new drug is discovered, until can be launched on the market. Regulatory requirements are part of the process of drug discovery and drug development. It acts at every developmental stage. Regulatory affairs works to establish an effective and uniform balance between voluntary and regulatory compliance and agency responsiveness to consumer needs. It evaluates and coordinates all proposed legal actions to ascertain compliance with regulatory policy. The ontology presented for regulatory affairs a...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

An IL-6 link between obesity and cancer.
Authors: Ghosh S, Ashcraft K Abstract Obesity is a growing epidemic all over the world that by virtue of inducation of a chronic, low-grade, and systemic inflammation leads to an increased risk of a number of diseases, including cancer. IL-6 an important cytokine in the increased risk to cancer in obese patients mainly because of its pro-inflammatory activity. Some data suggest that IL-6 might increase the risk of certain cancers such as those that originate from breast, liver, prostate, colon, and esophagus. A better understanding of the regulation and role of IL-6 in obesity-associated cancer is required to devel...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Histogenetic aspects of deer antler development.
Authors: Li C Abstract Deer antlers are the only mammalian organs that, once lost, can fully grow back; therefore, they offer a unique opportunity for investigating the mechanism underlying mammalian organ regeneration. This review summarizes the current knowledge of antler histogenesis. The axis of a pedicle (antecedent of antler) and a first antler consists of an internal component and an external component. Formation of the internal component commences from the proliferation of antlerogenic periosteal cells and undergoes 4 ossification stages: Formation of the external component goes through 3 distinguishable st...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Neuromodulation for neurodegenerative conditions.
Authors: Tierney TS, Vasudeva VS, Weir S, Hayes MT Abstract Pharmacological therapy has had limited success in the treatment of most major neurological diseases. This has motivated the development of a number of novel surgical approaches designed to ameliorate drug-induced side effects or pharmacoresistant symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been quite successful in controlling both the cardinal motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease and the side effects of prolonged levodopa therapy. This has encouraged the application of DBS technology to treat a number of other neurodegenerative conditions, including ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

(Pro)renin receptor: subcellular localizations and functions.
Authors: Sihn G, Burckle C, Rousselle A, Reimer T, Bader M Abstract Since its first report in 1996, the concept of the so-called (Pro)renin receptor ((P)RR/ATP6ap2) has dramactically evolved from a receptor mediating cellular effects of (pro)renin, to a protein with more basic and potentially essential intracellular functions. Among the arguments urging to reconsider the role of (P)RR was the observation that its localization appears mainly intracellular, although this does not preclude potential functions at the cell surface. However, despite about 10 years of research boosted by the generation of genetically modi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Cell-penetrating peptides: from cell cultures to in vivo applications.
Authors: Regberg J, Eriksson JN, Langel U Abstract The field of gene therapy is starting to move towards clinical applications but is currently limited by the lack of efficient delivery systems. Cell-penetrating peptides provide a means of cellular delivery for gene therapy applications as well as delivery of traditional drugs. Using cell-penetrating peptides a range of different cargoes have been successfully delivered into a number of cell types, in vitro as well as in vivo. In this review we discuss uptake mechanisms of different cell-penetrating peptides, with or without cargo. The transition from in vitro to i...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Real-time imaging of mouse lenticulostriate artery following brain ischemia.
Authors: Yuan F, Wang Y, Guan Y, Ren Y, Lu H, Xiao T, Xie H, Vosler PS, Chen J, Yang GY Abstract Detection of microvascular changes in experimental stroke models is limited by current technologies. Using state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation (SR), we explored the feasibility of detecting the normal morphological variations of lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) and the changes to LSAs following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cerebral microvessels of ICR mice were imaged with synchrotron radiation microangiography using nonionic iodine and barium sulfate as contrast agents. Using SR we reproducibly observed ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Gray matter SWI-filtered phase and atrophy are linked to disability in MS.
Authors: Hagemeier J, Weinstock-Guttman B, Heininen-Brown M, Poloni GU, Bergsland N, Schirda C, Magnano CR, Kennedy C, Carl E, Dwyer MG, Minagar A, Zivadinov R Abstract The association between clinical outcomes and abnormal susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)-filtered phase, indicative of increased iron content, as well as atrophy, was investigated in the subcortical deep-gray matter (SDGM) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. 149 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 61 secondary-progressive (SP) MS patients underwent SWI on a 3T scanner. Mean phase of the abnormal phase tissue (MP-APT) and normalized volumes were determ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Semi-automatic determination of cell surface areas used in systems biology.
Authors: Morath V, Keuper M, Rodriguez-Franco M, Deswal S, Fiala G, Blumenthal B, Kaschek D, Timmer J, Neuhaus G, Ehl S, Ronneberger O, Schamel WW Abstract Quantitative biology requires high precision measurement of cellular parameters such as surface areas or volumes. Here, we have developed an integrated approach in which the data from 3D confocal microscopy and 2D high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were combined. The volumes and diameters of the cells within one population were automatically measured from the confocal data sets. The perimeter of the cell slices was measured in the TEM images using ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

A new approach to the interventional therapy of tricuspid regurgitation.
Authors: Amerini AL, Malasa M, Hatam N, Safi Y, Steinseifer U, Mahnken A, Goetzenich A, Haushofer M, Hildinger M, Autschbach R, Carpi A, Spillner JW Abstract Currently, there are no fully developed interventional approaches for the treatment of tricuspid regurgitation (TR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of orthotopic interventional placement of a biological prosthetic valve in the tricuspid position by inserting, with a transvenous approach, a self-expandable valve-bearing stent into the right atrium. Based on findings of computerized tomography (CT), a model of the porcine right heart was o...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

The biological evaluation of ADMA/SDMA and eNOS in patients with ACHF.
Authors: Speranza L, Pesce M, Franceschelli S, Bucciarelli T, Gallina S, Riccioni G, Patruno A, Felaco M Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute pharmacological treatment on the plasma levels of l-arginine, asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA). We also investigated the related effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activity and cytochrome c oxidase activity in the primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients with acute congestive heart failure (ACHF). Compared to pre-treatment values, ADMA, SDMA, an...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

T-cell activation induces selective changes of cellular lipidome.
Authors: Lonnberg T, Yetukuri L, Seppanen-Laakso T, Lahesmaa R, Oresic M Abstract Activation of naïve T helper cells by presentation of cognate antigen initiates a complex intracellular signaling process leading to development of functionally active effector cell population. The switch from quiescent naïve state to activated state involves a profound change of cellular metabolism, required for completion of multiple rounds of proliferation. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, we analyzed how this change is reflected on the cellular lipid composition in human umbilical cord blo...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Effect of genomic instability and mutations on the signaling pathways in colon cancer cells.
Authors: Cui M, Ye F, Jiang B, Deng P, Wang X, Jiang Y, Zhang DY Abstract Microsatellite instability (MSI) is present in about 15% of colorectal cancers and plays critical roles in the development and progression of these cancers. The goal of this study is to determine the global effect of microsatellite instability on the signaling pathways and network in colon cancer cells. We profiled the expression and phosphorylation of 110 proteins in six colon cancer cell lines by using Protein Pathway Array. The pathways and network constituted by these proteins were identified by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Our resul...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Novel sandwich ELISA for detecting the human soluble (pro)renin receptor.
Authors: Maruyama N, Segawa T, Kinoshita N, Ichihara A Abstract The (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) plays a key role in the activation of the local renin-angiotensin system via interaction with renin and prorenin. A truncated form that is cleaved by furin, referred to as soluble (pro)renin receptor (s(P)RR), is secreted into the extracellular space. An accurate measurement of s(P)RR levels in vivo is an important issue in elucidating the roles of (P)RR in physiology and pathophysiology. To address this, we developed a sandwich ELISA that is applicable to human subjects. The standard curve of this ELISA showed a high li...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Gestational protein restriction affects trophoblast differentiation.
Authors: Gao H, Yallampalli U, Yallampalli C Abstract Whether and how gestational protein restriction (PR) affects placental development and function remain unknown. To test the hypothesis that PR can affect trophoblast differentiation in mid-and late pregnancy, rats were fed a 20% or an isocaloric 6% protein diet from Day 1 to 14 or 18 of pregnancy and effects of PR on trophoblast differentiation were determined by changes in expressions of marker gene(s) for trophoblast lineages. At Day 18 of pregnancy, PR increased expressions of Esrrb, Id1 andId2 (trophoblast stem cell markers), decreased expressions of Ascl2 (...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Two-photon polymerization microstructuring in regenerative medicine.
Authors: Gittard SD, Koroleva A, Nguyen AK, Fadeeva E, Gaidukeviciute A, Schlie-Wolter S, Narayan RJ, Chichkov B Abstract Two-photon polymerization has developed as a powerful tool for making micro- and nanoscale structures for regenerative medicine applications. This review discusses micro- and nanoscale aspects of tissue engineering, which are followed by a brief description of the two-photon polymerization process and how it has been used thus far in tissue engineering and other regenerative medicine applications. Lastly, potential future applications of two-photon polymerization in regenerative medicine are pre...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Biomedical applications of carbon-nanotube composites.
Authors: Meredith JR, Jin C, Narayan RJ, Aggarwal R Abstract The unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes make them attractive for a variety of biomedical applications. Carbon nanotubes have been used to modify conventional biomedical materials to enhance mechanical properties, biocompatibility, or to impart other functionalities. New multifunctional composite materials using carbon nanotubes have been developed by combining them with inorganic, polymeric or biological materials. The biomedical applications for which novel carbon nanotube composites have been investigated include anti...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Role of nanostructured networks as analytical tools for biological systems.
Authors: Pandey PC, Chauhan DS, Singh V Abstract In recent years, nanostructured materials have emerged as potential candidates offering excellent prospects for interfacing the detection of biomolecules. Nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanostructured silicates, nano-sized metal oxides, nanostructured polymers, quantum dots, nanocomposites and sensing nanodevices are being utilized worldwide for fabrication of chemical sensors and sensor arrays with tailored characteristics and tuneable properties. Among above, the materials that create a matrix structure at the nanoscale level are particularly fascinating. The...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

The carbonate ion in hydroxyapatite: recent X-ray and infrared results.
Authors: Fleet ME Abstract The location and orientation of the carbonate ion in the channel (A) and phosphate (B) positions of hydroxyapatite (CHAP) have been investigated by single-crystal X-ray structure and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, using crystals synthesized at high pressure. The type A carbonate ion is oriented in the apatite channel with two oxygen atoms close to the c-axis and the B carbonate ion is located near a sloping face of the substituted phosphate tetrahedron. Close comparison of FTIR and X-ray structure results shows that a Na-bearing CHAP containing approximately equal amounts...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Assessment criteria for compensation of occupational bladder cancer.
Authors: Schops W, Jungmann O, Zumbe J, Zellner M, Hengstler JG, Golka K Abstract In Germany, more than 100 bladder tumor cases are annually recognized as occupational disease and compensated, given that medical experts regard exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines as a likely cause of cancer. The amount of compensation is initially based on the tumor staging and grading at the time of initial diagnosis ("basic MdE") (MdE--reduction of earning capacity) and is adapted after a recurrence-free period of 2 and 5 years, respectively. In the event of treatment or tumor-related secondary conditions, the month...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Cell apoptosis induced by hookworm antigens: a strategy of immunomodulation.
In this study, we demonstrate the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity of hookworm antigens in Jurkat T cells, mesenteric lymph nodes lymphocytes of healthy and hookworm-infected hamsters and during human natural infection. Our results showed that in vitrostimulation of Jurkat T cells with antigens induces a significant decrease of cell viability leading to a relevant increase of apoptotic cells. Similar results were also observed in experimental conditions, for both healthy and hookworm-infected hamsters` lymphocytes. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that hookworm-infected patients presented a significant increase of...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Recurrence of endometrioma after laparoscopic excision and its prevention by medical management.
Authors: Koga K, Osuga Y, Takemura Y, Takamura M, Taketani Y Abstract Laparoscopic excision is considered as the 'gold standard' treatment of ovarian endometrioma. However, a frustrating aspect is that disease can recur. While laparoscopic excision is known to improve fertility, recurrence can cause significant ovarian damage and adverse affects on fertility. It is therefore crucial to prevent recurrence in order to conserve 'improved' fertility. Recurrence rates for endometrioma are reported from 11 to 32% within 1-5 years after excision. The recurrence rate is higher in patients with advanced endometriosis at sur...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

A potential "tuning" role for the outer hair cells in children with language disorders.
A potential "tuning" role for the outer hair cells in children with language disorders. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2013;5:684-96 Authors: Durand-Rivera A, Manzano-Martinez E, Ceballos-Reyes G Abstract The cochlear outer hair cells serve a tuning function, and any dysfunction of their electromotile response can be reflected in language disorders. Otoacoustic emissions can be used to determine any dysfunction of these cells. A set of clinical records was established to register the neurological and auditory functioning in 42 children, followed by assessment with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale fo...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Role of (pro)renin receptor in Ang II-mediated EGF receptor transactivation.
Authors: Shibayama Y, Hitomi H, Nakano D, Kobori H, Mori H, Deguchi K, Masaki T, Ichihara A, Nishiyama A Abstract Prorenin-induced intracellular signaling pathway is not fully elucidated. We investigated whether the (pro)renin receptor mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation through angiotensin (Ang) II-dependent and -independent pathways in human embryo kidney 293 cells. Prorenin (2 nmol/L) caused biphasic phosphorylation of EGF receptor (Tyr992) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, peaking at 5 minutes followed by a decrease and a second peak at 60-120 minutes, whereas EGF ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Thymoquinone induces apoptosis in malignant T-cells via generation of ROS.
Authors: Dergarabetian EM, Ghattass KI, El-Sitt SB, Al-Mismar RM, El-Baba CO, Itani WS, Melhem NM, El-Hajj HA, Bazarbachi AA, Schneider-Stock R, Gali-Muhtasib HU Abstract We show that HTLV-1 negative leukemia cells are more sensitive to TQ due to higher levels of drug-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). PreG1 population in HTLV-1 negative Jurkat and CEM was higher than HTLV-1 transformed HuT-102 and MT-2 cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were more resistant. Hoechst staining indicated more features of apoptosis, namely nuclear blebs and shrunken nuclei in HuT-102 than Jurkat. A greater depletion of the a...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Effects of early endometriosis on IVF-ET outcomes.
The objective of this study was to investigate IVF-ET outcomes in women with early-stage endometriosis. We enrolled 35 women less than 40 years with unexplained infertility who underwent IVF-ET into the study. We compared 18 women with stage I/II endometriosis according to the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification for endometriosis, who underwent 39 IVF-ET cycles (En (+) group) with 17 women without endometriosis who underwent 41 IVF-ET cycles (En (-) group). Higher requirements of total gonadotropin, a lower percentage of high-quality embryos of all fertilized eggs (9.0% vs. 16.3%), a relativel...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Perinatal exposure to diethyl-hexyl-phthalate induces obesity in mice.
Authors: Hao C, Cheng X, Guo J, Xia H, Ma X Abstract The environmental obesogen hypothesis proposes that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental "window" contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of environmental endocrine disruptor such as diethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here, we evaluated the effects of DEHP on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DEHP had no effect on adipocyte differentiation in the murine 3T3-L1 cell model, whereas ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Tissue-specific implications of mitochondrial alterations in aging.
Authors: Liu D, Li H, Lu J, Bai Y Abstract Aging is a multifactorial process during which physiological alterations occur in all tissues. A decline in mitochondrial function plays an important role in the process of aging and in aging-associated diseases. The mitochondrial genome encodes 13 essential subunits of protein complexes belonging to the oxidative phosphorylation system, while most of the mitochondria-related genes are encoded by the nuclear genome. Coordination between the nucleus and mitochondria is crucial for the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In this review, we will discuss aging...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Association of VEGF +405G>C polymorphism with endometriosis.
Association of VEGF +405G>C polymorphism with endometriosis. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2013;5:748-54 Authors: Vanaja MC, Rozati R, Nassaruddin K, Vishnupriya S Abstract The present study was designed to explore the association between the SNP +405G>C of the VEGF gene with the risk of endometriosis, and endometriosis associated with adenomyosis and chocolate cysts. Following extraction of genomic DNA, genotyping of the +405 G>C polymorphisms of the VEGF gene was performed by PCR - RFLP analysis. The genotype (X2 =21.713, 2 df, P = C polymorphism. These findings suggest that the VEGF +405 G>C ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Gap junction -mediated cAMP movement between oocytes and somatic cells.
In this study, inhibition of gap junctional communication (GJC) using carbenoxolone (3.5 h) induced meiotic resumption in ~90% of follicle-enclosed oocytes (FEOs). The concentration of cAMP in a single oocyte was higher than that in a single cumulus cell, suggesting that the movement of cAMP proceeds from the oocyte to cumulus cells under passive diffusion. The mRNAs of adenylyl cyclases and the corresponding proteins were mainly detected in oocytes. Persistent or transient incubation with forskolin induced meiotic resumption in FEOs. The maturation induced by persistent forskolin treatment was inhibited by carbenoxolone. ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Hsp10: anatomic distribution, functions, and involvement in human disease.
Authors: David S, Bucchieri F, Corrao S, Czarnecka AM, Campanella C, Farina F, Peri G, Tomasello G, Sciumè C, Modica G, La Rocca G, Anzalone R, Giuffrè M, Conway De Macario E, Macario AJ, Cappello F, Zummo G Abstract There is growing evidence that molecular chaperones/heat shock proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, known as chaperonopathies. A better molecular understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms is essential for addressing new strategies in diagnostics, therapeutics and clinical management of chaperonopathies, including those in which Hsp10 is involved. Thi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Androgen insensitivity syndrome: ten years of our experience.
This article summarizes our observations about AIS with an aim to spread awareness among patients and clinicians. PMID: 23277032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

MotifOrganizer: a scalable model-based motif clustering tool for mammalian genomes.
Authors: Qin ZS, Bilenky M, Su G, Jones SJ Abstract Assembling a comprehensive catalog of all transcription factors (TFs) and the genes that they regulate (regulon) is important for understanding gene regulation. The sequence-specific conserved binding profiles of TFs can be characterized from whole genome sequences with phylogenetic approaches, and a large number of such profiles have been released. Effective mining of these data sources could reveal novel functional elements computationally. Due to the variability of the binding sites, it is necessary to generalize profiles pertinent to the same TF by clustering....
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Estrous activity detection device in mammals.
Authors: Salem AE, Abd El-Ati N, Mahmoud G Abstract Control of estrus is essential for the efficiency of any breeding program in farm animals, artificial insemination, hand mating and prediction of parturition dates. The present study is providing new evidence about determination of silent estrus in Damascus does. Since many D. does do not show any interest toward the male across seasons compared with spontaneous estrus detected by buck goat (BG). Results revealed that estrus detected by BG has significantly higher in autumn (78 of 86) than spring (3 of 11), while estrus detected by frequent vaginal inspection (FVI...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Frequencies of mtDNA mutations in primary tissues of colorectal adenopolyps.
Authors: Adams G, Mehrabi S, Vatcharapijarn Y, Iyamu OI, Akwe JA, Grizzle WE, Yao X, Aikhionbare FO Abstract To investigate the potential role of mtDNA alterations during the onset of colorectal cancer, the occurrence of mtDNA variants in colorectal adenomatous (Tubular, Tubulovillous, and Villous) polyps, were studied. High resolution endonucleases and PCR-based sequence were applied to examine mtDNA variants in the ND and ATPase genes of 64 primary tissues of colorectal adeno-polyps and their matched normal controls. Forty-two variants were observed and 57% (24/42) were not previously reported in the MITODAT refe...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Massive microRNA sequence conservation and prevalence in human and chimpanzee introns.
Authors: Hill AE, Sorscher EJ Abstract Human and chimpanzee introns contain numerous sequences strongly related to known microRNA hairpin structures. The relative frequency is precisely maintained across all chromosomes, suggesting the possible co-evolution of gene networks dependent upon microRNA regulation and with origins corresponding to the advent of primate transposable elements (TEs). While the motifs are known to be derived from transposable elements, the most common are far more numerous than expected from the number of TEs and their paralogous sequences, and exhibit striking conservation in comparison to ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Brown adipose tissue: clinical impact of a re-discovered thermogenic organ.
Authors: Vijgen G, van Marken Lichtenbelt W Abstract Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is physiologically present and active in adult humans. The stimulation of BAT in man can potentially increase total daily energy expenditure and is seen as a possible target to treat obesity. Altered BAT activity is also related to other diseases and therefore the therapeutic potential of BAT could reach beyond obesity. This is supported by both in vitro and in vivo reports from animal studies, describing the possible role of BAT in both physiology and pathophysiology. In addition, since the discovery of functional BAT several clinicall...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Cardiac effects of carnitine supplementation in experimental uraemia.
This study investigated the effects of chronic L-carnitine supplementation on myocardial substrate metabolism and function in the experimental uraemia. Experimental uraemia was induced surgically in male Sprague-Dawley rats via a subtotal nephrectomy. Carnitine was administered continuously via subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps. Cardiac function and substrate oxidation were assessed in vitro by means of isovolumic perfusion using 13C NMR, at 3 and 6 weeks. Uraemic animals exhibited anaemia, kidney dysfunction and systemic carnitine deficiency but no myocardial tissue carnitine deficiency. Myocardial hypertrophy was abolished...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Biomarkers of bipolar disorder: specific or shared with schizophrenia?
Authors: Bellivier F, Geoffroy PA, Scott J, Schurhoff F, Leboyer M, Etain B Abstract Kraepelin's observations of the differences in the course and outcome of dementia praecox and manic depression fundamentally influenced thinking about bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia (SZ) for over a century. In modern times, there is increasing awareness that a greater understanding of the similarities between these two highly prevalent and disabling conditions can teach us as many lessons about the pathophysiology of severe mental disorders as does the pursuit of differentiating factors. We review publications on developme...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Hybrid-drug design targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa DHPS and DHFR.
In this study, we successfully present the dual-target design hypothesis to inhibit both dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzymes using a novel scheme that integrates our previous antibiotic-phytochemical interaction data, fragment combination and knowledge-based methods. Both the enzymes are well established antibacterial targets from folate biosynthesis pathway and their synergistic modulation by a single hybrid entity may have profound therapeutic benefits. Evaluation of the designed hybrid compounds based on their physico-chemical properties has indicated them as promising drug candida...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Relevance of stretch-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p90rsk in human myocardium.
Authors: Kockskamper A, von Lewinski D, Zhu D, Kockskamper J, Khafaga M, Schmidt AG, Post H, Pieske B Abstract Stretch activates various signal transduction pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Stretch-induced phosphorylation of MAPK-contribution to contractility in human myocardium is unknown. We tested the effects of stretch on p44/42-, p38-MAPK and p90rsk phosphorylation and the functional relevance for force development in failing (F) and non-failing (NF) human myocardium. Trabeculae were stretched to a diastolic tension of 12mN/mm2 for 2.5 to 30 minutes and frozen for Western Blot analy...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Can triggered arrhythmias arise from propagation of Ca2+ waves between cardiac cells?
Authors: Nahhas AF, Kumar MS, O'Toole MJ, Aistrup GL, Wasserstrom JA Abstract Intracellular Ca2+ overload can induce regenerative Ca2+ waves that activate inward current in cardiac myocytes, allowing the cell membrane to achieve threshold. The result is a triggered extrasystole that can, under the right conditions, lead to sustained triggered arrhythmias. In this review, we consider the issue of whether or not Ca2+ waves can travel between neighboring myocytes and if this intercellular Ca2+ diffusion can involve enough cells over a short enough period of time to actually induce triggered activity in the heart. This...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Epigenetic aberration of gene expression in endometriosis.
Authors: Izawa M, Taniguchi F, Terakawa N, Harada T Abstract Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disease. In endometriotic tissues, a high-estrogen environment associated with up-regulation of the aromatase gene has been well documented. There is accumulating evidence supporting a concept that endometriosis is a disease associated with an epigenetic disorder. Epigenetics is one of the most expanding fields in the current biomedical research. The word 'epigenetics' refers to the study of mitotically and/or meiotically heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes in the DNA sequence...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Use of autologous growth factors in aging tendon and chronic tendinopathy.
Authors: Nourissat G, Houard X, Sellam J, Duprez D, Berenbaum F Abstract Aging tendons or chronic tendinopathy are frequent conditions responsible for handicap in middle-aged and aging populations. Current therapies fail to relieve handicap. Medical treatment can sometimes be efficient, but surgical procedures often fail to restore tendon function. Cell therapy with platelets, based on tendon histological modifications and the capacity of such tissue to respond to growth factors, is an ever-expanding field of clinical research. In the current review, we compare the histological properties of normal tendons, aging t...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Echocardiographic effects of eplerenone and aldosterone in hypertensive rats.
In this study, multiple echocardiographic parameters were compared for 42 weeks between SHR versus Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) serving as normotensive controls. In addition, echocardiographic parameters were compared for 28 weeks between the SHR versus SHR treated with eplerenone 100 mg/kg/day or spironolactone 50 mg/kg/day. Compared to normotensive WKY rats, SHRs had significantly increased systolic blood pressure, increased cardiac mass, increased isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), decreased E/A ratio, increased mitral closure opening time interval (MCO) and increased Tei index. Both eplerenone and spironolactone significant...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Percutaneous absorption of aromatic amines and the risk assessment resulting from the dermal pathway.
Authors: Korinth G, Schaller KH, Drexler H Abstract Aromatic amines (AA) are compounds of different carcinogenic potency causing occupational bladder cancer. The percutaneous absorption of AA is mostly appraised to be high. Many AA are, therefore, assigned with skin notations. However, for the assessment of the dermal exposure route only little data are available. Additionally, in many studies the skin penetration data for AA are provided as absorbed percentage of applied dose or permeability coefficients, which are less useful in risk assessment. In this overview, the toxicological relevance of percutaneous absorp...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Mouse models of chemically-induced lung carcinogenesis.
Authors: Vikis HG, Rymaszewski AL, Tichelaar JW Abstract Primary pulmonary malignancies remain the major source of cancer-related deaths in the Western World. While surgical resection is an efficacious therapy for those with early stage disease, the majority of patients present with advanced malignancies and systemic treatments, such as cytotoxic chemotherapy, have only limited efficacy in lung cancer. Furthermore, chemoprevention for current or former smokers has demonstrated only limited success using available agents. The mouse model of primary lung carcinogenesis represents a very valuable tool for the study of...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Monitoring molecules in neuroscience: historical overview and current advancements.
This article provides a short historical overview of implantable devices including voltammetric electrodes, biosensors, microdialysis and related analytical techniques developed for monitoring and sampling brain chemistry in experimental disease models. A special emphasis is given to dopamine, which besides its important role as a neurotransmitter, could be readily detected by electrochemical techniques. Today, about 70% of all published papers applying voltammetry in the brain refer to dopamine monitoring; the corresponding percentage of brain microdialysis papers referring to dopamine is 41%. PMID: 23747910 [PubMed -...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research