The cognitive dysregulation of Internet addiction and its neurobiological correlates.
In conclusion, addictive use of the Internet is associated with deficits in cognitive-emotional processing, aberrant sensitivity to rewards and Internet-related cues, poor impulse control, and impaired decision-making. There is a need to examine neural underpinnings of these aberrant behaviors and neurobiological-cognitive perspective in IA. PMID: 28410153 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 16, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Current status of a unique vaccine preventing pregnancy.
Authors: Talwar GP, Nand KN, Gupta JC, Bandivdekar AH, Sharma RS, Lohiya NK Abstract The ability of a vaccine linking beta hCG to a carrier to generate antibodies against hCG, its reversibility and safety was established by Phase I clinical trials conducted in India, Finland, Sweden, Chile and Brazil. Employing a hetero-species dimer (beta hCG-αoLH) linked to tetanus toxoid further improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine. Phase II clinical trials showed that anti-hCG titres above 50 ng/ml prevented pregnancy of sexually active fertile women without derangement of ovulation and menstrual regularity. On decl...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 16, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

The puzzle of bakanae disease through interactions between Fusarium fujikuroi and rice.
Authors: Matic S, Gullino ML, Spadaro D Abstract Bakanae disease, one of the most noteworthy seedborne rice diseases, is caused by Fusarium fujikuroi, a member of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. The decreasing availability of chemical seed-dressing products over the last few years has raised the concerns of rice seed companies regarding bakanae disease. Therefore, new research trends require a deeper investigation into the main aspects of bakanae disease through interactions between rice and F. fujikuroi, in order to find new resistant or tolerant cultivars and alternative bakanae disease control strategi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 16, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Biphasic organo-bioceramic fibrous composite as a biomimetic extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.
Authors: Kumar S, Stokes Iii JA, Dean D, Rogers C, Nyairo E, Thomas V, Mishra MK Abstract In bone tissue engineering, the organo-ceramic composite, electrospun polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) scaffold has the potential to support cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and homeostasis. Here, we report the effect of PCL/HA scaffold in tissue regeneration using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We characterized the scaffold by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and assessed its biocompatibility. PCL/HA compos...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - February 18, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Age and sex related differences in normal pituitary gland and fossa volumes.
This study investigates the influence of age and sex on the volumes of the pituitary fossa and gland in 91 males and 108 females from Croatia who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the endocranium for complaints not related to the pituitary gland. Isometric 3DT1 MPRAGE and 3DT1 MPR sequences were obtained on 1.5. Tesla and analysed on ISSA software. The volumes were obtained from the sum of all the areas multiplied by the thickness of the section. The mean volume of the pituitary fossa for males was 1111.1.4 mm(3), for females 1354.4.2 mm(3). Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation (P=0.0.09) be...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - February 18, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Potential of redox therapies in neurodegenerative disorders.
Authors: Miller E, Markiewicz L, Kabzinski J, Odrobina D, Majsterek I Abstract Recently significant advances have been made to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders to provide real therapeutic benefits. There is evidence that persistent inflammation and oxidative stress are the crucial factors of ongoing cell damage in neurodegenerative complex etiology. The variety of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are the cause of both axonal and neuronal destruction, which is pathological hallmark of neurodegeneration. Therefore, the reduction of oxidative stress is currently one of th...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - February 18, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Combinatorial effect of curcumin with docetaxel modulates apoptotic and cell survival molecules in prostate cancer.
In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin can reinforce the effect of docetaxel on PCa cells. The PCa cell lines DU145 and PC3 were treated with curcumin and docetaxel alone or in combination. After completion of the treatment cell proliferation and the expression of pro-survival and anti-apoptotic markers and the signaling molecules were analyzed. The combined treatment of curcumin and docetaxel inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis significantly higher than the curcumin and docetaxel-treated group alone. Interestingly, the combined treatment with curcumin and docetaxel modulates the expression of RTKs, PI3...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - February 18, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Trigonella seed extract ameliorates inflammation via regulation of the inflammasome adaptor protein, ASC.
Authors: Sharma N, Suresh S, Debnath A, Jha S Abstract Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) is an important medicinal plant, well known for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of its action remain largely unknown. The apoptosis associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) (ASC) is central to inflammatory and cell death pathways in innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we show that fenugreek seed extract provides cytoprotection to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inflammed and nanosilica-treated fibroblasts via a reactive oxygen...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - February 18, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Presence of PSA antibodies in seminal plasma of infertile men.
Authors: Cuppett VA, Sikka SC, Naz RK Abstract Immunoinfertility due to antisperm antibodies and semen hyperviscosity are among major causes of male infertility. Although the modulation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been investigated in prostate abnormalities, its role and the effect of its dysfunction in male fertility/infertility have not been extensively examined. The present study was conducted to examine the presence of PSA antibodies locally in the seminal plasma of men having immunoinfertility and semen hyperviscosity. Seminal plasma samples from immunoinfertile men (n=25), men with hyperviscous sem...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - February 18, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Filamentous hemagglutinin adhesin FhaB limits A.baumannii biofilm formation.
Authors: Darwish Alipour Astaneh S, Rasooli I, Mousavi Gargari SL Abstract Increased resistance and survival, as well as immune evasion, play a significant role in the pathogenicity of Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, we report on the adhesion of the bacterium to epithelial cells and formation of biofilm on abiotic surfaces. We identificed autotransporter (AT) genes that encode homologues (Fha-like) of the two-partner secretion system (TPS) in A.baumannii (ATCC19606) which we designate as FhaB (exoprotein) and FhaC (transporter) and demonstrate that these novel genes, are under the control of distinct regulatable pro...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - February 18, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Mechanisms of protein aggregation and inhibition.
Authors: Siddiqi MK, Alam P, Chaturvedi SK, Shahein YE, Khan RH Abstract Protein and peptide aggregation raises keen interest due to their involvement in number of pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidosis. Here, we have reviewed recent advances in mechanisms of aggregation, emerging technologies towards exploration, characterization of aggregate structures, detection at molecular level and the strategies to combat the phenomenon of aggregation both in cellular and in vitro conditions. In consistence, we have illustrated almost all factors that influence the protein ag...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Exercise intolerance and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children.
Authors: Minic PB, Sovtic AD Abstract Respiratory symptoms at rest or during exercise may restrain the physical capabilities required for normal motor and psychosocial development in children. The most frequent cause of exercise intolerance, apart from poor physical fitness, is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which may occur in some healthy children and in children with asthma. It is proposed that hyperventilation during exercise is associated with drying and cooling of airways, which can trigger a proinflammatory response. Several tests are used to confirm EIB, and the exercise-challenge test is the mo...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Novel biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their therapeutic potential.
Authors: Raghuwanshi N, Pathak A, Patel A, Vashisth P, Singh H, Srivastava AK, Pruthi V Abstract Here, we explored the medicinal uses of the novel biogenic silver nanoparticles of Pterospermum acerifolium (PaAgNPs) as a cost effective, eco-friendly, reducing and stabilizing compounds. The formation of PaAgNPs was confirmed by changing its color from colorless to yellowish brown, with maximum absorbance at 417 nm. FTIR spectrum of PaAgNPs suggested the presence of polycyclic compound similar to betulinic acid which plays as a capping agent and provided stability to PaAgNPs. FESEM and HRTEM images depicted the spheri...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Protective effect of tangeritin in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Fatima A, Khanam S, Rahul R, Jyoti S, Naz F, Ali F, Siddique YH Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra region of midbrain. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein into depositions known as lewy bodies. Till date there is no cure for PD but the limited number of medications may provide temporary relief from the PD symptoms. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols found in plants. The health benefits of flavonoids have been universally accepted. Tangeritin is a pentamethoxy flavone found in...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

ER chaperone GRP78 regulates autophagy by modulation of p53 localization.
Authors: Kamil M, Haque E, Irfan S, Sheikh S, Hasan A, Nazir A, Lohani M, Mir SS Abstract GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78) is a major Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) chaperone that plays a pivotal role in normal ER functioning. Its increased expression also works as an indicator of ER stress. Its anti-apoptotic and pro-autophagic activity makes it an intriguing target to study the relationship between GRP78 and p53, which is also a major regulator of apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we studied the effect of Rotenone and Parathion on human lung cancer cells (A549 cell line) specifically with respect to ER stress and it...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Phytochemicals in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Authors: Rais J, Jafri A, Siddiqui S, Tripathi M, Arshad M Abstract Ovarian cancer ranks 5(th) among the most common gynecologic cancers and causes the highest mortality in females. Here, we discuss the role of a group of natural products that are being used in treatment and prevention of a host of cancers including ovarian cancer. Some plants and nutraceuticals and their polyphenolic constituents such as flavones, flavonoids, and antioxidants have shown cytotoxic effects on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. While phytochemicals do not harm normal cells, they have been found to be cytotoxic to cancer cells by...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Insight into role of microbiota-gut-brain peptides as a target for biotechnology innovations.
Authors: Elisei C, de Castro AP Abstract It has long been understood that some microorganisms may modify their hosts behavior in various systems. Nevertheless, it has only been in recent years that gut microbiota have opened new perspectives to appreciate their potential for affect complex neurological function in mammals. Efforts have demonstrated the ability of these gut-microbiota to impact neurological outcomes, suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in the gut-brain interactions, indicating that alterations in bidirectional microbiota-brain-gut may be involved in a number of brain disorders. Further...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

ROS mediated pro-apoptotic effects of Tinospora cordifolia on breast cancer cells.
Authors: Ansari JA, Rastogi N, Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Khan AR, Thakur R, Srivastava VK, Mishra DP, Fatima N, Khan HJ, Waseem M Abstract The inevitable development of chemoresistance and unmanageable side effects are the major therapeutic challenges in management of breast cancer imposing an urgent need for identification of novel therapeutic agents. In the present investigation, we report anti-proliferative activity of chloroform fraction of Tinospora cordifolia (TcCF), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, on breast cancer cells. We found that TcCF inhibited growth of breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. More interesti...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Design, synthesis and use of peptoids in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
Authors: Bhowmik A, Basu M, Ghosh MK Abstract Genetic variations in cancer cells are the underpinning for the development of resistance and failure of the treatment by current anticancer drugs. Thus, an ideal drug must overcome failure of treatment and prevents development of drug resistance. There are a wide variety of emerging, easy to prepare and cost effective group of drugs that are collectively called peptoids or peptidomimetics. These new set of drugs exhibit distinct features including protease resistance, are non-immunogenic, do not hinder functionality and backbone polarity, and can adopt different confor...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: Microvascular arteriolar capillaries ('capioles") and survival.
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: Microvascular arteriolar capillaries ('capioles") and survival. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2017 Jan 1;9:110-128 Authors: Labarrere CA, Jaeger BR, Kassab GS Abstract Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a serious complication of heart transplantation in adults and children. Risk factors include human leukocyte antigen mismatches, number and duration of rejection episodes, type of immunosuppression, antibody-mediated rejection, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, diabetes, cytomegalovirus infection, mode of donor brain death, donor age and ischemia/reperf...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Particulate beta-glucan induces early and late phagosomal maturation in murine macrophages.
Authors: Fatima N, Upadhyay T, Sharma D, Sharma R Abstract Beta-glucans are carbohydrates (glucose polymers) found in the cell walls of fungi, yeast, algae, lichens, and plants such as oats and barley. Beta-glucans bind to glucan receptor on phagocytic cells and modify these cells to become "immunologically active" by generating a variety of innate immune responses. Particulate beta-glucan has been specifically shown to engage dectin-1 receptor, which leads to the recruitment and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (NOX-2) and release of antimicrobial reactive oxygen specie...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Diagnosis of cardiac allograft vasculopathy: Challenges and opportunities.
Authors: Patel B, Ahuja A, Kassab GS, Labarrere CA Abstract Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is one of the most common long-term complications in patients following heart transplantation. Because of its irreversible nature, early detection is essential to impact progression. Thus, imaging techniques play a crucial role in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Major advancements in imaging and analysis are required to overcome the limitations of current techniques. Coronary angiography which is the standard method, presents low sensitivity in detection, especially at an early stage. Intravascular ultrasonograp...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Three dimensional tumor models for cancer studies.
Authors: Penfornis P, Vallabhaneni KC, Janorkar AV, Pochampally RR Abstract It is well recognized that one of the major drawbacks of using traditional two dimensional cultures to model the living systems is inaccurately reflecting the physiological manner in which modulators, nutrients, oxygen, and metabolites are applied and removed. Moreover, the two dimensional culture system poorly reflects how different cell types interact with each other in the same microenvironment. Since the first global development of three dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques in the late 1960s, this last decade has seen an explosion o...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Associations of Alzheimer's disease with macular degeneration.
Authors: Biscetti L, Luchetti E, Vergaro A, Menduno P, Cagini C, Parnetti L Abstract There is growing evidence of epidemiological, genetic, molecular and clinical links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Major interest in the relationship between AD and AMD has derived from the evidence that beta-amyloid, the main component of senile plaques, the hallmark of AD, is also an important component of drusen, the hallmark of AMD. This finding has a great potential in the present era of anti-amyloid agents for the treatment of AD. The connection between AD and AMD is also supporte...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 6, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Anticancer activity of drug conjugates in head and neck cancer cells.
We report the synthesis of water soluble nanosize conjugates of paclitaxel, branched PEG, and EGFR-targeting peptide by employing native chemical ligation. We performed a native chemical ligation between the N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) ester of paclitaxel succinate and cysteine at pH 6.5 to give the cysteine-conjugated paclitaxel derivative. The thiol functionality of cysteine was activated and subsequently conjugated to multiarm thiol-PEG to obtain the paclitaxel branched PEG conjugate. Finally, we conjugated an EGFR-targeting peptide to obtain conjugates of paclitaxel, branched PEG, and EGFR-targeting peptide. These conj...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 23, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

IgE mediates broncho-vascular remodeling after neonatal sensitization in mice.
Authors: Chetty A, Cao GJ, Sharda A, Tsay T, Nielsen HC Abstract The temporal origins of childhood asthma are incompletely understood. We hypothesize that allergen sensitization which begins in early infancy causes IgE-mediated airway and vascular remodeling, and airway hyper-responsiveness. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) without or with anti-IgE antibody from postnatal day (P) 10 through P42. We studied airway resistance in response to Methacholine (MCh) challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) inflammatory cell content, immunohistochemistry for inflammation, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) a...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 23, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Randomized controlled trials for Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.
Authors: Lauretani F, Ticinesi A, Meschi T, Teresi G, Ceda GP, Maggio M Abstract The continuous increase in elderly and oldest-old population, and subsequent rise in prevalence of chronic neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), are a major challenge for healthcare systems. These two conditions are the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in older persons and physicians should engage treatment for these patients. In this field, Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) specifically focused on elderly populations are still lacking. The aim of this study was to identify RCTs cond...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 23, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Immediate epileptogenesis: Impact on brain in C57BL/6J mouse kainate model.
Authors: Puttachary S, Sharma S, Thippeswamy A, Thippeswamy T Abstract We have recently demonstrated immediate epileptogenesis in the C57BL/6J mouse, the strain that is resistant to kainate-induced neurotoxicity. By using a repeated low dose of kainate, we produced mild and severe status epilepticus (SE) models. In the present study, we demonstrate the impact of mild and severe SE, and spontaneous convulsive/nonconvulsive seizures (CS/NCS) on structure and function of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala at 7, 14 and 28 day post-SE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of brain sections confirmed reactive astrogl...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 23, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Towards understanding the genetics of Autism.
Authors: Shailesh H, Gupta I, Sif S, Ouhtit A Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect communication skills, social interaction and intellectual ability. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. Early studies focusing on candidate genes have shown that several genes associated with neuronal synaptic function are involved in development of ASD. Linkage studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ASD, and genome-wide association studies have implicated seve...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 23, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Genes associated with T helper 17 cell differentiation and function.
Authors: Nalbant A, Eskier D Abstract Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T helper cells (Th17 cells) constitute a lineage of CD4 effector T helper cells that is distinct from the Th1 and Th2 CD4 phenotypes. In humans, Th17 differentiation is induced in the presence of the cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TGF beta, whereas IL-23 maintains Th17 survival. Effector human Th17 cells express several cytokines and cell surface markers, including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, CCR6 and TNFalpha. Studies on human cells have revealed that the RORC2 transcription factor plays an effective role in Th17 differentiation. Th17 cells co...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 23, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

The potential impacts of formyl peptide receptor 1 in inflammatory diseases.
Authors: Yang SC, Hwang TL Abstract Neutrophils play a critical role in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. N-formyl peptides, which originate from bacterial peptides or mitochondrial proteins bind with a high binding affinity to formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). N-formyl peptide-FPR1 is involved in the pathogenesis of sterile and infectious inflammatory processes and causes phagocytosis of pathogens or injured cells by neutrophils. Excessive activation of neutrophils by binding of N-formyl peptides is associated with tissue injury requiring drugs that block FPR1-dependent signaling. Here, we review the roles ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 23, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

New insights into the bioactivity of peptides from probiotics.
Authors: Mandal SM, Pati BR, Chakraborty R, Franco OL Abstract Probiotics are unique bacteria that offer several therapeutic benefits to human beings when administered in optimum amounts. Probiotics are able to produce antimicrobial substances, which stimulate the body's immune responses. Here, we review in detail the anti-infective peptides derived from probiotics and their potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, including a major role in cross-talk between probiotics and gut microbiota under adverse conditions. Insights from the engineered cell surface of probiotics may provide novel anti-inf...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 23, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Possible role of apolipoprotein A1 in healing and cell death after neuronal injury.
Authors: Sengupta MB, Mukhopadhyay D Abstract Limited axonal regeneration after traumatic injuries to the CNS presents a challenge in neuroscience. Investigation of CSF from subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) has found that the lipid catabolism pathway is implicated in the post injury scenario. Sequestration of the CNS by the blood brain barrier ensures a mechanism of cholesterol metabolism and recycling distinct from that in the peripheral tissues. Apolipoprotein A1, the protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL), is an abundant protein in the mammalian cerebrospinal fluid. Interaction of ApoA1 with i...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 23, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Current unmet needs in renal transplantation: a review of challenges and therapeutics.
Authors: Walsh L, Dinavahi R Abstract While has been considerable progress in the short-term outcomes following renal transplantation over the last several decades, minimal gains have been made with regards to long-term graft function and patient survival (1). The lack of long-term gains has been attributed to factors such as antibody mediated rejection (AMR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and toxicity to the allograft secondary to immunosuppression. Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is also thought to contribute to poor long-term graft function, and its impact on patient and graft outcomes will likely expan...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

TLR4 down-regulation identifies high risk HPV infection and integration in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Authors: Pannone G, Bufo P, Pace M, Lepore S, Russo GM, Rubini C, Franco R, Aquino G, Santoro A, Campisi G, Rodolico V, Bucci E, Ilardi G, Mascolo M, Merolla F, Lo Muzio L, Natalicchio I, Colella G, Laurenzana I, Trino S, Leonardi R, Bucci P Abstract TLRs are main actors of the innate immune response against HPV. There are very few studies on the role of TLRs mediated HPV clearance in Head and Neck oncology. Our aim was to evaluate whether TLR4 expression identifies HPV infection and/or HR-HPV integration status in oral and oropharyngeal cancers. By immunohistochemistry we assessed TLR4 levels in OSCC/OPSCC. To det...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Carcinogenicity, allergenicity, and lupus-inducibility of arylamines.
Authors: Chung KT Abstract Arylamines are widely used in food, drugs, and cosmetics as well as other industries. These chemicals are present ubiquitously in cigarette smoke, smoke emitted from cooking fume hoods as well as are generated by diverse industries. Arylamines can be generated by cleavage of azo dyes by intestinal and skin microbiota. Some arylamines are used as drugs while others are constituents of human metabolism. Many of the arylamines are mutagenic and carcinogenic. They are generally recognized as the major cause of human bladder cancer, but arylamines can induce cancers of other organs in humans a...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Hoxb13, a potential prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer.
In this report, we review the functions attributed to HOXB13, by highlighting the most recent findings supporting the hypothesis that HOXB13 might serve as a novel biomarker for the prognosis of prostate cancer. PMID: 26709644 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

ALK inhibitors for clinical use in cancer therapy.
Authors: Farina F, Gambacorti-Passerini C Abstract Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase protein implicated in a variety of tumors, both solid and hematological. Few years ago crizotinib, an inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases c-Met and ALK, demonstrated its activity in ALK positive non-small-cell lung cancer and other tumors with excellent toxicity profile. Subsequently several ALK inhibitors have been developed, offering new personalized treatment options. This review addresses some clinical considerations on the use of ALK inhibitors in ALK positive tumors and on the development o...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

The emerging role of CD30 and p53 as novel targets for therapy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Authors: Rassidakis GZ, Drakos E Abstract ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). frequently carries the t(2;5).(p23;q35). resulting in expression of NPM-ALK oncogenic kinase, which is capable of activating multiple oncogenic pathways. ALK+ ALCL is also characterized by overexpression of CD30 receptor, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF). receptor superfamily, which has been targeted for therapy using conjugated anti-CD30 antibodies with clinical success. Also, the tumor suppressor p53 is frequently non-mutated in ALK+ ALCL allowing for therapeutic modulation of p53 reactivation in this lymphoma type. T...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Critical role for BRCA1 expression as a marker of chemosensitivity response and prognosis.
Authors: De Luca P, De Siervi A Abstract Chemotherapy is still the leader option for cancer treatment. Nevertheless some patients develop chemotherapy resistance. One major research goal is to identify the critical genes involved in chemotherapy response to predict the best therapy option for patients. Germline mutations in the BReast Cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA1) are associated to increased risk of developing breast, ovarian and other types of cancers. However, due to harmful BRCA1 gene mutations are relatively rare in the general population, nowadays most researchers focused on BRCA1 expression downregulatio...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

GMP-grade platelet lysate enhances proliferation and migration of tenon fibroblasts.
Authors: Carducci A, Scafetta G, Siciliano C, Carnevale R, Rosa P, Coccia A, Mangino G, Bordin A, Vingolo EM, Pierelli L, Lendaro E, Ragona G, Frati G, De Falco E Abstract Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs), widely employed as in vitro model for many ophthalmological studies, are routinely cultured with FBS. Platelet Lysate (PL), a hemoderivate enriched with growth factors and cytokines has been largely tested in several clinical applications and as substitute of FBS in culture. Here, we investigate whether PL can exert biological effects on TF populations similarly to other cell types. Results show that PL significantly en...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Erythropoiesis in vertebrates: from ontogeny to clinical relevance.
Authors: Nogueira-Pedro A, Dos Santos GG, Oliveira DC, Hastreiter AA, Fock RA Abstract Erythropoiesis is a complex process that starts in the course of embryo formation and it is maintained throughout the life of an organism. During the fetal development, erythropoiesis arises from different body sites and erythroblast maturation occurs in the fetal liver. After birth, erythropoiesis and erythroblast maturation take place exclusively in the bone marrow, generating a lifetime reservoir of red blood cells (RBCs), which are responsible for transporting oxygen through the bloodstream to tissues and organs. Several tran...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Curcumin: a novel non-steroidal contraceptive with antimicrobial properties.
Authors: Naz RK, Lough ML, Barthelmess EK Abstract Women face unique pathologies and challenges related to the female genital tract (FGT), including vaginal infections and gynecologic cancers. Vaginal infections faced by women include bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Curcumin, a component of the dietary spice turmeric, has immense biological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory, and anticancer effects. It has no side effects and is well-tolerated, making it an ideal treatment modality highly desired by women. Recent...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Diet and sexual hormones regulate hepatic synaptotagmin 1 mRNA in mice.
Authors: Sancho-Knapik S, Gabás-Rivera C, Gascón S, Romanos E, Martínez-Beamonte R, Navarro MA, Surra JC, Arnal C, Osada J Abstract The expression of Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) has been found to be associated with the lipid droplets in liver. Here, we studied the expression of Syt1 in Apoe-deficient mice receiving cholesterol, Western diet, squalene, and oleanolic acid. We also studied the influence of sex and impact of surgical castration. Dietary cholesterol increased hepatic Syt1 expression, an effect that was enhanced when cholesterol was combined with saturated fat present in a Western diet. T...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Functional amino acids in fish nutrition, health and welfare.
Authors: Andersen SM, Waagbo R, Espe M Abstract Protein is the most expensive part of fish diets and supplies amino acids (AA) for energy, growth, protein synthesis and as substrates for key metabolic pathways. Functional AA is a term used to describe AA that are involved in cellular processes apart from protein synthesis. A deficiency, or imbalance, in functional AA may impair body metabolism and homeostasis. Recent years have seen an increased interest in AA to increase disease resistance, immune response, reproduction, behavior and more. This has led to a boost of commercially available functional fish feeds tha...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Pharmacoepigenetics in gastrointestinal tumors: MGMT methylation and beyond.
Authors: Fornaro L, Vivaldi C, Caparello C, Musettini G, Baldini E, Masi G, Falcone A Abstract Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer pathogenesis. Insights into the molecular basis of GI carcinogenesis led to the identification of different epigenetic pathways and signatures that may play a role as therapeutic targets in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and non-colorectal GI tumors. Among these alterations, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter methylation is the most investigated biomarker and seems to be an early and frequent event, at least in CRC. Loss of ex...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Will cancer stem cells provide more effective biomarkers?
Authors: Hurt EM Abstract Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a rare subpopulation of tumor cells responsible for tumor initiation and eventual patient relapse. Strong preclinical evidence points to the importance of this population for therapeutic intervention and currently there are several anti-CSC therapies under development. While we begin to advance these therapies into the clinic, there is a need to develop biomarkers to measure both patient response and prognosis. This review will discuss the experimental evidence for the role of CSCs in patient outcomes as well as the need, challenges and the hope that CSC ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

SOCS2: physiological and pathological functions.
Authors: Letellier E, Haan S Abstract Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are modulators of cytokine and growth factor signalling whose aberrant regulation has been linked to a variety of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. SOCS proteins are able to act as substrate-recruiting component of E3-ubiquitin ligase complexes and target interacting proteins for degradation. At least some of the family members can also directly inhibit tyrosine kinases such as Janus Kinases (JAK). The most studied family members, CIS, SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3 are important regulators of the JAK-STAT pathway. Here, we focus o...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Prolonged cyclic strain inhibits human endothelial cell growth.
Authors: Peyton KJ, Liu XM, Durante W Abstract The vascular endothelium is continuously exposed to cyclic mechanical strain due to the periodic change in vessel diameter as a result of pulsatile blood flow. Since emerging evidence indicates the cyclic strain plays an integral role in regulating endothelial cell function, the present study determined whether application of a physiologic regimen of cyclic strain (6% at 1 hertz) influences the proliferation of human arterial endothelial cells. Prolonged exposure of human dermal microvascular or human aortic endothelial cells to cyclic strain for up to 7 days resulted ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

An overview of burning mouth syndrome.
Authors: Salerno C, Di Stasio D, Petruzzi M, Lauritano D, Gentile E, Guida A, Maio C, Tammaro M, Serpico R, Lucchese A Abstract Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the c...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research