Silicon nanotweezers for biomechanical and bioelectrical assays.
Authors: Collard D Abstract In modern life, technologies enabling detection of biological molecules at a low threshold, for health and ecological concerns, are in high demand. Directly interrogating the molecules is a promising direction to clarify the noisy response of conventional assays arising from simultaneous different reactions. Besides sophisticated biophysical instrument such as the atomic force microscope, this paper proposes silicon nanotweezers (SNT) as a new microsystem for molecular manipulation. SNT can trap molecules and sense their biomechanical and bioelectrical response in minute operations. In t...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Prevention of cancer and inflammation by soybean protease inhibitors.
Authors: Kobayashi H Abstract Several plant-based nutrients and non-nutrients that can inhibit mutagenesis and cell proliferation have been identified. Some of the most promising compounds identified as chemopreventive and anti-metastatic agents include soybean-derived protease inhibitors (PIs), Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI) and Kunitz-Trypsin Inhibitor (KTI). A growing body of evidence suggests that BBI could act as anti-carcinogenic agent and KTI is considered to prevent cancer invasion and metastasis. These inhibitors are non-toxic, are of low cost and can be taken orally or as a part of the daily diet. PIs are un...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Electroporation as a strategy to promote HtrA1 gene uptake and chemotherapy efficacy in a mouse model of mesothelioma.
Authors: Spugnini EP, Cardillo I, Fanciulli M, Crispi S, Vincenzi B, Boccellino M, Quagliuolo L, Baldi A Abstract There is not a consensus on the best therapeutic approach to mesothelioma and the prognosis is still dismal. We have recently demonstrated that HtrA1 is a potential therapeutic target in mesothelioma cells. In this manuscript we describe that electroporation in a mouse mesothelioma xenograft was able to facilitate the expression of exogenous HtrA1 injected intra-lesionally in the tumors and to increase the penetration in the neoplastic cells of cisplatin given intra-peritoneally. Indeed, HtrA1 over-expr...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Advances in studying phasic dopamine signaling in brain reward mechanisms.
Authors: Wickham RJ, Solecki W, Rathbun LR, Neugebauer NM, Wightman RM, Addy NA Abstract The last sixty years of research has provided extraordinary advances of our knowledge of the reward system. Since its discovery as a neurotransmitter by Carlsson and colleagues (1), dopamine (DA) has emerged as an important mediator of reward processing. As a result, a number of electrochemical techniques have been developed to measure DA in the brain. Together, these techniques have begun to elucidate the complex roles of tonic and phasic DA signaling in reward processing and addiction. In this review, we will first provide a ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Autophagy in epithelial homeostasis and defense.
Authors: Sukseree S, Eckhart L, Tschachler E, Watanapokasin R Abstract Autophagy delivers protein aggregates, damaged organelles and intracellular microorganisms to the lysosome for degradation. The epidermis and other epithelia show significant levels of autophagy, however, the functions of autophagy in these tissues have remained elusive until recently. Here we review the experimental approaches for the investigation of autophagy in epithelia and discuss the roles of autophagy in epithelial cells with a focus on epidermal keratinocytes and thymic epithelial cells. PMID: 23747915 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Evidence for a relation between plasma membrane coenzyme Q and autism.
Authors: Crane FL, Low H, Sun IL Abstract Voltage Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) in the cell membrane transports important molecules and ions across the cell membrane. It was recently shown that VDAC also acts as a trans membrane NADH dehydrogenase. A recent study showed that autistic children have increased antibodies to VDAC proteins and such a binding inhibits both the transport and dehydrogenase activities of VDAC. The derived function of VDAC, therefore, might underlie the development of autism. It has also recently been shown that the dehydrogenase in erythrocyte membranes requires coenzyme Q. Since the plasm...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information.
Authors: Frieden BR, Gatenby RA Abstract Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micrometer and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micrometer. The NM contains approximately 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by ph...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and neurogenesis in endometriosis.
Authors: Hey-Cunningham AJ, Peters KM, Zevallos HB, Berbic M, Markham R, Fraser IS Abstract Endometriosis is a common, benign gynecological disease affecting 10 - 15% of reproductively aged women. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissue at sites outside the uterus. The most widely accepted theory of endometriosis pathogenesis proposes that shed menstrual endometrium can reach the peritoneum, implant and grow as endometriotic lesions. Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and neurogenesis are implicated in successful ectopic establishment and the generation of endometriosis-associated symptoms. This...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Williams' neural stem cells: new model for insight into microRNA dysregulation.
Authors: Palacios-Reyes C, Espinosa A, Contreras A, Ordonez R, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Rubio-Gayosso I, Garcia-Alonso P, Benitez-King G, Ramirez-Rodriguez G, Najera N, Ita-Islas I, Araujo A, Romero-Cordoba S, Palma I Abstract Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, due to a 7q11.23 hemizygous deletion. WS has a characteristic neurocognitive profile that includes intellectual disability (ID). Haploinsufficiency of some of the deleted genes is partially associated with the cognitive phenotype. The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in the microRNA (miRNA) expression in WS patients, ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Wheezing defined.
Authors: Gidaris D, Cunningham S Abstract Wheeze is both a symptom to parents (reported as noisy breathing) and a sign to clinical staff - with very differing perspectives between parents and clinicians on what constitutes "wheeze". The purpose of this article is to consider these differences of understanding from the perspective of different stakeholders so that nobody is "lost in translation". Misunderstandings may lead to epidemiologic and treatment faults. Every effort should be made to educate parents and improve their communications with clinicians. PMID: 23747920 [PubMed - indexed for...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
Authors: de Biase D, Visani M, Pession A, Tallini G Abstract Our understanding of the molecular pathology of thyroid cancer has progressed significantly. It is now apparent that thyroid tumors show a very good correlation between genotype and phenotype, a correlation that is much stronger than that observed in tumors of many other organs. Activation of classic oncogenes (BRAF, RAS, RET) activate MAPK signalling. Other pathways like the PI3K/PTEN/AKT cascade are also active in many thyroid tumors. The analysis of molecular profiles is generating data that can be applied to improve patient management. The common occu...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Clinical features and management of BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated prostate cancer.
Authors: Alanee SR, Glogowski EA, Schrader KA, Eastham JA, Offit K Abstract It is thought that over forty percent of an individual's risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) is related to familial and genetic factors. Although multiple genes have been implicated in the development of PCa, few confer as high a risk as mutations in the genes associated with early-onset breast cancer (BRCA1 and BRCA2). Not only do mutations in BRCA genes increase the risk of PCa, but they have also been related to adverse disease characteristics and outcomes. Therefore, a better understanding of the association between BRCA gene mutat...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Is vitamin D deficiency correlated with childhood wheezing and asthma?
Authors: Comberiati P, Tsabouri S, Piacentini GL, Moser S, Minniti F, Peroni DG Abstract There is increasing evidence that vitamin D regulates immune responses. There is also epidemiological evidence of a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and development of asthma. In addition, several epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of vitamin D during pregnancy and early life are inversely associated with the risk of developing respiratory infections and wheezing in childhood. Vitamin D also seems to reduce asthma exacerbation and increase the response to glucocorticoids. These findings have led to conside...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Inotuzumab ozogamicin in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Authors: Jain N, O'Brien S, Thomas D, Kantarjian H Abstract Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent a major advance in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). CD22 expression, seen in majority of patients with B-lineage ALL, is an ideal target for ADCs. Inotuzumab ozogamicin is an ADC comprised of a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody covalently linked to calecheamicin. Inotuzumab ozogamicin has shown promising single-agent activity in patients with ALL and in CD22 positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Studies exploring the combination of inotuzumab ozogamicin with chemotherapy are ongoing. PMID: 243891...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Asthma and viruses: is there a relationship?
Authors: Moser S, Peroni DG, Comberiati P, Piacentini GL Abstract Asthma is a multifactorial disease in which many factors play a role in its development and exacerbations. Viral infections are known to be the main cause of asthmatic exacerbations and are often the first manifestation of asthma in preschool age. However, there is much evidence suggesting a role of viral infections even in asthma development. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). has been first associated with an increased risk to develop asthma, but recently new viruses have been proposed to be involved in asthma pathogenesis. Further studies will be ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Systems nutrition: an innovation of a scientific system in animal nutrition.
Authors: Lu DX Abstract The traditional scientific system of animal nutrition has existed for over 100 years, but substantial changes are yet to take place. With the lapse of time, limitations of this traditional scientific system have been more and more evident and such a system should be dramatically revised with innovations. Beginning in the late 1980s, our group started to use system-science principles and approaches in animal nutrition research. The author published a book entitled "An Introduction to Systems-Nutrition of Animals", which marked the birth of a new scientific system in animal nutrition...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Reproducibility of measuring cerebral blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry in mice.
Authors: Tajima Y, Takuwa H, Kawaguchi H, Masamoto K, Ikoma Y, Seki C, Taniguchi J, Kanno I, Saeki N, Ito H Abstract Laser-Doppler flowmetry has been widely used to trace hemodynamic changes in experimental stroke research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the day-to-day test-retest reproducibility of measuring cerebral blood flow by LDF in awake mice. The flux indicating cerebral blood flow (CBF), red blood cell (RBC) velocity, and RBC concentration were measured with LDF via cranial windows for the bilateral somatosensory cortex in awake mice. LDF measurements were performed three times, at baseli...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

N₂ gas plasma inactivates influenza virus mediated by oxidative stress.
Authors: Sakudo A, Misawa T, Shimizu N, Imanishi Y Abstract Here we show that N₂ gas plasma, produced by applying a short high-voltage pulse using a static induction (SI) thyristor power supply inactivates influenza virus. N₂ gas plasma treatment of influenza A and B viruses induced the degradation of viral proteins, including nucleoprotein, hemagglutinin, and neuraminidase. The injury of viral RNA genome and the inactivation of hemagglutination were also observed after N₂ gas plasma treatment. These changes were possibly due to changes in the viral envelope, because modification of the lipid content was also...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

microRNAs are dysregulated in the cerebral microvasculature of CKD mice.
Authors: Metzinger-Le Meuth V, Andrianome S, Chillon JM, Bengrine A, Massy ZA, Metzinger L Abstract Vascular calcification arises during chronic kidney disease (CKD), and increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality. In CKD, alterations of cerebral circulation were linked with an increase in ischemic strokes and behavioral troubles. Studying pathophysiological mechanisms of calcifications and detecting new biomarkers in the cerebral circulation is thus an important issue. microRNAs are small non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that regulate messenger RNAs at the post-transcriptional level. They are involved in numer...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Neurocognitive performance as an endophenotype for bipolar disorder.
Authors: Raust A, Daban C, Cochet B, Henry C, Bellivier F, Scott J Abstract Identification of the underlying liability to develop bipolar disorders (BD) is hindered by the genetic complexity and phenotypic heterogeneity of the disease. The use of endophenotypes has been acknowledged as a promising approach that may detect the hidden manifestations of a genetic liability for an illness. One of the most commonly proposed endophenotypes in BD is neurocognitive performance. We identified and examined previously published review articles that had any data pertaining to endophenotypes in BD and combined this with an exte...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective.
Authors: Barthelmess EK, Naz RK Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Can the response to mood stabilizers be predicted in bipolar disorder?
Authors: Geoffroy PA, Bellivier F, Leboyer M, Etain B Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe chronic multifactorial disease that requires maintenance therapy with mood stabilizers (MS). Even with medications, the rate of response among patients with BD is low and the risk of relapse is high. Therefore, in this context of the urgent need for reliable and reproducible predictors of individual responses to MS, pharmacogenetics research is expected to provide helpful progress. Most pharmacogenetic studies of MS have focused on the response to lithium with several good putative candidate genes but informative result...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Molecular determinants for a cardiovascular collapse in anthrax.
Authors: Brojatsch J, Casadevall A, Goldman DL Abstract Bacillus anthracis releases two bipartite proteins, lethal toxin and edema factor, that contribute significantly to the progression of anthrax-associated shock. As blocking the anthrax toxins prevents disease, the toxins are considered the main virulence factors of the bacterium. The anthrax bacterium and the anthrax toxins trigger multi-organ failure associated with enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and cardiac dysfunction in animal challenge models. A recent study using mice that either lacked the anthrax toxin receptor in specific cells and corresp...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Cognitive models of familiar people recognition and hemispheric asymmetries.
Authors: Gainotti G Abstract The aim of the present review consists in reviewing data inconsistent with assumptions made by modular cognitive models of familiar people recognition. In particular, some of these inconsistencies are due to the failure to consider hemispheric specialization as an important variable in familiar people recognition. Indeed, hemispheric asymmetries exist between familiar faces and voices, underpinned by the right hemisphere, and names, subsumed by the left hemisphere. Furthermore, before the level of the person identity nodes (PINs), cross-communication exists between the perceptual channe...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.
Authors: Davies-Thompson J, Pancaroglu R, Barton J Abstract Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching per...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Bio-effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in context of cancer therapy.
Authors: Saliev T, Tachibana K, Bulanin D, Mikhalovsky S, Whitby RD Abstract Bio-effects mediated by non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) have become a hot topic of research in the last decades. This interest has been triggered by a growing public concern about the rapid expansion of telecommunication devices and possible consequences of their use on human health. Despite a feasibility study of potential negative impacts, the therapeutic advantages of EMF could be effectively harnessed for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This review aims to examine recent findings relating to the mechanisms of acti...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Lung function in wheezing infants.
Authors: Sanchez-Solis M, Garcia-Marcos L Abstract Recurrent wheeze is a very frequent disease during infancy. In many cases, this condition is a transient one, but some infants who suffer from this illness, have a persistent recurrent wheeze. During the past decades different international cohorts have been designed to answer what are the risk factors to develop recurrent wheeze and to make the conditon persistent even into the adulthood. Infant lung function could explain some aspects of this pathophysiology. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge on the relationships of recurrent wheeze with ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Accessing stored knowledge of familiar people from faces, names and voices: a review.
Authors: Hanley JR Abstract Recent findings from neuropsychology and experimental psychology appear incompatible with the claim that feelings of familiarity about known people require activation of amodal person identity nodes. Evidence suggests that there are modality-specific effects after the point at which faces, names and voices have been found familiar. It therefore appears that activation of distinct modality-specific face, name and voice processing systems can signal that a known person is familiar. There is no convincing evidence, however, of modular effects on the way that information about familiar peopl...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Emergence of biological organization through thermodynamic inversion.
Authors: Kompanichenko V Abstract Biological organization arises under thermodynamic inversion in prebiotic systems that provide the prevalence of free energy and information contribution over the entropy contribution. The inversion might occur under specific far-from-equilibrium conditions in prebiotic systems oscillating around the bifurcation point. At the inversion moment, (physical) information characteristic of non-biological systems acquires the new features: functionality, purposefulness, and control over the life processes, which transform it into biological information. Random sequences of amino acids and...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Bridging between transplantation therapy and neurotrophic factors in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Ghosh B, Zhang C, Smith GM Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a challenging condition where different therapeutic options have evolved over the course of the last 50 years. The potential for therapeutic use of cell transplantation for cell replacement or for gene delivery of neurotrophic factors has received a great deal of attention. Currently, all available treatment options are directed towards the amelioration of symptoms. A greater understanding of the distinctive pathology underlying PD might offer some novel therapeutic approaches. Transplantation of embryonic ventral mesencephalon (VM) do...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Impairment of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.
Authors: Avidan G, Behrmann M Abstract The goal of the current paper is to review recent findings concerning the neural basis of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face processing that occurs in the absence of explicit brain damage. As such, CP offers a unique model for exploring the psychological and neural bases of normal face processing. We start by providing background about face perception and representation, and then review behavioral evidence gleaned from individuals with CP. We then review recent functional and structural neural investigations which offer a comprehensive account of the ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Understanding face perception by means of prosopagnosia and neuroimaging.
Authors: Rossion B Abstract Understanding the human neuro-anatomy of face recognition is a long-standing goal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Studies of patients with face recognition impairment following brain damage (i.e., acquired prosopagnosia) have revealed the specificity of face recognition, the importance and nature of holistic/configural perception of individual faces, and the distribution of this function in the ventral occipito-temporal (VOT) cortex, with a right hemispheric dominance. Yet, neuroimaging studies in this field have essentially focused on a single face-selective area of the VOT and underestimate...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Involvement of PARPs in cell death.
Authors: Aredia F, Scovassi AI Abstract Poly(ADP-ribosylation), an NAD dependent reaction culminating in the formation of ADP-ribose monomers, and their following polymerization, is activated as an emergency process in crucial situations such as DNA damage and cellular stress; due to this crucial function, the modulation of poly(ADP-ribosylation) during cell death has been investigated. This review will describe the properties of poly(ADP-ribose) as a signalling molecule in different paradigms of cell death, i.e.apoptosis, parthanatos, necroptosis and autophagy. PMID: 24896207 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (S...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

The pathophysiology of smoking during pregnancy: a systems biology approach.
This article focuses on a systems biology approach to studying the pathophysiology of cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Particular emphasis is given to the damaging role of oxidative stress. Cigarette smoking exerts multiple adverse affects but abundant evidence, mostly in adults, suggests that oxidative stress and free radical damage is a major pathophysiological factor. Smoking during pregnancy is known to contribute to numerous poor birth outcomes, such as low birth weight, preterm birth as well as life-long health and developmental problems. It is clinically important to know the separate contributions that cigarette...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Pharmacoresistant epilepsy and nanotechnology.
Authors: Rosillo-de la Torre A, Luna-Bárcenas G, Orozco-Suárez S, Salgado-Ceballos H, García P, Lazarowski A, Rocha L Abstract Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. Furthermore, it is associated to diminished health-related quality of life and is thus considered a major public health problem. In spite of the large number of available and ongoing development of several new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a high percentage of patients with epilepsy (35-40%) are resistant to pharmacotherapy. A hypothesis to explain pharmacoresistance in epilepsy suggests that overexpressio...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Role of agmatine in neurodegenerative diseases and epilepsy.
Authors: Moretti M, Matheus FC, de Oliveira PA, Neis VB, Ben J, Walz R, Rodrigues AL, Prediger RD Abstract Agmatine, a cationic polyamine synthesized after decarboxylation of L-arginine by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase, is an endogenous neuromodulator that emerges as a potential agent to manage diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, there is increasing number of preclinical studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of exogenous agmatine administration on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, nociception, morphine tolerance, memory,...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Brain MRI in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Meijer FJ, Goraj B Abstract In this review article, conventional brain MRI and advanced MRI techniques in Parkinson`s disease (PD) are discussed, with emphasis on clinical relevance. Conventional brain MRI sequences generally demonstrate limited abnormalities specific for PD and in clinical practice brain MRI is mainly used to exclude other pathology. Possibly, brain MRI at higher magnetic field strengths could provide new diagnostic markers. In recent years, new imaging techniques such as susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion (tensor) MRI, magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), and functional MR...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Oral lichen planus: a narrative review.
Authors: Di Stasio D, Guida A, Salerno C, Contaldo M, Esposito V, Laino L, Serpico R, Lucchese A Abstract Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a common disease of unknown aetiology affecting oral mucosae by T-cell mediated chronic inflammation. OLP diagnosis is made by evaluating both clinical and histological criteria. Pharmacological treatment is useful in symptomatic cases. Life-long clinical follow-up is essential, due to low-risk of malignant transformation. In vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM) offers a real-time virtual biopsy of the being tissues and does not require surgical excision nor histopathological p...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms associated with antiepileptic metabolism.
Authors: Lopez-Garcia MA, Feria-Romero IA, Fernando-Serrano H, Escalante-Santiago D, Grijalva I, Orozco-Suarez S Abstract Several factors, including pharmacogenetics, contribute to inter-individual variability in drug response. Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are metabolized by a variety of enzymatic reactions, and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family has attracted considerable attention. Some of the CYPs exist as genetic (allelic) variants, which may also affect the plasma concentrations or drug exposure. Regarding the metabolism of AEDs, the polymorphic CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are of particular interest. There have been r...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Antiepileptic drugs: Energy-consuming processes governing drug disposition.
Authors: Fagiolino P, Vazquez M, Alvariza S, Maldonado C, Ibarra M, Olano I Abstract Diffusion is not the main process by which drugs are disposed throughout the body. Translational movements of solutes given by different energy-consuming mechanisms are required in order to dispose them efficiently. Membrane transportation and cardiac output distribution are two effective processes to move the molecules among different body sites. Gastrointestinal-blood cycling constitutes a supplementary way to regulate the distribution of molecules between the non-hepatic organs and the liver. Any change in the relative supply of...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research