Treatment of brain metastases of lung cancer in the era of precision medicine.
Authors: Haughton ME, Chan MD, Watabe K, Bonomi M, Debinski W, Lesser GJ, Ruiz J Abstract Common and deadly complications of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are brain metastases (BM). BM portends a poorer prognosis with limited effective treatment options and current management strategies present several challenges from iatrogenic complications of supportive medications, optimal delivery of drug across the blood-brain barrier, and preservation of neurocognitive function. Long term side effects and survivorship issues have become more evident in the era of targeted therapy where a systemic disease is much better ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Biology and treatment of metastasis of sarcoma to the brain.
Authors: Ahmad O, Chan M, Savage P, Watabe K, Lo HW, Qasem S Abstract Sarcomas are rare tumors with devastating clinical consequences, often affecting children as well as adults. Brain metastasis in sarcoma is frequently preceded by lung metastasis. Common offenders include Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. Although our understanding of sarcoma metastasis remains limited, several cellular factors and signaling pathways appear to play regulatory roles and/or exhibit prognostic values in sarcoma metastasis. In addition, MicroRNAs have been shown to have either positive or negative impact on sarcoma biol...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

EGFR and HER2 signaling in breast cancer brain metastasis.
Authors: Sirkisoon SR, Carpenter RL, Rimkus T, Miller L, Metheny-Barlow L, Lo HW Abstract Breast cancer occurs in approximately 1 in 8 women and 1 in 37 women with breast cancer succumbed to the disease. Over the past decades, new diagnostic tools and treatments have substantially improved the prognosis of women with local diseases. However, women with metastatic disease still have a dismal prognosis without effective treatments. Among different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, the HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes typically have higher rates of metastasis to the brain. Basal-like metastatic breast tumors f...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Amino acids in sheep production.
Authors: McCoard SA, Sales FA, Sciascia QL Abstract Increasing production efficiency with a high standard of animal welfare and respect for the environment is a goal of sheep farming systems. Substantial gains in productivity have been achieved through improved genetics, nutrition and management changes; however the survival and growth performance of multiple-born lambs still remains a problem. This is a significant production efficiency and animal well-being issue. There is a growing body of evidence that some amino acids have a role in regulating growth, reproduction and immunity through modulation of metabolic a...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

BRIP1, a potential candidate gene in development of non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer.
Authors: Ouhtit A, Gupta I, Shaikh Z Abstract BRIP1 encodes a protein belonging to the RecQ DEAH helicase family. It interacts with BRCA1, and is involved in the repair of DNA damage and tumor suppression. Aberrations in BRIP1 have been mainly associated with the development of breast cancer (BC), ovarian cancer, and type J Fanconi anemia. Based on recent work, we hypothesize that BRIP1 might be the gene involved in the onset of BC in families that do not show BRACA1/2 mutations. This review will focus on the findings supporting this hypothesis, the mechanisms linking BRIP1 to the onset of BC, and the potential cli...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Optimizing microdialysis for deep brain stimulation.
This article reviews those key technical features necessary for performing microdialysis in humans during deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's Disease. PMID: 26709663 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase protects mice against systemic tuberculosis.
Authors: Li C, Peng H, Japtok L, Seitz A, Riehle A, Wilker B, Soddemann M, Kleuser B, Edwards M, Lammas D, Zhang Y, Gulbins E, Grassme H Abstract Tuberculosis is one of the most serious infectious diseases worldwide. The initial pulmonal localization of the pathogens often develops into systemic infection with high lethality. We investigated the role of the mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase (Nsm)/ceramide system in systemic infection of mice and murine macrophages with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Our results demonstrate that BCG infection of RAW cells, a macrophage cell line, results in rap...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Amino acids in healthy aging skeletal muscle.
Authors: Riddle ES, Stipanuk MH, Thalacker-Mercer AE Abstract Life expectancy in the U.S. and globally continues to increase. Despite increased life expectancy quality of life is not enhanced, and older adults often experience chronic age-related disease and functional disability, including frailty. Additionally, changes in body composition such as the involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) and subsequent increases in adipose tissue can augment disease and disability in this population. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant concentrations may also lead to metabolic dy...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Potential biological activity of acacia honey.
Authors: Muhammad A, Odunola OA, Ibrahim MA, Sallau AB, Erukainure OL, Aimola IA, Malami I Abstract Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, anti...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 12, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Physical exercise reduces synthesis of ADMA, SDMA, and L-Arg.
Authors: Riccioni G, Scotti L, Guagnano MT, Bosco G, Bucciarelli V, Di Ilio E, Speranza L, Martini F, Bucciarelli T Abstract Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and low plasma level of L-arginine (L-ARG) are all conditions likely to decrease nitric oxide (NO) production. Aim of this study is to evaluate ADMA, SDMA, and L-ARG plasmatic levels before and after physical exercise in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We studied 30 patient with mean age 52 + 4.5 years. After inclusion in the study, before the execution of physical exercise, heparinized bloo...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Induction of crossover by introduction of aro554:Tn10 into Salmonella chromosome.
In this study it has been found that a Tn10 mutagenesis event not only leads to the inactivation of desired gene (∆aorA), and consequential deletion of other genes upstream of aroA and insertion of IS10, also has resulted in a large-scale chromosomal rearrangement in the Salmonella Typhimurium chromosome. This rearrangement consists of exchange of genetic material between the 10 minute and the 19 minute on a circular chromosomal map (approximately 440 kbps), possibly due to crossover between the two regions. Results from this study are the first evidence of such a large scale rearrangement in the bacterial genome due to ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Mechanisms of PDGFRalpha promiscuity and PDGFRbeta specificity in association with PDGFB.
Authors: Torrente D, Cabezas R, Avila M, Sanchez Y, Morales L, Ashraf GM, Barreto GE, Gonzalez J, Aliev G Abstract Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) interacts with PDGFs A, B, C and AB, while PDGFRbeta binds to PDGFs B and D, thus suggesting that PDGFRalpha is more promiscuous than PDGFRbeta. The structural analysis of PDGFRalpha-PDGFA and PDGFRalpha-PDGFB complexes and a molecular explanation for the promiscuity of PDGFRalpha and the specificity of PDGFRbeta remain unclear. In the present study, we modeled the three extracellular domains of PDGFRalpha using a previous crystallographic stru...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Ambient Environmental risk factors for childhood wheezing illness.
The objective of this review is to summarize the environmental impacts on pulmonary diseases in children based on recent literature over the world. PMID: 25961424 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Perception of dyspnea in children with asthma.
Authors: Douros K, Boutopoulou B, Papadopoulos M, Fouzas S Abstract The subjective experience of discomfort in breathing, termed dyspnea (or breathlessness), is a symptom with multifactorial causes of highly complex and largely undefined psycho-physiologic mechanism(s). There are at least three discrete qualities of dyspnea likely corresponding to different types of respiratory stress and separate underlying mechanisms. Perception of dyspnea can be measured by diverse means; however, none of these scales has been standardized in children. In general, the same degree of bronchoconstriction causes various levels of p...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Bioavailability of different dietary supplemental methionine sources in animals.
Authors: Zhang S, Wong EA, Gilbert ER Abstract Dietary methionine is indispensable for animal maintenance, growth and development. L-methionine (L-Met), and its synthetic forms DL-methionine (DL-Met) and 2-hydroxy-4 (methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) are common supplemental methionine sources in animal diets. There are different characteristics for cellular absorption, transport, metabolism and bio-efficiency between these three dietary methionine sources. Moreover, there are differences in their utilization among various species such as chickens, pigs and ruminants. As a methionine precursor, HMTBA is efficacious ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Kidney transplantation in patients with history of malignancy: Time to rethink the guidelines?
Authors: Baiyee E, Sloan JM Abstract   A history of malignancy is often considered a contraindication for kidney transplantation. While the desire to transplant a 'cancer-free' patient is understandable, the current approach neglects the heterogeneity in the natural history of cancers, even within a given tumor type. The information used to formulate current guidelines are dated and fail to reflect the vast resource of modern oncology clinical trials data that should more accurately predict the expected overall survival and recurrence risk of cancer patients. The expected survival for many cancer patients excl...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

The building process of the functional paraspeckle with long non-coding RNAs.
Authors: Yamazaki T, Hirose T Abstract Nuclei of mammalian cells are highly organized and composed of distinct subnuclear structures termed nuclear bodies. Paraspeckles are subnuclear structures that form around the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) together with numerous RNA-binding proteins, many of which contain an RNA-binding domain and a prion-like domain and are related to specific neurodegenerative diseases. Paraspeckle formation proceeds in conjunction with NEAT1 lncRNA biogenesis and involves the cooperation of multiple paraspeckle-localized RNA-binding proteins...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Multimodal imaging in nonlesional medically intractable focal epilepsy.
Authors: Morales-Chacon LM, Alfredo Sanchez Catasus C, Minou Baez Martin M, Rodriguez Rojas R, Lorigados Pedre L, Estupiñan Diaz B Abstract Identification and localization of epileptogenic zone (EZ) is vital in patients with medically-intractable focal epilepsy, who may be candidates for potentially curative resective epilepsy surgery. Presence of a lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) influences both diagnostic classification and selection for surgery. However, the implications for MRI-negative cases are not well-defined for such patients. Most of these patients undergo invasive long-term Electroencep...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

HPV and CSC in HNSCC cisplatin resistance.
Authors: Modur V, Thomas-Robbins K, Rao K Abstract Cisplatin (DNA intercalator), a standard chemotherapy drug often used to treat head and neck squamous cellular carcinoma (HNSCC) has very low response rates in recurrent disease of HNSCC, this is a major clinical problem today. However, a valuable window to look in to the underlying molecular aspects of a favorable and unfavorable cisplatin response is offered by a distinct disease entity in HNSCC - HPV+ OPSCC. It responds far more favorably to cisplatin than non-HPV driven HNSCC. Another intriguing aspect of head and neck cancer biology is the emergence of the CD4...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Metabolomic analysis of plasma and liver from surplus arginine fed Atlantic salmon.
Authors: Andersen SM, Assaad HI, Lin G, Wang J, Wu G, Aksnes A Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic effect of surplus arginine (36.1 g/kg dry matter) compared to a control diet with required arginine (21.1 g/kg dry matter) in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Although the feeding trial had no significant effect on growth, there were significant differences in the metabolite profile in both plasma and liver in experimental group as compared to the control group. There was increased concentrations of biliverdin, PGF-2 alpha, oxidized glutathione, selenocysteine, two monoacylglycerols an...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Neuroprotective agents and modulation of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Authors: Fernandes MJ, Carneiro JE, Amorim RP, Araujo MG, Nehlig A Abstract Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic condition characterized by epileptic seizures originating mainly in temporal lobe areas. Epileptogenesis is a process in which a central nervous system injury can lead surviving neuronal populations to generate abnormal, synchronous and recurrent epileptiform discharges producing focal or generalized seizures. Hipocampal sclerosis, a massive cell death in the hippocampal formation and in the other regions of temporal lobe, is considered as hallmark of TLE. Despite the numerous antiepileptic drugs (A...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Natural supplements for improving insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.
Authors: Kouzi SA, Yang S, Nuzum DS, Dirks-Naylor AJ Abstract Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by resistance to the actions of insulin to stimulate skeletal muscle glucose disposal. In light of the staggering financial/human cost of type 2 diabetes, there is considerable need for safe and effective agents that can be used to prevent and/or adjunctively treat the disease. Available evidence suggests that a number of natural supplements, including cinnamon, biotin, fenugreek, ginseng, banaba, and alpha-lipoic acid, have the potential to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes in the large at-r...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

ECG in neonate mice with spinal muscular atrophy allows assessment of drug efficacy.
Authors: Heier CR, DiDonato CJ Abstract Molecular technologies have produced diverse arrays of animal models for studying genetic diseases and potential therapeutics. Many have neonatal phenotypes. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder primarily affecting children, and is of great interest in translational medicine. The most widely used SMA mouse models require all phenotyping to be performed in neonates since they do not survive much past weaning. Pre-clinical studies in neonate mice can be hindered by toxicity and a lack of quality phenotyping assays, since many assays are invalid in pups or r...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Ischemia-reperfusion injury in kidney transplantation.
Authors: Chen CC, Chapman WC, Hanto DW Abstract Ischemia-reperfusion injury to the kidney is a complex pathophysiological process that has importance during transplantation as it affects graft function and survival. It starts with the physiological changes associated with the death of the donor, including the direct effects of hypoxia and metabolic stress. The injury continues through the organ procurement and preservation procedures. Upon reperfusion, the organ is then further damaged by a reactive inflammatory process which had been primed during the earlier injuries. Clinically, the damage from microvascular dys...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Recurrent glomerular disease in the kidney allograft.
Authors: Menn-Josephy H, Beck LH Abstract Glomerulonephritis is responsible for nearly 15% of prevalent end-stage renal disease, and many of these patients will receive kidney transplants with the potential for a long duration of allograft survival. Recurrent glomerular disease, however, is not uncommon and can lead to both substantial morbidity and/or loss of the kidney allograft. The timing of recurrence after transplantation as well as the prevalence of recurrent disease vary by study, especially accounting for differences in protocol versus clinically-indicated biopsies, the use of immunofluorescence or electro...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Renal transplantation in amyloidosis and MIDD.
Authors: Stern L, Havasi A Abstract Amyloidosis and monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease, though rare entities, can wreak havoc on the architecture and functioning of the kidneys. These diseases have a predilection to cause severe renal dysfunction leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD). In recent years, the available treatments for these diseases have expanded and afflicted patients are living longer, but with advanced kidney disease. Because of the complex nature of the pathophysiology and treatment of these diseases, it can be very challenging for a clinician to determine whether or not it is appropri...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Evaluation of high-risk living kidney donors.
This article reviews available evidence regarding outcomes after living donation and current trends in U.S. practices, and seeks to provide practical guidance in evaluating high-risk potential living kidney donors. PMID: 25553371 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Nitric Oxide, a new player in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia?
Authors: Del-Bel E, Padovan-Neto FE, Bortolanza M, Tumas V, Aguiar AS, Raisman-Vozari R, Prediger RD Abstract L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) remains the most effective symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the long-term use of L-DOPA causes, in combination with disease progression, the development of motor complications termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). LID is the result of profound modifications in the functional organization of the basal ganglia circuitry. There is increasing evidence of the involvement of non-dopaminergic systems on the pathophysiology of LID. This raises the p...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Biomonitoring of human exposure to arylamines.
Authors: Richter E Abstract Extensive industrial use of arylamines started in the middle of the 19th century in the dye industry. Because of the high incidence of bladder cancer, arylamines belong to the first and most intensively studied occupational and environmental carcinogens. In workers, biomonitoring of exposure to arylamines including ortho-toluidine started in the first half of the 20th century. This review highlights the many gaps in our knowledge on the human carcinogen ortho-toluidine. PMID: 25553373 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Understanding the functional discrepancy of Pim-1 in cancer.
Authors: Ouhtit A, Muzumdar S, Gupta I, Shanmuganathan S, Tamimi Y Abstract The Pim-1 gene encodes for a proto-oncogenic serine/threonine protein kinase and is generally involved in cytokine signaling as well as in various signaling pathways regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. Pim-1 kinase plays a role in the development of various tumors mainly, prostate cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, oral cancer and various other hematopoietic lymphomas. This review will focus on the importance and mechanisms of Pim-1 in prostate cancer and the potential clinical relevance of its various inhibitors. PMID: 25553374 [PubMed - in...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Current strategies and challenges in engineering a bioartificial kidney.
Authors: Kim S, Fissell WH, Humes DH, Roy S Abstract Renal replacement therapy was an early pioneer in both extra-corporeal organ replacement and whole organ transplantation. Today, the success of this pioneering work is directly demonstrated in the millions of patients worldwide successfully treated with dialysis and kidney transplantation. However, there remain significant shortcomings to current treatment modalities that limit clinical outcomes and quality of life. To address these problems, researchers have turned to using cell-based therapies for the development of a bioartificial kidney. These approaches aim ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

The role of trace elements, thiamin (e) and transketolase in autism and autistic spectrum disorder.
Authors: Obrenovich ME, Shola D, Schroedel K, Agrahari A, Lonsdale D Abstract Although there has been much research into autism or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), there is room for considerable conjecture regarding the etiology of these developmental brain disorders. ASD is marked by a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition, including epistasis. This manuscript argues that changes in oxidative metabolism, thiamine homeostasis, heavy metal deposition and cellular immunity have a role in the etiopathogenesis of autism and ASD. Recent findings from our group and others provide e...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Riboflavin as adjuvant with cisplatin: Study in mouse skin cancer model.
Authors: Salman M, Naseem I Abstract Cisplatin used in treatment of solid tumor induces oxidative stress which leads to hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. New strategies are therefore needed to combat toxicity and optimize its therapeutic potential. Riboflavin (VitaminB2) under photoillumination works as an anti proliferative agent and induces apoptosis. These properties of riboflavin have been exploited to mitigate cisplatin induced toxicities. 9,10-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene /12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate  were used to induce skin tumor in Swiss albino mice. The tumor induced mice were treated with cis...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Andrographolide and analogues in cancer prevention.
Authors: Mishra SK, Tripathi S, Shukla A, Oh SH, Kim HM Abstract Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant traditionally used for treatment of cough and cold, fever, laryngitis, and several infectious diseases. Extracts of A. paniculata have shown versatile potency against various diseases including cancer. The active biomolecules of A. paniculata mainly are lactone and diterpene. Andrographolide and analogues have been widely used for prevention of different diseases. Andrographolides have shown potent antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. It showed potentials as chemopreventive agents by suppressing grow...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

N-acetylation of aromatic amines: Implication for skin and immune cells.
Authors: Bonifas J, Blomeke B Abstract Frequently, aromatic amine (AA) contact to the skin occurs via occupational or 'life style' exposure to hair dye intermediates and couplers, usually monocyclic p-phenylenediamines and meta-substituted aminophenols. The transport of AA from the outer surface to the systemic circulation predominantly follows the intracellular route. Skin tends to have relatively higher phase II compared to phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme capacity, and levels are generally regarded as lower than those in liver. Inside skin cells AA are primarily N-acetylated and detoxified by N-acetyltrans...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Selective chromatid segregation mechanism for Bruchus wings piebald color.
Authors: Klar AJ Abstract The mechanisms of asymmetric organ development have been under intensive investigation for years, yet the proposed mechanisms remain controversial (1-3). The female Bruchus quadrimaculatus beetle insect develops two black-colored spots bilaterally located on each upper elytra wing by an unknown mechanism. Fifty percent of the P (for piebald, two colors) gene homozygous mutant insects, described in 1925, had a normal left elytrum (with two black spots) and an abnormal right elytrum (with two red spots) and the balance supported the converse lateralized pigment arrangement (4). Rather than s...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Tumour-associated macrophage polarisation and re-education with immunotherapy.
Authors: Josephs DH, Bax HJ, Karagiannis SN Abstract Monocytes/macrophages constitute important contributors of cancer-associated inflammation. Through their plasticity and capacity to become polarised by tumours towards less activatory and more immunosuppressive (M2) phenotypes, tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) are thought to support tumour progression. Orchestrated by T helper 2 (Th2)-biased stimuli, macrophage recruitment, activation and polarisation in tumour microenvironments is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Their key roles in supporting tumour progression and their capacity for plasticity have ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Pathological functions of hypoxia in endometriosis.
Authors: Hsiao KY, Lin SC, Wu MH, Tsai SJ Abstract Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases that significantly reduce the life quality of affected women. Research results from the past decade clearly demonstrated that aberrant production of estrogen and cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 play indispensable roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. However, the etiology of endometriosis remains obscure. Recent evidence reveals a new facet of endometriotic pathogenesis by showing that hypoxia induces the expression of many important downstream genes to regulate the implantation, survival...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Occurrence, uses, and carcinogenicity of arylamines.
This article will address the occurrence, uses/application, and carcinogenicity of some arylamines. Research perspectives on the the arylamines that induce other diseases will also be discussed. PMID: 25553383 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Surgical aspects of live kidney donation: an updated review.
Authors: Janki S, Dor FJ, IJzermans JN Abstract In the early 1990s, live kidney donation regained popularity to meet the demand of kidney transplantation. Significant developments in the field of live kidney donation have established live donation as the prime source of kidney transplants. Nowadays, management is focused on logistic and immunological innovations, and improvements in care of the live donor. However, a flawless surgical procedure in both donor and recipient is a prerequisite for further expansion of live kidney donor transplantation. From a surgical perspective, the introduction of the laparosco...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Rapid dopamine dynamics in the accumbens core and shell: learning and action.
Authors: Saddoris MP, Sugam JA, Cacciapaglia F, Carelli RM Abstract The catecholamine dopamine (DA) has been implicated in a host of neural processes as diverse as schizophrenia, parkinsonism and reward encoding. Importantly, these distinct features of DA function are due in large part to separate neural circuits involving connections arising from different DA-releasing nuclei and projections to separate afferent targets. Emerging data has suggested that this same principle of separate neural circuits may be applicable within structural subregions, such as the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Further,...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

What does the clinician need from an andrology laboratory?
Authors: Snow-Lisy D, Sabanegh E Abstract What does the clinician need from an andrology laboratory? The andrology laboratory is vital for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of male factor infertility, which is contributory in 50% of infertile couples. While there are some diagnostic tests of limited clinical utility, many tests can be useful in specific clinical settings. In this chapter, we will review the basic interpretation of the semen analysis, testing for sperm vitality and motion, inflammation, semen antioxidant capacity, sperm DNA damage, antisperm antibodies, post ejaculate urine analysis as well as ot...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Cardioprotective effect of melatonin against ischaemia/reperfusion damage.
Authors: Lochner A, Huisamen B, Nduhirabandi F Abstract Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has been shown by several workers to protect the heart against ischaemia/reperfusion damage. Melatonin, both in the picomolar and micromolar range, significantly reduces infarct size and improves functional recovery during reperfusion. This may be due to its free radical scavenging and anti-oxidant effects, while the melatonin receptor and its marked anti-adrenergic actions may also be involved. The latter is mediated by nitric oxide (NO), guanylyl cyclase and protein kinase C (PKC). Melatonin-induced cardioprotection i...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Surgery for deep infiltrating endometriosis: technique and rationale.
Authors: Kondo W, Bourdel N, Zomer MT, Slim K, Botchorischvili R, Rabischong B, Mage G, Canis M Abstract The surgical treatment of deep infiltrating endometriosis is challenging and complex. Currently, the gold standard for patient care is the referral to tertiary centers with a multidisciplinary team including gynecologists, colorectal surgeon and urologist with adequate training in advanced laparoscopic surgery. The surgical technique is essential to adequately manage the disease and to minimize the risk of complications; however, the technique is rarely taught and described in details. This paper reviews our cur...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Design of bone-integrating organic-inorganic composite suitable for bone repair.
Authors: Miyazaki T Abstract Several ceramics exhibit specific biological affinity, i.e. direct bone integration, when implanted in bony defects. They are called bioactive ceramics and utilized as important bone substitutes. However, there is limitation on clinical application, because of their inappropriate mechanical properties such as high Young's modulus and low fracture toughness. Novel bioactive materials exhibiting high machinability and flexibility have been desired in medical fields. Mixing bioactive ceramic powders and organic polymers have developed various organic-inorganic composites. Their mechanical ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering.
Authors: Mallick KK, Cox SC Abstract Reconstruction and regeneration of new tissues are challenges facing scientists, technologists and clinicians. This review describes strategies of selection and design of biomaterials having significant impact on various possible synthesis routes for scaffold fabrication. The criteria for three-dimensional (3D) scaffold architectures are explored in tandem with biomaterial properties such as porosity, interconnectivity and mechanical integrity. The cell-surface biointerface is outlined in terms of biomaterial composition, target tissues and biological evaluation with emphasis on...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Legal issues for chem-bioinformatics models.
This article reviews both: the use of the predictions made with models for regulatory purposes and how to protect (in legal terms) the models of molecular systems per se, and the software used to seek them. First we review: i) models as a tool for regulatory purposes, ii) Organizations Involved with Validation of models, iii) Regulatory Guidelines and Documents for models, iv) Models for Human Health and Environmental Endpoint, and v) Difficulties to Validation of models, and other issues. Next, we focused on the legal protection of models and software; including: a short summary of topics, and methods for legal protection...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Regulatory issues in management of chemicals in OECD member countries.
Authors: Kleandrova VV, Speck-Planche A Abstract The chemical risk assessment is determinant for the approval of any kind of chemical. Each aspect of chemical is taken into consideration for the new chemical legislation registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals (REACH). However, some improvements can be made in order to select and authorize a chemical. QSAR techniques have been used for the study of several kind of toxicological properties in order to realize a deeper study concerning to risk assessment. For this reason, this work is focused into present a review of chemical legislation policies in t...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Patents of bio-active compounds based on computer-aided drug discovery techniques.
This article aims to review prominent cases of patents of bio-active organic compounds that involved/protect also computational techniques. We put special emphasis on patents based on Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models but we include other techniques too. An overview of relevant international issues on drug patenting is also presented. PMID: 23276997 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Plants genetic manipulation: an approach from intellectual property.
This study is about this topic; and valuation about aspects of Biotechnology related with the genome of the plants and their juridical protection, in the international sand as well in Cuba. PMID: 23276998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research