Identification of salt-tolerant cowpea genotypes using ISSR markers and proteome analysis.
Authors: Mini ML, Sathya M, Essa MM, Al-Saadi AM, Jayachandran KS, Anusuyadevi M Abstract Soil salinity globally affects the productivity of staple food crops. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to salt tolerance induced by antioxidant mechanisms can assist in the development of salt-tolerant crops. To decipher the molecular fingerprint of salt resistance, in this study, six salt-tolerant cowpea genotypes at the seedling stage were assessed for their antioxidant responses, yield, genetic polymorphism and proteomics under salt stress. Leaves and roots showed distinct tissue-specific re...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: Event and core associates in bladder cancer.
Authors: Garg M, Singh R Abstract Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) shows different biological outcomes, diverse biological propensities for invading the muscularis as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a dynamic key event during developmental processes, wound healing, and tissue repair. The EMT core molecules include EMT-activating transcription factors (EMT-ATFs), and a host of downstream effectors and target genes including extracellular inducers and growth factors. Here, we describe molecular regulatory determinants of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) and more specifically EMT...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Wilson's disease: A new perspective review on its genetics, diagnosis and treatment.
Authors: Saba L, Tiwari A, Biswas M, Gupta SK, Godia-Cuadrado E, Chaturvedi A, Turk M, Suri HS, Orru S, Sanches JM, Carcassi C, Marinho RT, Asare CK, Khanna NN, B K M, Suri JS Abstract Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder which is caused by poor excretion of copper in mammalian cells. In this review, various issues such as effective characterization of ATP7B genes, scope of gene network topology in genetic analysis, pattern recognition using different computing approaches and fusion possibilities in imaging and genetic dataset are discussed vividly. We categorized this study into three major sec...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Demethoxycurcumin ameliorates rotenone-induced toxicity in rats.
Authors: Ramkumar M, Rajasankar S, Swaminathan Johnson WM, Prabu K, Venkatesh Gobi V Abstract Rotenone, an environmental toxin, is used to induce neurodegeneration in both the cellular and animal model of Parkinson's disease. Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), derivative of curcumin has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics in in vitro and in vivo PD conditions. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DMC in the management of neurodegeneration in PD. Male Wistar rats were radomized and divided into control, rotenone, DMC +rotenone and rotenone alone treated animals....
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Antiapoptotic role of Agaricus blazei extract in rodent model of Parkinson's disease.
In conclusion, the present study shows that A. blazei extract act as potential neuroprotective agent in the management of Parkinsonism. PMID: 30468634 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Fisetin protects against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity through signaling pathway.
Authors: Rajendran M, Ramachandran R Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of fisetin against rotenone induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with fisetin (5µM) 2 hr prior to being treated with rotenone (100 nM). Following the exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to rotenone, there was marked decreased cell viability, increased oxidative stress, activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis (dual staining, expressions of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic indices). However pretreatment wi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Three-dimensional printing as an educational tool in colorectal surgery.
Authors: Bangeas P, Drevelegas K, Agorastou C, Tzounis L, Chorti A, Paramythiotis D, Michalopoulos A, Tsoulfas G, Papadopoulos VN, Exadaktylos A, Suri JS Abstract 3D printing is a rapidly advancing technology which represents a significant technological achievement that could be useful in a variety of biomedical applications. In the field of surgery, 3D printing is envisioned as a significant step in the areas of surgical planning, education and training. The 3D printed models are considered as high quality and efficient educational tools. In this paper A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the edu...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Diagnosis of TB: From conventional to modern molecular protocols.
Authors: Singh P, Saket VK, Kachhi R Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. TB is a curable infection if diagnosed correctly and timely. Late diagnosis and improper treatment may lead to relapse or its escalation to MDR / XDR-TB. TB with HIV co-infection is difficult to diagnose by conventional set-up. Also, detection of child TB and extrapulmonary TB has its own set of problems and is not straightforward to diagnose. The increasing complexity of TB due to the advent of new circulating strains and invasion to the regions where it was no...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Beta2-adrenergic receptor variants in children and adolescents with bronchial asthma.
Authors: Toraih EA, Hussein MH, Ibrahim A, AbdAllah NB, Mohammad E, Kishk AM, Fawzy MS Abstract The region encoding the N-terminal of human β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) shows several polymorphisms. To this end, we studied change in susceptibility and/or response to therapy in 175 asthmatic children and adolescents by the two most common variants of the ADRB2 gene namely, rs1042713 (Gly16Arg) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu). Although, the variants did not correlate with risk of development nor with the severity of the asthma, Gly16/Glu27 haplotype in homozygous individuals conferred protection against developme...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Characterization of embryonic cells obtained from multifetal reduction.
In this study, cells obtained from MFR tissue (termed multifetal reduction embryonic cells (MFR-ECs)), were characterized in vitro by genotypic and phenotypic analyses and tested in vivo by injection under the kidney capsule of nude mice. MFR-ECs were highly proliferative in culture and showed a normal karyotype by microarray CGH. Immunohistochemical analysis at day zero showed positive focal staining for desmin, S-100 protein, synaptophysin and chromogranin. Histology examination showed a mixture of cells from the three germ layers at different stages of differentiation. Markers of these stages included important developm...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activity of Bacillus subtilis silver nanoparticles.
Authors: Muthulakshmi K, Uma C Abstract We tested the hypothesis that silver nanoparticles (BsAgNPs) made by Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities. The bacteria formed nanoparticles in UV-visible spectra with the peak around 430 nanometer detected by surface plasmon resonance and Lambdamax. The FTIR spectra, SEM and XRD revealed the involvement of interaction of biological moieties in the formation of crystalline cuboidal nanoparticles that were had an average size of 10-20 nm. The particles exerted dose dependent antibacterial and antifungal activities and high d...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Beta1-adrenergic receptor antibodies in children with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Authors: Camino M, Morales MD Abstract Autoantibodies to beta-1 adrenergic receptor have been reported in adult patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Removal of these antibodies has a positive hemodynamic effect. Our aim was to investigate whether these antibodies are present in children with DCM and explore the potential hemodynamic benefit of immunoadsorption (IA). Seventeen children with DCM  were tested for these antibodies. The etiology of DCM was genetic (n=5), myocarditis (n=4), DCM and congenital heart block (n=3), DCM associated to maternal lupus (n=1), DCM and Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome (n=...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Curcumin prevents cigarette smoke extract induced cognitive impairment.
Authors: Muthuraman A, Thilagavathi L, Jabeen S, Ravishankar SB, Ahmed SS, George T, Rishitha N, Paramakrishnan N Abstract Curcumin is a major phytochemical constituent in Curcuma longa, an herbaceous perennial plant of Zingiberaceae family, which exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Here, we studied the therapeutic action of curcumin against CSE induced cognitive impairment in zebrafish. Montelukast (20 mg/kg), a cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor blocker was used as a reference drug. CSE exposure induced biochemical changes revealed that raise the brain acetylcholinesterase activi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Role of flavonoid troxerutin on blood pressure, oxidative stress and regulation of lipid metabolism.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of troxerutin (TX) on Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) induced hypertension in male albino Wistar rats. L-NAME (40mg/kg body weight (bw)) administration caused a sustained increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP), levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), tissue lipids (liver and kidney) such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and significant decrease in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, phospholipids (PL) and levels of non enzymatic antiox...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

p53 and P-glycoprotein influence chemoresistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Authors: Li S, Gao M, Li Z, Song L, Gao X, Han J, Wang F, Chen Y, Li W, Yang J Abstract Chemoresistance is a critical obstacle to the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanisms underlying resistance to doxorubicin, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil involve p53 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). p53 plays a role in cell growth; therefore, resistance mechanisms involve chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and p53 mutation and inactivation. P-gp is an energy-dependent drug efflux pump regulated by p53. Its role in drug resistance has provided new insights into the mechanisms underlying the involvement of p53 and P-gp i...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Valeriana wallichii extract inhibits tert-BOOH induced oxidative damage and cytotoxicity.
In conclusion present study revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective property of VW against oxidative stress. PMID: 29772520 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Myricetin attenuates neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in Parkinsonism.
Authors: Dhanraj V, Karuppaiah J, Balakrishnan R, Elangovan N Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease due to dopaminergic neuron degeneration. It mostly affects the aged population, leads to memory decline and loss of motor coordination. The present study investigates the neuroprotective role of myricetin a flavonol isolated from the brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata in rotenone induced Drosophila model of PD. Rotenone administration led to dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, dopamine depletion, impaired muscular coordination, gait disturbances, memory decline oxidative stress and...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Bariatric surgery drives major rearrangements of the intestinal microbiota including the biofilm composition.
Authors: Campisciano G, Cason C, Palmisano S, Giuricin M, Rizzardi A, Croce LS, De Manzini N, Comar M Abstract The intestinal microbiota disequilibrium has been associated with obesity, while the role of the gut mucosal biofilms in this pathology is still unknown. We analysed the changes in the intestinal microbiota of obese patients after bariatric surgery with the aim of disclosing the rearrangement of the biofilm configuration. Although the bariatric surgery drives major rearrangements of the gut microbiota, obese patients maintain the Prevotella enterotype before and after surgery, as shown by normal weight pat...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

MHC-B haplotypes impact susceptibility and resistance to RSV-A infection.
Authors: Khare VM, Saxena VK, Tomar A, Singh KP, Singh KB, Tiwari AK Abstract We investigated the impact of haplotype of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-B on the outcome of infection of Synthetic Dam Line (SDL) broiler strain with Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV). Genomic analysis of MHC-B haplotypes, revealed a total of 12 known standard haplotypes that constituted to twenty-five different genotypes and one new haplotype of 217 bp size, designated BX. The inoculation of RSV-A in SDL chicks resulted in the development of tumors...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

High incidence of BRAF  V600 mutation in Indian patients with head and neck cancer.
High incidence of BRAF V600 mutation in Indian patients with head and neck cancer. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2018 Jun 01;10:520-527 Authors: Gauthaman A, Moorthy A Abstract In cancer cells, BRAF is frequently mutated at codon 600 (V600) leading to the replacement of valine amino acid with other amino acids. The current study was performed to assess the prevalence of BRAFV600 mutation in Indian patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Among the patients, 27% were homozygous, and 71% were heterozygous for the mu...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Vaginal microbiota dysmicrobism and role of biofilm-forming bacteria.
Authors: Campisciano G, Zanotta N, Petix V, Corich L, De Seta F, Comar M Abstract Bacterial vaginosis involves the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, guaranteeing immune escape and spread of antibiotic resistance. To spot known biofilm-forming bacteria, we profiled the vaginal microbiome of sixty-four symptomatic women suffering from a different grade of vaginal disorders and sixty asymptomatic healthy women. Specific microbial profiles distinguished symptomatic from asymptomatic women and characterized the grade of dysmicrobism within the symptomatic group. Lactobacillus crispatus and i...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Marine derived bioactive compounds for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Lakshmi S, Prakash P, Essa MM, Qoronfleh WM, Akbar M, Song BJ, Kumar S, Elumalai P Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD ) is mounting as social and economic encumbrance which are accompanied by deficits in cognition and memory. Over the past decades, Alzheimer's disease (AD) holds the frontline as one of the biggest healthcare issues in the world. AD is an age related neurodegenerative disorder marked by a decline in memory and an impairment of cognition. Inspite of tedious scientific effort, AD is still devoid of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment as well as prevention. Current treatment strategies ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - May 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Daily subcutaneous testosterone for management of testosterone deficiency.
Authors: Yazdani N, Matthews Branch S Abstract Testosterone deficiency (TD) is a public health concern, a predictor of metabolic syndrome, and is associated with an increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Testosterone deficiency in men is treated by a variety of methods including injectable testosterone compounds, patches, gels, pellets, and oral preparations. The use of testosterone alone has been linked to various adverse effects including, infertility, testicular atrophy, erythropoiesis, and gynecomastia. To determine the effectiveness of therapy using the Daily Subcutaneous Testosterone (DST) method i...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Modifying progression of aging and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases by probiotics and synbiotics.
Authors: Lye HS, Lee YT, Ooi SY, Teh LK, Lim LN, Wei LK Abstract Aging, which affects most of the multi-cellular organisms, is due to a potentially complex set of mechanisms that collectively cause a time-dependent decline of physiological functions. Aging restrains longevity and leads to neurodegenerative diseases including dementia, Alzheimer's disease and lacunar stroke. Human microbiota is now considered to have a strong impact on the progression of aging. The impact of aging and the risk of neurodegenerative diseases can be reduced by using probiotics, or preferably by combining probiotics and prebiotics,...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Nanoantibiotics: Future nanotechnologies to combat antibiotic resistance.
Authors: Muzammil S, Hayat S, Fakhar-E-Alam M, Aslam B, Siddique MH, Nisar MA, Saqalein M, Atif M, Sarwar A, Khurshid A, Amin N, Wang Z Abstract The discovery of antibiotics was hailed as a historic breakthrough for the human race in the fight against bacterial and malignant infections. However, in a very short time, owing to their acute and aggressive nature, bacteria have developed resistance against antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics agents. Potentially, this situation could again result in bacterial infection outbreaks. Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have been proven as better alternatives; the combin...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Five- hit hypothesis in ATM gene: An individualized model in a breast cancer patient.
Authors: Mehdipour P, Azarnezhad A Abstract The aim of this study was to trace D1853N in a proband affected with primary BC to explore the molecular, cellular and structural aspects of ATM. Exon 37 and splicing regions were PCR-sequenced. Allelic location of the alterations was determined by molecular cloning. Possible impact of alterations was investigated through the bioinformatics and protein expression assays. Five genetic variants including IVS 36-91 AA>TT, IVS 36-8 T>C, D1853N, IVS 37+47 A>G, IVS 37+60 Del T were found in the target regions of ATM and all the alterations were occurred heterezygously....
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Pathomechanisms of polycystic ovary syndrome: Multidimensional approaches.
Authors: Sagvekar P, Dadachanji R, Patil K, Mukherjee S Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex endocrine disorder affecting numerous women of reproductive age across the globe. Characterized mainly by irregular menses, hirsutism, skewed LH: FSH ratios and bulky polycystic ovaries, this multifactorial endocrinopathy results in unfavorable reproductive and metabolic sequelae, including anovulatory infertility, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in later years. Increasing evidence has shown that the manifestation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is attributable to a cumulative i...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Prostate cancer susceptibility and growth linked to Y chromosome genes.
Authors: Patel R, Khalifa AO, Isali I, Shukla S Abstract The role of Y chromosome in prostate cancer progression and incidence is not well known. Among the 46 chromosomes, Y chromosome determines the male gender. The Y chromosome is smaller than the X chromosome and contains only 458 genes compared to over 2000 genes found in the X chromosome. The Y chromosome is prone to high mutation rates, created exclusively in sperm cells due to the highly oxidative environment of the testis. Y chromosome harbors epigenetic information, which affects the expression of genes associated with the incidence and progression of pros...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Thraatchathi Chooranam, protects cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress.
Authors: Ganapathy R, Mani S, Hanumanth Rao BR, Tunku K, Ray B, Bhat A, Chidambaram SB Abstract Thraatchathi Chooranam (TC), is a polyphenol-rich Indian traditional medicine. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of TC against H2O2 induced oxidative stress and apoptotic damage in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Cell viability assay indicated relative safety (IC50= 488.10±12.04 mg/ml) of TC. Pretreatment of cells with TC upregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl2, and anti-oxidants TRX1 and TRXR and downregulated Bax and HIF-α and inflammatory genes iNOS and TNF-α. Together, these findings show that T...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

The diagnosis of plant pathogenic bacteria: a state of art.
Authors: Scala V, Pucci N, Loreti S Abstract Plant protection plays an important role in agriculture for the food quality and quantity. The diagnosis of plant diseases and the identification of the pathogens are essential prerequisites for their understanding and control. Among the plant pests, the bacterial pathogens have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Different techniques (microscopy, serology, biochemical, physiological, molecular tools and culture propagation) are currently used to detect and identify bacterial pathogens. Detection and identification are critical steps for the appropriate ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - January 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Centchroman: A safe reversible postcoital contraceptive with curative and prophylactic activity in many disorders.
Authors: Kamboj VP, Ray S, Anand N Abstract Centchroman (INN: Ormeloxifene), a reversible post-coital/weekly oral contraceptive (half-life of about 168 hours), designed and developed at CDRI, Lucknow is the only non-steroidal oral contraceptive in clinical use in the world today. Synthesized in 1967 and completing pre-clinical and clinical studies in 1989, this drug was approved for marketing in 1991, social marketing in 1995 and NFPW in April 2016. It acts by preventing implantation of blastocyst in endometrium. It is the only contraceptive which neither suppresses ovulation nor interferes with the hypothalamic-pi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Therapeutic startegies for human papillomavirus infection and associated cancers.
Authors: Bharti AC, Singh T, Bhat A, Pande D, Jadli M Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is linked to development of cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, ano-genital and non-genital oro-pharyngeal sites. HPV being a sexually transmitted virus infects both genders equally but with higher chances of pathological outcome in women. In the absence of organized screening programs, women report HPV-infected lesions at relatively advanced stages where they are subjected to standard treatments that are not HPV-specific. HPV infection-driven lesions usually take 10-20 years for malignant progression and are pre...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Microfluidics technology for drug delivery: A review.
Authors: Mancera-Andrade EI, Parsaeimehr A, Arevalo-Gallegos A, Ascencio-Favela G, Parra Saldivar R Abstract Microfluidics is undoubtedly an influential technology that is currently revolutionizing the chemical and biological studies by replicating laboratory bench-top technology on a miniature chip-scale device. In the area of drug delivery science, microfluidics offers advantages, such as precise dosage, ideal delivery, target-precise delivery, sustainable and controlled release, multiple dosing, and slight side effects. These advantages bring significant assets to the drug delivery systems. Microfluidic technolo...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Association between ovarian endometrioma and ovarian reserve.
Authors: Kitajima M, Khan KN, Harada A, Taniguchi K, Inoue T, Kaneuchi M, Miura K, Masuzaki H Abstract Endometrioma is one of the main pathologies of endometriosis, though its pathogenesis still remains enigmatic. Ovarian reserve is defined as the number and quality of the follicles left in the ovary at any given time. The cause of infertility in women with endometriosis is multifactorial. Diminished ovarian reserve is major concern in women with endometriosis-associated infertility. Cystectomy for endometriomas could negatively impact on post-operative ovarian reserve. Some women had surgery for endometriomas suff...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Transcriptomics in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Authors: Krokidis MG, Vlamos P Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death of upper and lowers motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, which ultimately leads to paralysis and death within 2-3 years of onset. ALS is poorly understood, although multiple studies have been proposed to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disorder. The development of microarray technology, for simultaneous analysis of the transcriptional expression of thousands of genes, has provided new possibilities to get bet...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Anti-tick vaccines in the omics era.
Authors: Valle MR, Guerrero FD Abstract Tick vaccines have been available for more than 20 years. They are useful and effective control agents when used properly. However, no new products have emerged since the Bm86-based Gavac vaccine was commercialized. Acaricide resistance is a problem with no abatement in sight and anti-tick vaccines are likely to be relied upon even more in the coming years. As human medicine and plant agriculture has embraced the various Omics technologies, the search for anti-tick vaccines would be well served to follow; so that new vaccine antigens and adjuvants might be developed to assist...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Age-related pathological changes in the pancreas.
Authors: Matsuda Y Abstract Pancreas has a complex histology and is characterized by a combination of endocrine and exocrine cells. Pancreas undergoes various pathological changes with aging characterized by increased fatty replacement, fibrosis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, amyloid deposition, a decreased weight as well as development of intra-epithelial neoplastic changes. These age-related alterations lead to diabetes mellitus and can predispose the individual to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In this review, we summarize age-related morphological and pathological changes of aging in pancreas. PMID: 28...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

RPS6KA4/MIR1237 and AURKC promoter regions are differentially methylated in Wilms' tumor.
In this study, the DNA methylation profile of WT was characterized with Beadchip array. Comparisons between WT with normal kidney identified 827 differentially methylated regions, most of which were attributable in hypermethylation in CpG islands. Among affected genes, WT1 and TP73 showed altered enhancers where hypermethylation was validaded by pyrosequencing. Thirty differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified in WT as compared to normal kidney, two of which were previously described. Two novel DMRs, located in RPS6KA4/MIR1237 and the AURKC promoter, were found to be hypermethylated in WT. Altogether, our dat...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Biomass breakdown: A review on pretreatment, instrumentations and methods.
Authors: Vyas P, Kumar A, Singh S Abstract Enzymatic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass for liquid fuel production is a viable alternative to fossil fuels, due to its renewable and environmental friendly nature. Naturally, plants protect their cell wall polysaccharides by giving limited access to the cell wall degrading enzymes. Lignocellulose breakdown requires proper pretreatments that disrupt the close inter-component association between the constituents of the plant cell wall. For efficient biomass conversion, the choice of the correct pretreatment is important for removing the barriers to enhance access to m...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Genetic addiction risk score (GARS) ™, a predictor of vulnerability to opioid dependence.
Genetic addiction risk score (GARS) ™, a predictor of vulnerability to opioid dependence. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2018 Jan 01;10:175-196 Authors: Blum K, Chen ALC, Thanos PK, Febo M, Demetrovics Z, Dushaj K, Kovoor A, Baron D, Smith DE, Roy Iii AK, Fried L, Chen TJH, Chapman E, Modestino E, Steinberg B, Badgaiyan RD Abstract The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion auth...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

An automated approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy using SD-OCT images.
This study was to demonstrate the feasibility of an automatic approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) from SD-OCT images. These scans were prospectively collected from 200 subjects through the fovea then were automatically segmented, into 12 layers. Each layer was characterized by its thickness, tortuosity, and normalized reflectivity. 26 diabetic patients, without DR changes visible by funduscopic examination, were matched with 26 controls, according to age and sex, for purposes of statistical analysis using mixed effects ANOVA. The INL was narrower in diabetes (p = 0.14), while the NFL (p = 0.04) and IZ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Inter-species functional interactome of nuclear steroid receptors (R1).
Authors: Geronikolou SA, Pavlopoulou A, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Chrousos G Abstract Steroids exert their actions by binding to the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgen, estrogen and progesterone classes of receptors. Despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of steroid receptors, their interactions with other molecules, subcellular location and functions still need further elucidation. To unravel the mechanism(s) of action of the steroid hormones, as well as the function of their cognate nuclear receptors, an interaction network was created (henceforth referred to as "R1 Interactome")- illustra...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Role for apolipoprotein E in neurodegeneration and mercury intoxication.
Authors: Arrifano GPF, de Oliveira MA, Souza-Monteiro JR, Paraense RO, Ribeiro-Dos-Santos A, Vieira JRDS, Silva ALDC, Macchi BM, do Nascimento JLM, Burbano RMR, Crespo-Lopez ME Abstract Mercury intoxication is a serious public health problem and a worldwide concern. The Minamata Convention on Mercury has been signed by 128 countries and endorsed by the World Health Organization with the recommendation of promoting the management of epidemiological information. The Central Nervous System is the main target organ for mercury. Symptoms of intoxication include altered motor coordination, visual and tactile dysfunction ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Development of a semi-automated image-based high-throughput drug screening system.
Authors: Eren RO, Kopelyanskiy D, Moreau D, Chapalay JB, Chambon M, Turcatti G, Lye LF, Beverley SM, Fasel N Abstract We previously reported that the innate sensing of the endosymbiont Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) within Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis through Toll-like receptor 3, worsens the pathogenesis of parasite infection in mice. The presence of LRV1 has been associated with the failure of first-line treatment in patients infected with LRV1 containing -L. guyanensis and -L. braziliensis parasites. Here, we established a semi-automated image-based high-throughput drug screening (HTDS) protocol to measure par...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Genetic manipulation of microalgae for the production of bioproducts.
Authors: Vazquez-Villegas P, Torres-Acosta MA, Garcia-Echauri SA, Aguilar-Yanez JM, Rito-Palomares M, Ruiz-Ruiz F Abstract Microalgae have been used during the past four decades in the Bio-industries for the production of high added value products and development of useful approaches with environmental applications. The fast growing rate, simple growth requirements and using sunlight as the major source of energy are the key factors for usage of algae. In the past 15 years, a considerable progress has been made regarding the use of microalgae for production of proteins, nutraceuticals, food supplements, molecular t...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Enhancement of biomass and phycocyanin content of Spirulina platensis.
Authors: Khazi MI, Demirel Z, Conk Dalay M Abstract Response surface methodology (RSM) based on the 2(3) factorial central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate optimum culture conditions (temperature, light irradiance and agitation) to enhance biomass and phycocyanin content of Spirulina platensis. The predicted maximum biomass and phycocyanin content by RSM was 1.06 g L(-1) and 107 mg L(-1), respectively, whereas maximum biomass and phycocyanin content of 1.32 g L(-1) and 127 mg L(-1) was obtained in the validation experiments under optimized conditions after 10 days of cultivation. Further, influence o...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Asiatic acid nullified aluminium toxicity in in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Ahmad Rather M, Justin Thenmozhi A, Manivasagam T, Nataraj J, Mohamed Essa M, Chidambaram SB Abstract Aluminium (Al) is a ubiquitously distributed environmental toxicant that lacks biological functions; however, its accumulation in the brain has been demonstrated to be linked to several neuropathological conditions particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). Asiatic acid (AA), a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica, has been reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of AA again...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Effects and mechanisms of actions of phytochemicals on Alzheimer's disease neuropathology.
Authors: Hartman RE, Ross DM Abstract Alzheimer's disease affects millions of people, yet, there are only a limited number approaches for it pharmacological treatment. Thus, identifying factors that decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is of paramount importance. A growing body of epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that dietary fruits and vegetables have neuroprotective effects against the harmful effects of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and aging. These effects are mediated by various phytochemical compounds found in plants that exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and othe...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Effect of ancestry on interleukin-10 haplotypes in chronic periodontitis.
This study investigated genetic polymorphisms in Interleukin 10 (A-1082G, C-819T and C-592A) in 205 individuals from an admixed Brazilian population. A significantly increased risk of developing chronic periodontitis was observed in individuals with low IL-10 production and Amerindian ancestry. These results suggest that the polymorphisms A-1082G, C-819T, and C-592A, which are associated with ancestry, are involved in the susceptibility to the development of chronic periodontitis in an admixed northern Brazilian population. PMID: 28410151 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 16, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research

Fungal immunomodulatory proteins in the context of biomedicine.
Authors: Uribe-Echeverry PT, Lopez-Gartner GA Abstract Fungi represent a large group of biodiverse microorganisms with potential applications ranging from industrial fields to the treatment for human diseases. A large number of pharmacologically active compounds including terpenoids, polysaccharides and proteins have been derived from these microorganisms. Fungal Immunomodulatory Proteins (FIPs) are a group of active compounds that are being considered for the treatment of asthma, allergy, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Here, we discuss the discovery, heterologous production bioactive mechanisms of action and thei...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite - April 16, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Elite Ed) Source Type: research