Application of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Medical Therapies.
Abstract The discovery of X-rays and radioactivity in 1895/1896 triggered a flood of studies and applications of radiation in medicine that continues to this day. They started with imaging fractures/organs and progressed to treating diseases by exposing areas to radiation from external and internal sources. By definition, low-dose treatments stimulate damage control (or adaptive protection) systems that remedy diseases. Publications are identified on low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) therapies for different cancers, infections, inflammations, and autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. The high rate of endogen...
Source: Dose Response - January 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cuttler JM Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

A Nontarget Mechanism to Explain Carcinogenesis Following α-Irradiation.
A Nontarget Mechanism to Explain Carcinogenesis Following α-Irradiation. Dose Response. 2019 Oct-Dec;17(4):1559325819893195 Authors: Priest ND Abstract This commentary highlights the published data on the metabolic processes that lead to the development of cancer following intakes of asbestos and chemical agents. Following exposure to both, the key initiating event is cell injury leading to cell death that may further lead to inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Since α-particle transits also kill cells, it is suggested that cell death and inflammation will also trigger carcinogenesis withi...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Priest ND Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Effect of Amitriptyline on Radiation-Induced Impairment of Hippocampal Neurogenesis.
Abstract The radioprotective effect of amitriptyline, an inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), on radiation-induced impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis, loss of interneuron, and animal weight changes was investigated in BALB/c mice by immunostaining of biomarkers for cell division (Ki67), immature neurons (doublecortin or DCX), and interneurons (parvalbumin or PV) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. The results indicated that preirradiation (with 10 mg/kg, 2 times per day, for 7 consecutive days) or postirradiation (with 10 mg/kg, 2 times per day, for 14 consecutive days) treatment (pretreatment or...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Guo YR, Liu ZW, Peng S, Duan MY, Feng JW, Wang WF, Xu YH, Tang X, Zhang XZ, Ren BX, Tang FR Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Quantitative Evaluation of Hormesis in Breast Cancer Using Histoculture Drug Response Assay.
Conclusion: We evaluated hormesis in breast cancer tissue using HDRA for the first time although previously confirmed in cultured cells. Hormesis seems to occur in patients undergoing treatment with anticancer agents, especially in a metastatic setting. Meanwhile, tumor growth may be stimulated in patients who are resistant to paclitaxel. PMID: 31903070 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Aoishi Y, Yoshimasu T, Oura S, Kawago M, Hirai Y, Miyasaka M, Ohashi T, Nishimura Y Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Case-Control Study Investigating the Association Between Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Taiwan.
Conclusion: No significant association can be detected between SSRI use and pulmonary tuberculosis in Taiwan. No duration-dependent effect or dose-dependent effect of SSRIs use can be detected on the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID: 31903071 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cheng KC, Liao KF, Lin CL, Lai SW Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Use CT Imaging to Predict the Short-Term Outcome of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Conclusions: Computed tomography imaging in the middle stage of radiotherapy can predict the short-term outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced ESCC but have no predictive effect on the total survival time. PMID: 31908624 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cao X, Li X, Wang X, Duan J, Zhu S, Zeng H, Yin Y, Yuan S, Hu X Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

A Patients-Based Statistical Model of Radiotherapy Dose Distribution in Nasopharyngeal Cancer.
Conclusions: A PCA-based model of dose distribution variations in patients with NPC was developed, and its accuracy was determined. This model could serve as a predictor of 3-dimensional dose distribution. PMID: 31857802 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liu G, Yang J, Nie X, Zhu X, Li X, Zhou J, Kabolizadeh P, Li Q, Quan H, Ding X Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Exosomes: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Cartilage and Bone Tissue Regeneration.
Abstract Despite traditionally treating autologous and allogeneic transplantation and emerging tissue engineering (TE)-based therapies, which have commonly performed in clinic for skeletal diseases, as the "gold standard" for care, undesirably low efficacy and other complications remain. Therefore, exploring new strategies with better therapeutic outcomes and lower incidences of unfavorable side effect is imperative. Recently, exosomes, secreted microvesicles of endocytic origin, have caught researcher's eyes in tissue regeneration fields, especially in cartilage and bone-related regeneration. Multiple r...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liu Y, Ma Y, Zhang J, Yuan Y, Wang J Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Targeting Approaches of Nanomedicines in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Abstract Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy, which is commonly associated with high incidence and mortality among adult patients. The standard induction regimen for AML has been substantially unchanged over the past 40 years, for which novel nanomedicines have represented a promising strategy in AML therapies. Despite developments of multiple nanoparticles formulated with drugs or genes, less there is not much information available about approaches in AML is available. This review presents an overview of nanomedicines currently being evaluated in AML. First, it briefly summarized convention...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huang X, Lin H, Huang F, Xie Y, Wong KH, Chen X, Wu D, Lu A, Yang Z Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Ethylene Oxide: Cancer Evidence Integration and Dose-Response Implications.
Abstract The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) classified ethylene oxide (EtO) as a known human carcinogen. Critically, both noted that the epidemiological evidence based on lymphoid and breast cancers was "limited," but that the evidence in animal studies was "sufficient" and "extensive" (respectively) and that EtO is genotoxic. The USEPA derived one of the highest published inhalation unit risk (IUR) values (3 × 10-3 per [µg/m3 EtO]), based on results from 2 epidemiological studies. We perform...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vincent MJ, Kozal JS, Thompson WJ, Maier A, Dotson GS, Best EA, Mundt KA Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Identification of lncRNA, MicroRNA, and mRNA-Associated CeRNA Network of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in a Mice Model.
Abstract Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) can be challenging for thoracic radiotherapy, thus investigating its mechanisms of related pathophysiological process is needed. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was found to participate in normal tissue damage induced by ionizing irradiation. Here, we first profiled the dysregulation of lncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of RILI in mice model receiving 12 Gy thoracic irradiation. The lung tissue was collected 48 hours after irradiation, after which an RNA library was built by RNA sequencing. Compared with the control group, 461 mRNAs and 401 lncRNAs ...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li Y, Zou L, Yang X, Chu L, Ni J, Chu X, Guo T, Zhu Z Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Identification of a Novel Autophagy-Related Signature for Colorectal Cancer.
Conclusions: Our proposed autophagy-based signature has important prognostic value and may provide a promising tool for the development of personalized therapy. PMID: 31853237 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huang Z, Liu J, Luo L, Sheng P, Wang B, Zhang J, Peng SS Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Proteomic Profiling for Serum Biomarkers in Mice Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.
In this study, we investigated candidate radiation-responsive biomarkers using proteomics approaches in mouse models. A total of 452 dysregulated proteins were identified in the serum samples of mice exposed to 0, 2, 5.5, 7, and 8 Gy at 6, 24, and 72 hours postirradiation. Ninety-eight proteins, including 46 at 6 hours, 36 at 24 hours, and 36 at 72 hours, were identified as radiation-responsive proteins (RRPs). Gene Ontology analysis showed the RRPs were involved in proteolysis, extracellular space, hydrolase activity, and carbohydrate binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome enrichment showed the RRPs were regulate...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huang J, Wang Q, Hu Y, Qi Z, Lin Z, Ying W, Zhou M Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Alone or in Combination With Maximal Voluntary Contractions on Cardiorespiratory, Musculoskeletal, and Neuromotor Fitness in Obese Male Adolescents.
Sartorio A Abstract Musculoskeletal and neuromotor fitness (MSMF) is reduced in obesity. Physical exercise (including whole-body vibration exercise [WBVE]) is reported to improve components related to MSMF. The aim of the study is to evaluate the acute effects of WBVE and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), alone and in combination, on the cardiorespiratory and MSMF in obese adolescents. Eight obese adolescents performed 3 tests (WBVE, MVC, and MVC + WBVE) in different days and randomly. The outcome measures were diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart r...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sousa-Gonçalves CR, Tringali G, Tamini S, De Micheli R, Soranna D, Taiar R, Sá-Caputo D, Moreira-Marconi E, Paineiras-Domingos L, Bernardo-Filho M, Sartorio A Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Isolation and Detection Technologies of Extracellular Vesicles and Application on Cancer Diagnostic.
In conclusion, a novel systematic isolation method that guarantees high purity, recovery rate, and tumor specificity is still missing. Besides that, a dual-model EV-based clinical trial system includes isolation and detection is a hot trend in the future due to efficient point-of-care needs. In addition, cancer-related biomarkers discovery and biomarker database establishment are essential objectives in the research field for diagnostic settings. PMID: 31839757 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ma C, Jiang F, Ma Y, Wang J, Li H, Zhang J Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

The Cell Cycle G2/M Block Is an Indicator of Cellular Radiosensitivity.
Conclusion: These findings provide an optional application of regular cell cycle analysis for the prediction of tumor radiosensitivity. PMID: 31839758 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liu C, Nie J, Wang R, Mao W Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Repeat Radiography in Monitoring Structural Changes in the Treatment of Spinal Disorders in Chiropractic and Manual Medicine Practice: Evidence and Safety.
Abstract There is substantial evidence for normal relationships between spine and postural parameters, as measured from radiographs of standing patients. Sagittal balance, cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and the more complex understanding of the interrelations between these essential components of normal stance have evolved to where there are known, established thresholds for normalcy. These spinal parameters are reliably measured from X-ray images and serve as goals of care in the treatment of spine and postural disorders. Initial and follow-up spinal imaging by X-ray is thus c...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Oakley PA, Ehsani NN, Harrison DE Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Radiation Responses of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Different Sources.
Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from different tissues may aid in the regeneration of radiation-induced organ lesions; however, the radiation responses of human MSCs from different sources are unknown. In our study, a comparison of the results from cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, DNA damage, and DNA repair assays consistently showed that MSCs derived from adipose tissue possess a significantly stronger radiation resistance capacity than MSCs derived from umbilical cord and gingival, which is accompanied by a higher level of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: He N, Xiao C, Sun Y, Wang Y, Du L, Feng Y, Liu Y, Wang Q, Ji K, Wang J, Zhang M, Xu C, Liu Q Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Linolenic Acid Attenuates the Vasodilation Induced by Acetylcholine in Isolated Rat Aortae.
This study aims to examine the effect of linolenic acid on the vasodilation or vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholine and bupivacaine in isolated rat aortae and its underlying mechanism. The effect of linolenic acid on the vasodilation induced by acetylcholine, the calcium ionophore A23187, sodium nitroprusside, and 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt (bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate [bromo-cGMP]) in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortae was examined. Linolenic acid inhibited vasodilation induced by acetylcholine, calcium ionophore A23187, and sodium nitroprusside. However, this fatt...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee SH, Ok SH, Kim JY, Subbarao RB, Bae SI, Hwang Y, Park KE, Kim JW, Sohn JT Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Dose-Dependent, Antidepressant, and Anxiolytic Effects of a Traditional Medicinal Plant for the Management of Behavioral Dysfunctions in Animal Models.
Abstract The present work was carried out to assess the Onosma bracteatum anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. Swiss albino mice (male) were fed orally with hydroalcoholic extract at different doses 50, 100, and 200 mg 1 hour prior to test with the standard diazepam and fluoxetine. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities were evaluated by using open field, elevated plus maze, force swimming, and tail suspension test. Results of open field test showed an increase in number of line crossing as well as number of rearing in dosage-dependent design. Although results of elevated plus maze test evidently showed ant...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Asif HM, Hayee A, Aslam MR, Ahmad K, Hashmi AS Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of Radiation-Induced Acute Liver Damage in a Rabbit Model.
Abstract Radiation-induced liver damage (RILD) has become a limitation in radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. We established a rabbit model of RILD by CyberKnife. Electron microscopy analysis revealed obvious nuclear atrophy and disposition of fat in the nucleus after irradiation. We then utilized a mass spectrometry-based label-free relative quantitative proteomics approach to compare global proteomic changes of rabbit liver in response to radiation. In total, 2365 proteins were identified, including 338 proteins that were significantly dysregulated between irradiated and nonirradiated liver tissues. These...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jiang L, Jia H, Tang Z, Zhu X, Cao Y, Tang Y, Yu H, Cao J, Zhang H, Zhang S Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Circulating DNA, a Potentially Sensitive and Specific Diagnostic Tool for Future Medicine.
Abstract Liquid biopsy has the great potential of detecting early diseases before deterioration and is valued for screening abnormalities at early stage. In oncology, circulating DNA derived from shed cancer cells reflects the tissue of origin, so it could be used to locate tissue sites during early screening. However, the heterogenous parameters of different types limit the clinical application, making it inaccessible to encompass all the cancer types. Instead, for reproducible scenario as pregnancy, fetal cell-free DNA has been well utilized for screening aneuploidies. Noninvasive and convenient as is, it would ...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jiang F, Yang X, He X, Yang M Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Assessment of Genomic Instability in Medical Workers Exposed to Chronic Low-Dose X-Rays in Northern China.
Abstract The increasing use of ionizing radiation (IR) in medical diagnosis and treatment has caused considerable concern regarding the effects of occupational exposure on human health. Despite this concern, little information is available regarding possible effects and the mechanism behind chronic low-dose irradiation. The present study assessed potential genomic damage in workers occupationally exposed to low-dose X-rays. A variety of analyses were conducted, including assessing the level of DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations (CA) as well as cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, gene expression profil...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fang L, Li J, Li W, Mao X, Ma Y, Hou D, Zhu W, Jia X, Qiao J Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Vitamin C and Turmeric Attenuate Bax and Bcl-2 Proteins' Expressions and DNA Damage in Lead Acetate-Induced Liver Injury.
Conclusion: The combination of TUR and Vit-C has shown the most protective effects against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID: 31798354 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alhusaini AM, Faddah LM, Hasan IH, Jarallah SJ, Alghamdi SH, Alhadab NM, Badr A, Elorabi N, Zakaria E, Al-Anazi A Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Ratio in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Prognostic Value.
This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment CAR in CRC. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for eligible studies evaluating the associations of CAR with survival and/or clinicopathology of CRC. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and clinicopathological features were synthesized and compared. Results: Nine studies including 3431 patients were analyzed in this meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that elevated pretreatment CAR was associated with poor OS (pooled hazards ratio [HR]: 2.18, 95...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhou QP, Li XJ Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Biphasic Dose-Response and Hormetic Effects of Stress Hormone Hydrocortisone on Telomerase-Immortalized Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells In Vitro.
Abstract Although high levels of stress hormones are associated with well-known negative health outcomes, their low levels can have health-promoting effects by virtue of the phenomenon of mild stress-induced hormesis. We have studied the effects of a wide range (between 100 nmol/L and 150 μmol/L) of hydrocortisone (HC) on human bone marrow stem cells in vitro. Telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells (hTERT-MSCs) were exposed to various doses of HC for different durations (1-6 days) and analyzed for survival and metabolic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gopi IK, Rattan SIS Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Acute and Cumulative Effects With Whole-Body Vibration Exercises Using 2 Biomechanical Conditions on the Flexibility and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial Pilot Study.
This study evaluated the effects of 6 weeks of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise on flexibility and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in metabolic syndrome (MetS) individuals using 2 biomechanical conditions (fixed frequency [FF] and variable frequency [VF]). Nineteen MetS individuals were randomly allocated in FF-WBV (n = 9, 7 women and 2 men) and VF-WBV (n = 10, 8 women and 2 men) groups. Anterior trunk flexion (ATF) and RPE were determined before and after each session. The acute cumulative exposure effects were analyzed. The FF-WBV group was exposed to 5 Hz on a side alternating vibrating platform (SAVP), expose...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paiva PC, Figueiredo CA, Reis-Silva A, Francisca-Santos A, Paineiras-Domingos LL, Martins-Anjos E, Melo-Oliveira MES, Lourenço-Revelles GMG, Moreira-Marconi E, Guedes-Aguiar EO, Brandão AA, Neves MFT, Xavier VL, Borges DL, Lacerda ACR, Mendonça VA, Son Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Response to Letter: Cost Implications of Reactive Versus Prospective Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Patients With Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience.
PMID: 31802992 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: O'Farrell E, Bird B, Murphy C Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Fast Model for Evaluation of the Thyroid Dosimetry During Chest Tumor Radiotherapy.
This study aims to provide a fast model for efficient acquisition of thyroid ESD and analyze the coherent relationship between ESD and AD. We conducted the study on the China radiation anthropomorphic phantom with intentionally delineated cancers, irradiated by a Varian 23EX linac. We have measured the ESD with TLD at 5 different points, while computed AD with the Oncentra Masterplan TPS. The ESD at the middle gorge of thyroid has exhibited significant linear correlation with those measured at other points. Furthermore, a regressive model has been proposed to predict thyroid AD from ESD. Consequently, it is recommended to ...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang Y, Zheng M, He L, Xu J, Yin G, Zhou J, Zhao Y, Jiang M, Wang J Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Murphy C, Byrne S, Ahmed G, Kenny A, Gallagher J, Harvey H, O'Farrell, Bird B. Cost Implication of Reactive Versus Prospective Testing for DPD Deficiency in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Single Institution Experience. Dose Response. 2018; 16(4).
PMID: 31802994 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bamat M Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Assessment of Cucumber Genotypes for Salt Tolerance Based on Germination and Physiological Indices.
Abstract Soil salinity is one of the primary problem for agricultural crops which causes a great loss in crop production in Pakistan and worldwide. Various approaches have been implemented to overcome salinity problem. Assembly of crops for the enhancement of salt tolerance is a good strategy to achieve cost-effective yields. Cucumber is considered as one of the leading vegetable crop around the world for the nourishment of human being as source of nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Screening of 12 cucumber genotypes using some physiological indices, that is, seedling germination stress tolerance index, plant heig...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marium A, Kausar A, Ali Shah SM, Ashraf MY, Akhtar N, Akram M, Riaz M Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Monitoring of Tritium Internal Exposure Doses of Heavy-Water Reactor Workers in Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant.
Abstract To analyze the tritium internal exposure dose of workers in the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant over the past 15 years. Urine samples provided by workers are tested directly to analyze the tritium concentrations and estimate internal exposure dose. Since 2004, an average of approximately 1600 workers have been monitored annually, with an average annual monitoring frequency of approximately 11 000. Since 2004, the average annual collective dose of tritium internal exposure was 149.62 person·mSv, accounting for 19.07% of the total annual collective dose. A total of 18 workers' annual individual int...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang KZ, Sun L, Xiong KH, Chen WB, Wang YY, Bian HH, Cui FM, Liu YL Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

mRNA and lncRNA Expression Profiling of Radiation-Induced Gastric Injury Reveals Potential Radiation-Responsive Transcription Factors.
In this study, mouse stomach was irradiated with 6 or 12 Gy X-ray irradiation and we found that radiation resulted in the atrophy of gastric mucosa and abnormal morphology of chief and parietal cells. Radiation-induced gastric injury was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of pepsinogen A and pepsinogen C but not gastrin-17. The expression profiles of messenger RNA (mRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in normal and irradiated gastric tissues were measured by microarray analysis. Results revealed 17 upregulated and 10 downregulated mRNAs were consistent in 6 and 12 Gy irradiated gastric tissues, including D sit...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen G, Feng Y, Sun Z, Gao Y, Wu C, Zhang H, Cao J, Chen Z, Cao J, Zhu Y, Zhang S Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Metabolomic Analysis of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Rats: The Potential Radioprotective Role of Taurine.
This study provides evidence indicating that radiation induces metabolic alterations of the lung. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of radiation-induced lung injury from the perspective of metabolism. PMID: 31700502 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gao Y, Li X, Gao J, Zhang Z, Feng Y, Nie J, Zhu W, Zhang S, Cao J Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

A preliminary Study on the Effect of Head and Neck Chemoradiotherapy on Systematic Immunity.
This study was designed initially to explore the effect of chemoradiotherapy on patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer (HNC) with respect to the alteration of systematic immunity. Methods: We did a retrospective study enrolling patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), with or without induction chemotherapy (IC). Blood tests were performed before IC, before and after CCRT. Flow cytometric analysis and turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay were used for detection. Results: A total number of 58 patients were included from April 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019. Levels of immunoglobulins (Ig), including ...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huang W, Fan Y, Cheng X, Liang H, Pan H, Xiao T, Chen M, Guan J Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

The Roles of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in Radioresistance of Cervical Cancer.
Abstract Radiotherapy is an important treatment of cervical cancer, especially for advanced cervical cancer. According to research reports, Hedgehog signaling pathway plays an essential role in the growth, invasion, metastasis, recurrence, drug resistance, and radioresistance of cervical cancer. The components of Hedgehog signaling pathway could be biomarkers, related to progression and prognosis of cervical cancer. In addition, targeted therapy for Hedgehog signaling pathway is expected to become a new strategy for the treatment of radioresistant cervical cancer. This review summarizes the research status and pro...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liu C, Wang R Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

99mTc-3PRGD2 SPECT Predicts the Outcome of Endostar and Cisplatin Therapy in Xenograft Animals.
Conclusion: It's demonstrated that the 99mTc-3PRGD2 could noninvasively visualize and semiquantify tumor angiogenesis in the xenograft model and monitor the response to the antiangiogenic therapy of endostar and cisplatin effectively. It also can predict the outcome of endostar and cisplatin therapy in xenograft animals. PMID: 31673250 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sun W, He G, Zhang M, Zhao Y, Yu H, Li Y, Wu W, Ji T Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Microneedle System for Transdermal Drug and Vaccine Delivery: Devices, Safety, and Prospects.
Abstract Microneedle (MN) delivery system has been greatly developed to deliver drugs into the skin painlessly, noninvasively, and safety. In the past several decades, various types of MNs have been developed by the newer producing techniques. Briefly, as for the morphologically, MNs can be classified into solid, coated, dissolved, and hollow MN, based on the transdermal drug delivery methods of "poke and patch," "coat and poke," "poke and release," and "poke and flow," respectively. Microneedles also have other characteristics based on the materials and structures. In addit...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: He X, Sun J, Zhuang J, Xu H, Liu Y, Wu D Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Medical Treatment and Dose Estimation of a Person Exposed to Tritium.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the damaging effects and clinical therapy of internal contamination with tritium to provide information and gain experience for medical treatments in case of an emergency due to a nuclear accident. Histories were taken by several doctors who observed and recorded the clinical symptoms of the patient described herein. The general health situation was evaluated by laboratory and equipment analyses. Tritium concentrations in the urine were estimated according to relevant standards during the monitoring period using a liquid scintillation counting method. Clinical observation revealed tha...
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen W, Li H, Wang K, Bian H, Wang Y, Cui F, Liu Y, Chen Q Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

A Model for the Prediction of Survival in Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma After Surgery.
Conclusions: The nomogram models showed stronger predictive ability than the TNM staging system and the SEER stage. Precise estimates of the prognosis of UTUC might help doctors to make better treatment decisions. PMID: 31662711 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhang GL, Zhou W Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Effects of Intraperitoneal and Intrathecal Morphine Analgesia on the Expression of μ-Opioid Receptors in Bone Cancer Pain Rats.
Conclusion: Intrathecal group and intraperitoneal group showed significant difference in μ-opioid receptor expressions although with no difference in analgesia effects. Long-term intrathecal morphine administration provided similar analgesia compared to systemic morphine. PMID: 31662712 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liu W, Liu H, Zhang Z, Huang J Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Fungicidal Impact of Salvadora Persica L. (Miswak) Extract on Growth of Foodborne Pathogens, Aspergillus Species.
Abstract Several investigations have focused on studying the suppressing influence of Salvadora persica (miswak) on oral microbes; however, studies regarding its fungicidal activity versus human aspergillosis-related illness are still scarce. The current research was designed to evaluate the fungicidal action of S persica aquatic root extract in terms of radial growth rate and inhibition zone (IZO) versus 3 pathogenic Aspergillus species, namely, A niger, A flavus, and A fumigatus in vitro. The results revealed that the plant extract (50 and 100 mg/mL) exhibited a prohibiting influence on the growth of the tested ...
Source: Dose Response - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Saddiq AA, Alkinani MH Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Intermittent Fasting-Induced Metabolic Rewiring in the Liver.
Abstract Scope: Intermittent fasting (IF) has been extensively reported to promote improved energy homeostasis and metabolic switching. While IF may be a plausible strategy to ameliorate the epidemiological burden of disease in many societies, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such effects is still lacking. The present study has sought to investigate the relationship between IF and changes in gene expression. We focused on the liver, which is highly sensitive to metabolic changes due to energy status. Mice were randomly assigned to ad libitum feeding or IF for 16 hours per day or for ...
Source: Dose Response - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ng GY, Kang SW, Kim J, Alli-Shaik A, Baik SH, Jo DG, Hande MP, Sobey CG, Gunaratne J, Fann DY, Arumugam TV Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Astaxanthin Ameliorates the Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Subfertility in Mouse via Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway.
Abstract The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exists in human semen, which is associated with reduced sperm quality. Studying the LPS-impaired spermatozoa motility and viability, and discovering effective therapeutic treatments have crucial importance. The time-course and dose-response experiments were performed to optimize the treatment dose and time of astaxanthin and LPS on mouse spermatozoa motility and viability. Sperm kinetics and morphology, reactive oxygen species production, in vitro fertilization, and developmental competence were examined to evaluate the protective effects of astaxanthin on spermatozo...
Source: Dose Response - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang L, Zhuang L Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

1,3-Dinitrobenze-Induced Genotoxicity Through Altering Nuclear Integrity of Diploid and Polyploidy Germ Cells.
Abstract 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (mDNB) is a widely used intermediate in commercial products and causes testicular injury. However, genotoxic effects upon low-level exposure are poorly understood. The present study evaluated the effects of very low-chronic doses of mDNB on sperm nuclear integrity. Male hamsters were treated with 1.5 mg/kg/d/4 wks (group A), 1.5 mg/kg/mDNB/d/week/4 weeks (group B), 1.0 mg/kg/mDNB/3 d/wk/4 wks (group C), or polyethylene glycol 600 (control). Nuclear integrity of distal cauda epididymal sperm was determined using the sperm chromatin structure assay and acridine orange staining (AOS). The ...
Source: Dose Response - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Peiris LDC, Chathu P, Perera DDBD, Moore HD Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Different Effects of Melatonin on X-Rays-Irradiated Cancer Cells in a Dose-Dependent Manner.
Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of melatonin on the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. Concentration from 10 to 1000 µM of melatonin was used on HeLa cells before X-rays irradiation (IR). The cellular inactivation effect was analyzed by clonogenic assay, and cell growth was measured by MTT assay at various concentrations. Ten micrometer melatonin promoted the cell-killing effects of IR, while 1000-µM melatonin prevented IR-induced cellular inactivation. Further analysis revealed that 1000-µM melatonin protected the cells from IR-induced reactive oxygen species damage...
Source: Dose Response - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhu H, Chen Y, Bai LC, Cao XR, Xu R Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

What Can Chemical Carcinogenesis Shed Light on the LNT Hypothesis in Radiation Carcinogenesis?
Abstract To protect the public's health from exposure to physical, chemical, and microbiological agents, it is important that any policy be based on rigorous scientifically based research. The concept of "linear no-threshold" (LNT) has been implemented to provide guideline exposures to these agents. The practical limitation to testing this hypothesis is to provide sufficient samples for experimental or epidemiological studies. While there is no universally accepted understanding of most human diseases, there seems to be better understanding of cancer that might help resolve the "LNT" model. The...
Source: Dose Response - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Trosko JE Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

The Different Cardiovascular Outcomes Between Long-Term Efficacy of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Statin Therapy in Both Asian Diabetic Sexes.
Conclusion: According to our long-term cohort study, hydrophilic statin use may be a better choice than lipophilic statin to reduce cardiovascular events in Asian diabetic patients. PMID: 31555067 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li SY, Chen HH, Lin CL, Yeh SY, Kao CH Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Awareness and Current Therapeutics of Asthma.
Conclusion: The preliminary documentation of the plants discussed in the review show the presence of several secondary metabolites that are responsible for the management of asthma and its relevant complications. Further research studies are needed to identify the bioactive compounds from these plants that have potential efficacy to cure asthma, and clinically based studies are needed to search for a complete cure for this disease. PMID: 31523203 [PubMed] (Source: Dose Response)
Source: Dose Response - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zainab R, Akram M, Daniyal M, Riaz M Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research

Trastuzumab-Coated Nanoparticles Loaded With Docetaxel for Breast Cancer Therapy.
In this study, trastuzumab (Tmab)-coated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (PLNs) were prepared, composed of poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide), PLGA; polyethylenimine (PEI); and lipids. The PLGA/PEI/lipid formed a hydrophobic core, while Tmab was electrostatically adsorbed on the surface of the PLNs as a ligand that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer cells. The resulting PLNs, electrostatically adsorbed Tmab-bearing PLGA/PEI/lipid nanoparticles (eTmab-PPLNs), had a mean particle size of 217.4 ± 13.36 nm, a ζ potential of 0.056 ± 0.315 mV, and good stability. In...
Source: Dose Response - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhang X, Liu J, Li X, Li F, Lee RJ, Sun F, Li Y, Liu Z, Teng L Tags: Dose Response Source Type: research